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FEBRUARY, 1882.] 

[No. 1, Vol. I. 







Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si f ahum est, adcingere contra. 

■W»<*>.' , <.<*»i"w"i.'"w'^.'' 


Introduction ; 

What is an Earthquake ? Prof. F. W. Hutton, Canterbury College 

Hints on the collection and preservation of Coleoptera. Capt. T. Broun, Auckland 

A Visit to the Weka Pass Rock-paintings. W. M. Maskell Christchurch 

On the preservation of Invertebrata. Prof. T. Jeffrey Parker, University of 

British Association-Report of the Committee of the British Association on the 
manner in which Rudimentary Science should be taught, and how .Ex- 
aminations should be held therein in Elementary Schools 

On a Common New Zealand Pycnogonid, together with a Translation of Semper's 
Key to the Genera 

The Genera of Holothuridea 

New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera (Abstract) 

New Zealand Copepoda of the * ' Challenger " Expedition 

General Notes— ••• .,"•..,"**• J" 

The University of New Zealand-On the Occurrence of Pterostyhs aphylla (Lindley) in New 
Zealand— New Zealand Sytematists and Collectors— Recent Papers on Mollusca-Micro- 
scopic Preparation of Copepoda — On Mimulus Radicans — " Knowledge —Recent 
additions to the Crustacean Fauna. 

Meetings of Societies » ••• •■'« 

New Zealand Institute— Wellington Philosophical Society— Auckland Institute— Philosophical 
Institute of Canterbury— Otago Institute— Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute— Dunedm 
Naturalists 1 Field Club, 







3 2 











Judicio pevpende : et si tibi vera videntuv 

Dede manus : aut si f ahum est, adcingeve contra. 

1882 - 1883. 








Adenochilus gracilis - - - - 71, 127 

Agriculture, School of, Lincoln - - 514 

Annelida, On methods of studying the - - 305 

Armstrong, J. B. — Fertilisation of red clover 500 
Arthur, W. — Notes on the Salmon Disease in the Tweed 

and other rivers, &c. - - - 347 

Auckland Institute - - 45, 193, 230, 284, 336, 481 

Australian Museum, Report of - - - 212 

Balfour, The late Prof. F. M. - - 265, 383 

Beetles, Habits of - - - 516 

Biology in our Arts Curriculum - - 97 
Blanchard, E. — Proofs of the subsidence of a Southern 

Continent - - - - 251 

Blowpipe Tests - - - 384 

Botanical Criticisms - - - 182, 266 

Botrychium lunaria - - - 335 
Broun, T. — Hints on the collection and preservation of 

Coleoptera - - - 9, 49 

Remarks on the Histeridae of New Zealand - 150 

Additions to the New Zealand Coleoptera 

215, 287, 367, 430, 487 
Buchanan, J. — Botanical Criticisms by Mr. Kirk in the 

N.Z. Inst. Trans. - - 182 

Caddis- worm and fly, A marine - - 213, 307, 315 

Campbell Island, Geological and Zoological relations of - 259 

Canterbury Philosophical Society - 46, 144, 186, 232, 277, 

338, 425, 474, 522, 575 
Caprellina novse-zaslandise - - - 179 

Carpenter, W. Lant. — Science demonstration in Elemen- 
tary Schools - - - 560 
Celmisia ramulosa - - - 182 
Cheeseman, T. F.— On some hitherto unrecorded plant 

stations - . - 202 

Chilton > C. — Recent views on the Trilobites - - 205 

Cilio-flagellata, Recent researches on the - in 

Coleoptera, Additions to the NewZealand 215,287,333,367,430,487 

Change of nomenclature of - 128 

Habits of - - - 519 


Coleoptera, Hints on the collection and preservation of - 9, 49 

Remarks on the Histeridae of New Zealand 150 

Collectors, Systematists and - - 41, 69, 173 

Cook, Prof. — An Observatory for New Zealand - 247 

Copepoda of the Challenger Expedition - -35,117 

Microscopic preparation of - - 24 

Crustacea of New Zealand, The stalk-eyed - - 263, 337 
N. Z. Idoteidae - 332, 517 

Dactylanthus taylori - 464 

Darwin, Charles — Obituary notice - - 133 

Desmidiae, Abstract of paper on - - 322 

Dixon's Patent Gas - - - 469 

Doris, A new .... 572 

Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club - - 48, 143, 236 

Earthquake disturbances in North Canterbury - 176 

What is an - 3 

Earthworms in New Zealand - 243 

Synopsis of the genera of - - 585 

Entomological Notes - - - 94 

Euphrasia repens - - - 127 

Fereday, R. W.— Fertilisation of Red Clover - 515 
Ferns, New Zealand - - 42, 128, 143, 176, 286 

Fertilisation of Red Clover - - - 500, 515 
Filhol, M. H.— Geological and Zoological relations of 

Campbell Island - - - 259 

Fishes, Rare - 465 

Flora of New Zealand - 7 2 

Recent additions to the - ^87 

Flowers and folk-lore - - - 129 

Forbes, The late Prof. W. A. - - - 518 

Fossil Plants - - - - 14 1 

Fragmenta Phytographias Australia - - 179 

Geology, On the progress of - - 395 

Goyen, P.—" A great mathematical question " - 95 

" Man before metals " - - 416 

Green, Rev. W. S.— A journey among the New Zealand 

Glaciers ... - 443 

Haast, Prof. J. von.—" Weka-Pass rock paintings " 165, 270 

On the progress of Geology - 395 

Humanism and Realism • 539 

Haeckel on Education ... 334 

Hairworms, New Zealand - - 7° 

Hamilton, A.— A new fresh-water hydrozoon - 419 

Has the deep ocean ever been dry land ? - 406 

Haswell, W. A.— On methods of studying the Annelida 305 

Marine Caddis- worms - - 318 

Hauroto, A trip to Lake - - 119 

Hawke's Bay Philosophical Society - 47» *88, 271 

Helms, R.— A Maori rat at Greymouth - - 466 

-i Remarkable Pigeons - - 516 


Helms, R. — Habits of Beetles - - 516 
Hollyford Valley, Exploration of the - - 4591, 536 

Holothuridea, The genera of 30 

Huia eggs .... 262 

Humanism and Realism - - - 539 

Hutton, Prof. F. W. — What is an earthquake ? 3 

Additions to the Molluscan Fauna 

of New Zealand - - 69, 96 

. Biology in our Arts Curriculum 97 

Zoological Geography - 195 

Weka-Pass rock paintings - 245 

-The Stalk-eyed Crustacea of New 

Zealand - - - 263 

Hasthedeep ocean ever been dry land? 406 

Hydrozoon, A new fresh-water - - 419 

Idoteaelongata - - - - 517 

Invertebrata, On the preservation of - - 21 

Kirk, T. — Mr. Buchanan's Criticisms - - 266 

Recent additions to the New Zealand Flora 387 

Kirk, T. W. — Huia eggs - - - 262 

Knightia, On the fertilisation of - 173 

Knowledge - - - - 43 

Larentiidae, New Zealand - - - 359 

Lendenfeld, Dr. R. v. — An expedition to the Southern Alps 504, 558 
Lignite or brown coal in blast furnaces - 154, 176 

Linnean Society of New South Wales - 238, 273, 286, 344, 

390, 423, 485, 532, 574 

Marattia fraxinea - ... 420 

Maskell, W. M. — A visit to the Weka Pass rock paintings 12, 52 

— New Zealand Desmidiae - 322 

McKay, A. — Exploration of the Hollyford Valley - 536 

McLachlan, R. — On a Marine Caddis-fly from New Zealand 307 

Meyrick, E. — New Zealand Micro-lepidoptera 32, 136, 159, 208 
Mimulus radicans - - - "43 

Mineralogical Notation - . - 244 

Mollusca, Recent papers on - 41, 70 

Additions to the New Zealand - 69, 96 

Descriptions of - - 169, 213 

of the Challenger Expedition - 319,353,441 

Montgomery, A. — Some fossil plants - - 141 

Moths, Change of nomenclature of two - 71 

Mueller, Baron F. v. — Plurality of Cotyledons in the genus 

Persoonia - - - - . 115 

Mynapoda (a request) - 48 

Naultinus sylvestris - - . - 177 

Nests of the yellow-breasted Tit - - 334 

Newman, A. K. — A New Zealand Association of Science 145 

New Zealand Institute - - 44, 422 

Transactions of the - - 178,468 

Nitella, Endosmotic movements in - - 333 


Notes and Queries - 246 
Notornis, On the skeleton of - - 181 
A new species of - - 571 

Observatory for New Zealand - - 247 
Otago Institute 47, 78, 143, 185, 234, 341, 391, 478, 520, 579 

Oysters, Artificial rearing of - - 455 

Parker, Prof. T. J. — On the preservation of Invertebrata 21 

Recent researches on the Cilio-fl agellata 1 1 1 

On the skeleton of Notornis - 181 

The late Prof. F. M. Balfour - 265 

Science teaching in schools - 384 

Patella solandri - - - 213 

Paulin, R. — A trip to Lake Hauroto - 119 
Peripatus .... 518,573 

Persoonia, Plurality of cotyledons in the genus - 115 

Petrie, D. — Some effects of the rabbit pest - 412 

Pigeons, Remarkable - - 516 

Plant Stations, On some hitherto unrecorded - 202 

Pleurosigma, A new - - - 69 

Podocerus validus - - - 517 

Preservation of botanical and other scientific collections - 382 

Pterostylis aphylla in New Zealand, Occurrence of- 40 

Purdie, A. — Entomological Notes - - 94 

New Zealand Larentiidae - 359 

Pycnogonid, On a common New Zealand - - 28 
A, ot the " Challenger " Expedition - 170 

Rabbit Pest, Some effects of the - - - 412 

Rat at Greymouth, A Maori - - 466 
Reviews : — 

" A great mathematical question," by T. Wakelin - 95, 143 
" Catalogue of the Australian Stalk and Sessile-eyed 

Crustacea," by W. A. Haswell - 180 
Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New 

South Wales, 1881 - - 241 

" Man before metals," by M. Joly - 416 

" The Fertilisation of Flowers," by H. Miiller - 569 

Rock Paintings, The Weka Pass 12, 52, 165, 244, 245, 270 

Roseby, Rev. Dr. — A plea for the Stars 63 

Royal Society of New South Wales 189, 237, 272, 342, 482, 519, 575 

Salmon Disease in the Tweed and other rivers - 347 

Saprinus predator, Habitat of - - 213 

Science in Elementary Schools (Brit. Assoc, report) - 25 

A New Zealand Association of - 145 

Teaching in Schools - - 194,311,384,512 

Demonstration in Schools - - 560 

Screw Power, Formula for - - - 421 

Sertularians, List of New Zealand 70 
Sheep eating thistle heads - 383, 422 
Southern Alps, An expedition to the - - 504, 558 

Continent, Proofs of the subsidence of a - 251 

Science Record - 72 


Southland Institute - 77, 188, 236, 285, 423, 482 

Spiders and Mites. Clasping organs in male - 213 

Sexual differences in - - -467,515 

Sponge, New Zealand fresh-water - - 383, 572 

Stack, Rev. J. W. — The Weka Pass rock paintings - 245 

Stars, A plea for the - - - 63 

Stipa setacea : is it indigenous in New Zealand ? - 335 

Systematists and Collectors - 41, 69, 177, 246 

Thistles and their uses - - - 466 

Thomson, Geo. M. — On a common New Zealand Pycnogonid 28 

Charles Darwin - 133 

■ Science teaching in our Secondary Schools 311 

" The Fertilisation of Flowers " - 569 

Tidal Waves - - - 513, 572 

Timber, Machine for testing the strength of - - 573 

Tongariro, Eruption of - - 421 

Trilobites, Recent views on the - - - 205 

Transit of Venus - - - 325 

Tunner, Prof. von. — On the use of Lignite in the blast furnace 1 54 

University of New Zealand - 40 

Science Examinations - 139 

Honours in Science 177 

Urquhart, A. T. — Earthworms in New Zealand - 243 

Veronica derwentiae - - - 469 

Walker, Death of Prof. - - 421 

Weka Pass rock paintings - - 12, 52, 165, 244, 245, 270 

Wellington Philosophical Society 44, 72, 227, 337, 521, 578 

Wilmot, E. — Exploration of the Hollyford Valley - 459 

Windmill, Mr. J. T. Thomson's new - - 286 

Zoological Geography - - 195 



No. I„ Vol. l.-JANUARY, 1882. 


THE publication of a Magazine in the interests of Science, 
in so young a community as that of New Zealand, may 
be looked upon by many as premature, and it may be 
considered that the enterprise entered upon with this number is 
destined to that failure which attends so many efforts put forth in 
advance of the time. But no one interested in the spread of 
scientific knowledge, and, in particular, no one working at any 
branch of scientific study, will deny that great advantages may 
result from such a publication, if well conducted, ard that it may 
prove an efficient means of advancing scientific work and culture 
in our midst. The want of some closer and more frequent means 
of communication between our scientific men than is furnished by 
our excellent annual volume of Institute Transactions, has often 
been expressed, but no one seems to have considered the time, 
sufficiently ripe ior attempting to fill the existing gap. Former 
attempts, too, at periodical literature, both here and in the 
Australian Colonies, have not been of a sufficiently encouraging 
nature to tempt others into the field. Indeed it was not till last 
year, when the " Southern Science Record " was started in Mel- 
bourne, that anything like a successful attempt was made to 
supply the want. That journal, however, is almost exclusively 
Australian, so that so far as New Zealand science matters are 
concerned, we are still in statu quo ante. 

There are many ways in which such a journal as this may 
prove both of special and general use. In the first place, workers 
in all parts oi the Colony will be enabled to know what others 
are doing, and will thus be able to avoid clashing with one 


another, and also materially to help one another by interchange 
of ideas and by suggestions. Anyone reading an original contri- 
bution for publication (in due course) in the " Transactions of the 
New Zealand Institute," will also secure priority of publication for 
names, descriptions, &c, by sending an abstract to our columns. 
Articles in English or Foreign periodicals which deal with New 
Zealand scientific matters, or which are of general interest and 
value, will be reproduced either whole or in a condensed form. 
This in itself will prove an important branch of our work, as it is 
only in a few of the more important centres of population that 
current scientific literature is accessible to those who take an 
interest in it. Again, there are many persons who devote the tew 
spare hours of a busy lite to scientific pursuits, and who in the 
course ol their researches accumulate a considerable amount of 
valuable information, but they shrink from publishing what they 
consider their fragmentary knowledge in our recognised channel 
for scientific work. But they need no longer hesitate to communi- 
cate the knowledge thus acquired, however fragmentary it may be. 
Indeed, it is hoped that such amateur workers — and there is a 
considerable number of them in the Colony — will freely avail 
themselves of the facilities now offered to them, and will make the 
" Notes " of this journal one of its most interesting and valuable 
features. Our columns will be open to all who desire to communi- 
cate or obtain information on scientific subjects. 

It is hoped that the Secretaries of all scientific societies in 
the Colony will aid by forwarding notices of their meetings, 
together with abstracts of original papers read at them, to the 
Editor. And if all those interested in the cause ol science will 
give their assistance to the publication now commenced, there 
need be little fear for its immediate and lasting success. 

Finally, it may be well to add that the animating spirit which 
has led to the publication of The New Zealand Journal of 
Science is solely the desire of spreading knowledge, and of en- 
couraging the search for truth. It is hoped that it will be always 
carried on in a similarly genuine spirit, and so we adopt for our 
motto, and as our standard for guidance, the old but true words 
of Lucretius — 

Judicio perpende : et sitibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si f ahum est, adcingere contra. 




What are earthquakes ? Where do they come from ? How 
are they caused ? These are questions which may interest many 
people in New Zealand, although we cannot, at present, see that 
any useful result is likely to follow from an investigation of 
earthquake phenomena. However, on this point no one can 
dogmatize. In no case have the practical results which followed 
from a scientific discovery been foreseen, and, perhaps, in no case 
has an important scientific discovery been made by a person who 
was looking only for practical results. The ancient philosophers 
were ridiculed for poring over the various figures presented when 
a cone was cut in different directions, and yet the practical ap- 
plication of astronomy to navigation was one of the results of 
their studies. The patient investigation of minute forms of life, 
which followed immediately on the invention of the microscope, 
was undertaken without any idea of its being useful ; and yet 
nearly all our sanitary arrangements are based on the discovery 
that disease and living germs are intimately connected. The in- 
vention of the steam-engine seems at first sight to be an excep- 
tion ; but it is not so, for it was only a practical application of 
the law of the expansion of gases. Watt discovered nothing 
new : but it occurred to him how a very useful combination of 
things already known might be made. It is a mistake to call 
the invention of the steam-engine a scientific discovery ; a his- 
tory of science might, and should, pass it by unnoticed, but it 
forms a very important era in the history of industrial art. We 
certainly cannot expect to be able to prevent earthquakes, but 
neither can we prevent storms ; yet every civilised Government 
spends money in the investigation of meteorological phenomena, 
with the hope that it may be possible to foretell the weather. 
And would it not be as useful to be able to foretell earthquakes ? 
And is it impossible to do this ? He would indeed be but a half- 
hearted philosopher who could harbour such a thought for an 

But, to return to the question at the head of the paper, 
" What is an earthquake ?" When a heavily-laden waggon jum- 
bles along a rough street, the room of the house we sit in shakes. 
A tremor has been communicated from the wheels of the waggon 
to the walls of the house. An earthquake has happened ; none 
the less a true earthquake because it has originated, as we say, 


artificially. It will be worth our while to examine with some 
care what takes place in the ground while the waggon is passing 
over it. In the first place, the fact of the walls of the house 
shaking shows that the ground on which the foundations rested 
must have moved, and this movement must have been the result 
of a horizontal pressure passing through the particles of earth 
from the centre of the road to the house. But the direction of 
the blows of the wheel on the ground, as it passed over the 
rough stones, must have been vertical ; consequently, the vertical 
concussion of the wheel on the ground must have started a series 
of movements in the earth particles which radiated outward in 
all directions from the point of concussion. In the second place, 
the wheels of the waggon would, probably, leave a mark behind 
them, unless the road were very hard (as, for instance, if it were 
paved). That is to say, some of the particles moved by the con- 
cussion of the wheel would not have returned into their original 
position when the pressure was removed. But the foundations 
of the house would be found to retain exactly the position they 
had before the concussion ; consequently, the earth-particles 
under the house must have moved in a horizontal direction, and, 
by virtue of the elasticity of the mass, returned once more into 
their original position. From these considerations we see that 
the wheels of the waggon must have compressed the particles 
below them. Some escaped the compression, by being moved on 
one side, where they remained ; others, unable to do this, com- 
pressed all the particles surrounding them ; and these in their 
turn compressed the next row, and so on. The sudden impact 
of the wheel would make the compression much more severe 
than if it were due to the mere weight of the waggon, and the 
moment the impact was over, the elasticity of the compressed 
particles would enable them to recover their former position. 
Thus, a wave of movement would spread in all directions from 
the wheel ; each particle being moved directly outward from the 
wheel by compression, and returning into its place again by 
elasticity. This is a true earthquake wave, which is defined by 
Mr. Mallet as " a wave of elastic compression traversing the sub- 
stance of the earth." 

Now, it is necessary to notice carefully that there are two 
kinds of movement in an earthquake wave. First, there is the 
movement of each particle as it travels forward and back again 
into its place. The rate of this movement is called the velocity 
of shock. Secondly, there is the movement communicated by 
one particle to another, or, in other words, the speed with which 
the wave moves outward. If all the particles were perfectly 
rigid and absolutely in contact, all would move together ; but 
this is never the case, and a certain amount of time is lost in 
transmitting the movement from one particle to another, which 
will vary according to the elasticity of the particles and their 
distance apart (the wave travelling much faster in a solid elastic 
rock than it would in loose sand or clay). The rate of movement 
of the wave outward is called the velocity of transit. The dis- 


tance each particle moves from its original position is called the 
amplitude of the wave. A familiar illustration will perhaps make 
these terms clearer. If a number of billiard balls are placed in 
a line so that they touch one another, and another ball is made 
to roll gently up and strike the first in the line, a wave of elastic 
compression will be transmitted through the line, and the last 
ball will move off. The time between the first ball being struck 
and the movement of the last one will be, when reduced to feet 
per second, the velocity of transit of the wave ; while the velocity 
of the moving ball, also reduced to feet per second, will be the 
velocity of shock. It is evident that the velocity of transit must 
always greatly exceed the velocity of shock. 

Let us now examine the effects of earthquake shocks on 
buildings. It is plain that when the velocity of transit is very 
great, the whole of the foundations of a building will practically 
move at the same time, and if the walls are firmly bound to- 
gether, but little harm will be done. This is always the case 
when an earthquake wave traverses large masses of compact 
rock ; but when the wave passes into beds of loose soil or shingle, 
the velocity of transit is very much reduced, and the damage 
done to buildings is proportionately increased. But the velocity 
of transit only determines whether the whole building moves to- 
gether or whether different parts of it move at different times — 
it has nothing to do with the actual movement itself. This de- 
pends upon — (i) the velocity of shock, (2) the direction of the 
shock, and (3) the amplitude of the wave. Of course, the greater 
the velocity of shock, the greater is the destructive power of an 
earthquake, and it can only be guarded against by making build- 
ings low and with light roofs. But the damage done by an earth- 
quake depends very much on the direction of the shock, whether 
it be vertical or nearly horizontal — i.e., its direction in altitude ; 
and from what point of the compass it ccmes — i.e., its direction in 
azimuth. On the one hand, the nearer the shock approaches to 
the horizontal, the greater will be its overturning power ; while on 
the other hand, the nearer it approaches the horizontal, the greater 
will be the distance of the centre of impulse of the earthquake 
wave, and consequently the less will be the velocity of shock. 
Theoretically it can be shown that the destructive effect of an 
earthquake wave will be greatest when its angle of emergence 
from the earth is about 50 deg. The direction of the wave in 
azimuth is a very important consideration, for a wall built in the 
direction of the wave would stand, while one at right angles to 
it would be overthrown. The best position for a house would be 
one in which a corner faced the direction of the wave. 

It is evident that the amplitude of the wave is another very 
important point ; for a small movement, however rapid, might 
not be so destructive as a larger movement with a less velocity. 
Now, in compact rocks, where the whole mass is bound together, 
the amplitude is small, but it is much increased when the ground 
is loose and incoherent ; consequently, earthquakes are almost 
always more severely felt on alluvial plains than on solid rock, 


while mines arc the most secure places of all. The most dan- 
gerous place for a building is near an escarpment, or bank, that 
runs at right angles to the earthquake wave. Here the rock, 
whether it be solid or not, is unsupported on one side, and then, 
if the force of the impulse is sufficient to overcome the cohesion 
of the particles of rock, fissures will be formed and landslips will 
take place. 

All these effects can be experimentally illustrated by the row 
of billiard balls. If the balls are in close contact, and a die is 
placed on the top of each, then, when the row of balls is gently 
struck by another ball, all the dice will remain in their places ex- 
cept that on the last ball, and, perhaps, on the one next to it. 
But if there is a slight interval between each ball, then each die 
will be overthrown. The unsupported rock which fissures, or 
falls down with the earthquake shock, answers to the last ball of 
the row, which flies off when the first is struck. In every town 
subject to earthquake it is very important that accurate observa- 
tions should be made of the direction the principal waves take, 
and that cuttings should as much as possible, be made in the 
same direction. 

The second question, " Where do earthquakes come from ?" 
that is, what is the geographical position of the centre of impulse, 
and -how deep is it situated below the surface ? will require a 
different answer for each country ; and, so far as New Zealand is 
concerned, the necessary observations for settling these points 
have not yet been commenced. The shocks on Mount Vesuvius 
are regularly recorded by Prof. Palmieri ; and the occurrence of 
an earthquake in Switzerland, in December, 1879, has induced 
that scientific little country to make preparations for recording 
all future shocks. But Japan has now taken the premier position 
in earthquake enquiries. A Seismological Society was formed in 
April, 1880, " to collect and systemize facts which are in any way 
connected with earthquakes and volcanoes ;" and we learn from 
the address of Prof. Milne that valuable work has been already 
done. Fifteen seismometers, on the pendulum type, are distri- 
buted in the district round Tokio and Yokohama, in the telegraph 
offices, and these are all connected with clocks regulated by 
Tokio time, so that all the elements necessary to determine the 
position of the centre of impulse, the velocities of shock and 
transit, and the amplitude of the wave, will be recorded. Experi- 
ments have also shown that for small shocks the simple seismo- 
meters of columns of different sizes are of little use, owing to 
the mechanical difficulty of getting the base of a small column 
perfectly flat and perfectly at right angles to its axis. Heavy 
pendulums work better; but the new system of vibrating springs 
seems to promise the best results with regard to velocity and 
amplitude of shock. 

Any answer to the third question, " How are earthquakes 
caused ?" must for a long time be purely speculative. 


The first theory as to the cause of earthquakes which attained 
to any importance is that of the Rev. J. Michell, who published 
it in 1760. By this theory earth-waves are supposed to be 
generated by movements of the liquid interior of the earth. 
" They are," says the author, " like folds in a shaken carpet." Few 
geologists, if any, now accept this theory, for it is founded on 
erroneous ideas as to the nature of the interior of the earth. It 
has sometimes been advanced that the cause of the shock is the 
sudden flashing into steam of superheated water as it cooled 
down. Messrs Volger and Morh think that some of the smaller 
earthquakes may be accounted for by the falling in of the roofs 
of caves, which have been formed by rock salt or limestone, 
having been dissolved and removed by water. The late Mr 
Poulett Scrope supposed that they are due to the sudden rupture 
of rocks, caused by contraction or expansion. Mr Mallet, our 
greatest authority on the subject, thinks that this could only give 
rise to weak shocks, and that the larger shocks are due to the 
crushing of rocks by the cooling and contraction of the earth's 

A study of the geographical distribution of earthquakes shows 
that they are, to a large extent, connected with volcanic eruptions. 
Those countries which contain active volcanoes are far more subject 
to earthquakes than any others, although the most violent earth- 
quakes arenotinthe immediate neighbourhood of thevolcaniccone, 
but several degrees away from it. There are, however, many coun- 
tries in which earthquakes occur, and which do not contain any 
volcanoes. Such are the plains of Holland and Prussia, of the 
Indus and Cutch. Indeed, no district in the world appears to be 
altogether exempt ; even in Egypt earthquakes were felt in Janu- 
ary, 1740. The existence of extinct volcanoes does not appear 
to increase the number of earthquakes in a district. 

The times at which earthquakes occur are very irregular, and 
subject to great variations. During the Roman Empire, Antioch 
was shaken almost every year. Then followed a long period of 
repose lasting nearly 300 years, and since that time the shocks 
have been as violent as ever. Earthquakes occur at all times of 
the day and at all seasons of the year, but Mr Mallet, from a 
study of nearly 7000 recorded shocks, thinks that they are rather 
more common at the winter solstice. He says, however, that his 
tables show a decided periodicity in large eartthquakes, the max- 
imum being in the middle of each century, with a second epoch, 
rather less powerful, toward the close of the century. 

These facts show, as might be expected, that earthquakes are 
not due to cosmical causes, the varying positions of the sun and 
moon having, perhaps, not so much influence as they have on the 
weather, and we seem almost driven to choose between explosions 
of gas and splitting of rock for the cause. Perhaps both may be 
verce causcz, but there are some reasons for giving preference to 
the latter. All large earthquakes are followed, and are very often 
preceded by several minor shocks, which gradually get smaller 
and smaller. This is just what we should expect in the rupture 


of a rock in which the tension had been gradually increased, but 
we cannot well imagine a large explosion being followed by 
several smaller ones. Again, the movements of the land which 
often accompany earthquakes are not in the least like the move- 
ments caused by the explosion of a mine, but are much more 
probably due to the movements of the rocks which would often 
ne:essarily follow the rupture. 

In order to make this appear more plain, a possible hypothesis 
as to the origin of the earthquakes in New Zealand may be ha- 
zarded. It was shown in an article published in the New Zealand 
Magazine for October, 1877, tnat there are three principal seismic 
regions in New Zealand, 1st., in the neighbourhood of Cook's 
Straits ; 2nd, in the Hot Lake district, north west of Lake 
Taupo; and 3rd in Otago. The strongest and most widely-spread 
earthquakes occur in the first region, while all those in the second 
region are small and local. Now there is some geological evi- 
dence, not undisputed however, to show that the elevation of New 
Zealand has been much more rapid in the centre of the North 
Island, and in the southern and central portion of the South 
Island than in the neighbourhood of Cook's Straits, where, indeed, 
as at Nelson, there may have been depression. If this is really 
the case, then the forces at work on this part of the earth's 
crust must be gradually folding up the rocks of New Zealand 
into a flattened M, the central depression of which lies in Cook's 
Straits. In this way tensions might be produced at each of the 
three bends, the relief of which, by fracture causes the earth- 
quakes. The central region of bending, under Cook's Straits, 
would lie deeper than the other two, and would thus account for 
the earthquakes of this region being more severe than those of 
any other part of New Zealand. But whether this hypothesis 
be correct or not, if the earthquakes of New Zealand 
are caused by fractures taking place in the underlying rocks, 
which fractures temporarily relieve the gradually accumulating 
tensions, it is evident that they belong to a part of the mechanism 
of the earth which is not likely to change soon ; that, however 
quiet things may appear on the surface, changes are taking place 
below which must, gradually but surely, lead to a repetition of 
the same effects ; but after how long an interval no one can say. 
Whether these earthquakes are or are not caused by fractures of 
the rocks could probably be determined by observation. 

Note. — A description by an eye-witness (the late Hon. H. S. Chapman) of the 
earthquake that took place in Wellington in 1848 will be found in the Westminster 
R ev tew for July 1849. A record of the principal phenomena connected with the 
earthquake of 1855 will be found in Sir C. LyelPs "Principles of Geology." 




Inquiries having been frequently made as to the best methods 
of capturing and preserving beetles, I have been induced to offer 
a few suggestions which, if acted upon, will ensure success. 

The predaceous ground-beetles, classed as Carabidce, may be 
found from the sea beach to the line of perpetual snow. The 
Cicindelce, popularly termed tiger-beetles, frequent spots exposed 
to the sun, are exceedingly active, and sometimes difficult to 
overtake — with the exception of such genera as Amarotypus, 
Demetrida, Scopodes, &c, which occur under bark and on the 
trunks of trees ; the Carabidce prefer stones, logs, tussocks, &c, 
for concealment during the day. The finer species usually affect 
hilly regions, and may often be found in numbers by turning 
over logs in the forest clearings as well as in grass fields ; tus- 
socks also harbour many. These should be cut down and up- 
rooted in order to obtain satisfactory results. 

The Staphylinidce, often gregarious, will be found almost any- 
where. Our largest species ( StapJiylinus oculatus) is a carrion- 
beetle, and is not above such work as the removal of human 
excrement. Occasionally, numbers of the smaller Homalidce 
may be secured by cutting down such plants as Areca sapida, 
whilst others venture to the edges of streams, and even as far as 
the loose drift and Algce just beyond reach of the tides. 

The members of such groups as the Nitidulidce, Trogositidce, 
ColydiidcE, Rhysodidce, Cucujidce, and Cryptophagidce inhabit old 
wood in a state of decay and the foliage and parasitidjjplants of 
living trees. 

The L?tcanidce are generally to be met with in logs, some- 
times below them, and in fern-roots, but they very rarely fre- 
quent leaves of inflorescence. 

The Melolonthidce are chiefly nocturnal, and can be taken off 
plants of all kinds, even introduced apple trees ; but the pretty 
Pyronota f estiva often abounds on Leptospermum exposed to the 
full power of the sun. 

The Elateridai are essentially wood-feeders in the larval state, 
but many, if not nearly all, may be obtained from flowering 
shrubs, branches of trees, and amongst decaying vegetable mat- 
ter on the ground ; the latter being the true habitat of the curious 
genus Amphiplatys. 

The Tenebrionidce are exceedingly diverse in habit, some 


genera being common under stones and logs, whilst others are 
seldom found away from the inflorescence of the indigenous vege- 

Under the term CurculionidcB (weevils) appear a host of plant- 
feeding species, very variable in size, form, and coloration. Our 
largest one has been found on the blades and near the roots of 
spear-grass (Aciphyllum), and I have no doubt that a thorough 
search of the peculiar plants forming that genus will bring to 
light many other interesting beetles, more especially if the decay- 
ing rubbish and roots be shaken into an umbrella or over a sheet 
of brown paper. The greater number may be taken off trees, 
ferns, and flowering shrubs, though a few can only be found on 
the ground below vegetable matter ; the curious genus Geophilus 
being an example of the last-mentioned peculiarity as to habit, 
and I believe all the species of Trachyphlceus occur under similar 
conditions. The insects belonging to the genus Rhyncodes are 
but seldom found except in logs, whilst the species of Cecyropa, 
according to my experience, are never found beyond the loose 
shell sand occasionally seen along our coasts, and, under such 
circumstances, are extremely difficult to detect. 

The family distinguished by the name Longicomes pass most 
part of their existence in wood, their presence being frequently 
discovered by large or small holes on its surface; and if collectors 
will go to the trouble of cutting up logs infested by them, they 
will be astonished at the wholesale destruction these beetles are 
capable of effecting within a comparatively short time, whilst the 
labour bestowed will be rewarded by specimens of the finest 
species we possess. 

The Phytophaga — great pests to our agriculturalists, particu- 
larly the genus Colaspis — abound on many plants, and often in- 
vade orchards in vast numbers. A few peculiar and highly 
interesting forms are, however, excessively rare, and, in my 
opinion, cannot be charged with depredations on any useful 

Having indicated the usual haunts of the order, I shall now 
proceed to afford some information as to the means usually em- 
ployed by one desirous of getting up a collection ; but, before 
doing so, it should be intimated that he ought to have higher and 
nobler aims than the mere accumulation of specimens for the 
cabinet. The study of multifarious forms and their exact adap- 
tation to peculiar modes of life, the injury insects inflict or the 
benefits they confer, tend to afford the student some insight into 
the marvellous designs of the Creator. The discovery of species, 
especially if of extraordinary structure or abnormal habit, and 
the making known in a complete manner the entomological 
fauna of such an isolated country, materially aid in the solution 
of difficult scientific problems. The healthful exercise, mental 
as well as physical, is most beneficial, and does not involve any 
considerable outlay ; whilst the result, I venture to assert, will 
far outweigh any necessary pecuniary sacrifice. 

The implements required by the Coleopterist are few and 


simple. Perhaps the most important is a good stout alpaca 
umbrella, which should be used in this way : — On arrival at the 
collecting ground it should be opened, inverted, and held in such 
a position that the insects, shaken or dislodged off plants by 
being beaten with a stick three or four feet long, fall into the net 
thus formed. When thus caught, they must be immediately 
secured, the larger ones being transferred to a wide-mouthed 
bottle containing bruised laurel leaves, or, if these cannot be ob- 
tained, some sawdust and two or three lumps of cyanide of 
potassium (poison). On returning home, the beetles should be 
picked out by emptying the whole contents on a sheet of paper; 
but if they are to be sent away to be named, they ought to be 
placed in another bottle, containing some bruised or chopped up 
laurel leaves, because, when so treated, they keep in good con- 
dition for three or four weeks, and so relaxed that the mouth 
and limbs of each insect can be easily opened out for examina- 
tion. The smaller insects should be taken out of the umbrella 
and put into a separate bottle. I find a camomile-pill bottle the 
most useful for that purpose, it fits easily into the waistcoat 
pocket ; but the cork should be perforated so that a stout quill 
two or three inches in length may pass through it and project, in 
order to form a tube or scoop. The mouth of the quill is placed 
over an insect, the bottle inclined upwards, and it slides down. 
It will be evident that without some killing mixture the insects 
would soon destroy one another when in the bottle ; saw-dust 
will not answer the purpose very well, as it occasions a great deal 
of subsequent labour when picking them out, besides which it is 
almost certain, in the hands of an inexperienced collector, to re- 
sult in the loss of many of the more minute species, and, more- 
over, most of them will be covered with the fine dust which will 
tenaciously adhere and be extremely difficult to remove after- 
wards. I find the best plan is to use bruised laurel, and I in- 
variably manage matters thus : — For such a bottle, I take three 
or four leaves, hold them flat on the side of an axe laid on the 
floor, and with the back of a tomahawk or hammer pound away 
along the edges of the leaves until they are reduced to a pulp; 
this is then rammed into the bottle with a pencil until the top of 
the pulp forms a tolerably smooth surface. The insects can thus 
be almost instantly killed, will be quite clean, soft and easily 
manipulated. The process may seem rather formidable at first 
sight, but with a little practice the operator will easily prepare 
such a collecting bottle in ten minutes, the pulp remains good 
for a fortnight, and, if not strong enough after that, one bruised 
leaf will make it so ; but it must be borne in mind that the 
pulp should be renewed at least once a month. 

For dealing with logs, a tomahawk is required ; it should fit 
into a leathern case, and be secured by a belt round the waist. 

Some localities are more favourable than others. If possible, 
a clearing in the forest should be selected, but even a pathway 
will suffice, provided there is room enough to open the umbrella. 
All the native plants, half-rotten branches of trees, and even 


rushes, should be beaten. The loose bark should be stripped off 
trees and logs, and carefully examined, so that the destroyers 
may be found. 

In conclusion, I may add that I am always willing to exa- 
mine collections sent to me for that purpose, and will return a 
named specimen of each species to the collector within a month 
or so. The preservation of insects will be dealt with in the fol- 
lowing number of this journal. 



Everybody in the colony has heard of the Weka Pass Rock- 
Paintings. Known for several years to a few people, these 
curious works of art were first brought under general notice in 
the presidential address of Dr. von Haast to the Philosophical 
Institute of Canterbury, in 1877 (Transactions N.Z. Institute, vol. 
x., p. 44). Since then speculation has been freely indulged in 
concerning them. Some attribute them to the Maoris ; some to 
an earlier race of aborigines ; some to Cingalese or Tamil sailors, 
cast away in New Zealand ; one authority to Buddhist mission- 
aries endeavouring to enlighten the Maori mind ; and a great 
many to European shepherds, shearers, or drovers. From time 
to time also it has been stated that different Europeans, 
settlers of various classes, have declared themselves the actual 
authors of the paintings. Dr. von Haast, in his address, expresses 
the hope that members of the Institute would aid in the elucida- 
tion of the question, " which may throw considerable light upon 
the pre-historic inhabitants of these fair islands." And it was 
with a view to some such assistance, ever so slight, that during 
the first week in November, 1881, pretty generally holiday time, 
a party of nine, almost all members of the Institute, proceeded 
to the Weka Pass to inspect the rock-paintings. 

Nothing could have been fairer or more promising than the 
weather of Friday morning, November 11, and, indeed, the 
promise was well kept during the two days of our trip. A punc- 
tual muster brought seven of us to the station for the early 
morning train for Amberley ; the other two were " collected" at a 
a wayside station. All told, the party formed a very fair repre- 
sentative body. Art and archaeology, commercial, legal, and 
mathematical acumen, scientific and classical research, found 


their embodiment in some one or other amongst us ; so that we 
had the means not only of extracting from the journey the neces- 
sary holiday enjoyment, but of procuring, to a great extent, a 
sufficiently fair guide to correct judgment on the paintings them- 
selves. During the time occupied in reaching Amberley there 
was plenty of opportunity for inspection of the country passed 
through ; and, without now desiring to run into uncalled-for 
ecstacies, it may be safely said that on such a morning no settler 
in New Zealand need require excuse for feeling proud of the work 
done and the results achieved, level and tame as the plains might 
appear to eyes accustomed to the more varied beauties of hill and 
vale ; there was a richness in the very flatness of the country, a 
wealth of deep green vegetation, a suggestion of full garners and 
fat herds in the closely packed farms and homesteads, a thorough 
air of agricultural prosperity in all that the eye rested on, that 
could not but gladden the heart. To borrow the words of a 
colonial poet "from the top of the Port Hills, 

. . . in wide expansion spreads the myriad-coloured plain, 
Dusky woodlands, emerald meadows, laughing fields of waving grain. 

Far away the shadowy mountains run their dim mysterious ring, 

Till the huge Kaikoura, towering, wears his snow-crown as their king. 

Yes, indeed, the land is fair, and memory, swiftly glancing back 
Through the vista of the years as o'er some half-forgotten track, 

Sees the stages of its progress ; sees how, each old mark effaced, 
Less than half a life-time's span has made a garden of the waste." 

Arriving at Amberley, we found a four-horse coach, specially 
engaged, waiting to carry us on the sixteen miles or so to our 
destination. Amberley, a prosperous little village, where, seven 
or eight years ago, there could be seen nothing but tusssocks and 
sheep, is the present terminus of the northern railway ; at least 
the line is finished to the Waipara River, some six miles further, 
but only goods trains run thereon at present. From the Wai- 
para the railway cuttings are being made through theWeka Pass to 
Waikari, and the opening of this line is supposed to be fixed for 
January, 1882. At Waikari (the northern extremity of the Pass) 
the railway, for the present, stops dead at a collection of half a 
dozen shanties and a public house; in the more or less immediate 
vicinity of which are, I believe, several thousand acres of land 
under crop, but these are not visible from the " hotel." Whether 
the Government will for some years to come carry the railway 
farther north, I cannot say ; but the proposed West Coast Rail- 
way scheme will, if effected, soon connect Waikari, Amberley, 
and Christchurch with the rich goldfields and timber forests of 
Westland. But these are matters with which our excursion party 
nothing to do. Two things, however, formed the subject of much 
comment amongst some of our number. One was the absence 
of, and the urgent necessity for, extensive plantations in the 
district north of Amberley. The whole of the northern portion 
of Canterbury suffers greatly from the dryness of its climate. 
When a north-westerly wind blows, as it does, off and on, half the 
year, the clouds are seen rigidly confined to the hill ranges and 


pouring down there quantities of rain which, wasted in the moun- 
tains, would be a godsend on the plain. Around Christchurch, 
for several miles, the country is getting very well timbered, and I 
believe it to be a well-established fact that in this region the 
droughts are much less severe and the nor'-westers less blasting 
than formerly. About Amberley, and further north, trees are the 
exception rather than the rule, the climate is dry and parching, 
the winds hot and fierce. If every farmer would put in a few 
trees, no matter of what kind, it is probable that a beneficial 
change would be effected. At present one sees field after field, 
hundred acres after hundred acres — wheat, oats, grass, with 
scarcely a tree here and there — green enough perhaps in early 
spring, but parched and brown as soon as the summer heats come 
on, and totally without protection from the blast of the nor'- 
wester. The other point was the unfortunate policy which 
threw into the hands of one man, for a mere pittance, scores of 
thousands of acres of magnificent land, of which he makes no use 
beneficial to any one but himself. This error was perpetrated 
before Canterbury had control of her lands, but the effect has been 
lasting. And, as we travelled through mile after mile of this 
gentleman's property, disgust found constant expression in the 
wish that nature, or some other power, would ere long deprive the 
owner of this magnificent expanse of the faculty of conserving a 
desert where thousands of willing farmers might settle in produc- 
tive homesteads. 

But I must hasten on. Leaving Amberley shortly after nine, 
we reached the Waikari " Hotel" about noon. At once hungry 
nature asserted her claims, and a clamorous demand for food 
produced a substantial and excellent luncheon, to which the long 
journey of fifty miles and the clear fresh air made us do ample 
justice. One of our party, who had previously visited the rock- 
paintings, stated that they were situated a couple of miles from 
the Waikari. Leaving, therefore, our coach at the " hotel," we 
instructed the driver to wait a few hours there, and then to pick 
us up at the entrance of the pass on our return from the paintings, 
our purpose being to dine and sleep at another inn about the 
middle of the Pass. Strolling away past the cuttings of the rail- 
way and the busy hum of the numerous navvies at work, we turned 
off the high road close to a farm house, taking a by-road through 
the hills to what is called the " Basin Farm." This " basin," 
situated about a mile to the westward of the Pass itself, is cut off 
from it by a low rampart of hills, through which the Weka Creek, 
giving its name to the Pass, has cut its way in a gorge of lime- 
stone. The basin, indeed, which encloses the head waters of the 
creek (small swampy springs) gives one at first sight an idea that it 
was originally, or at least that it once contained, a small lake : but 
I am notgeologist enough to say whether it did so or not. Speaking 
roughly, I should say that the area of the basin may be about 
1,500 or 2,000 acres. Our road rose over the low rampart, and 
turning to the north-west led towards the homestead. But before 
reaching this we came at about the lowest portion of the basin, 


to the springs of the Weka Creek, and looked down the some- 
what steepish gorge which it has cut through the rampart. The 
hills around are studded with limestone rocks projecting in all 
conceivable forms, but our eyes at once perceived two of these 
evidently answering to the term " rock-shelter ;" for, sloping 
gently from the surface, their broad tops have been flattened and 
weathered, and the under surface has been, by some agency or 
other (I suppose water) hollowed out. Passing the smaller of 
these, our guide led us to the larger, on the hollow under side of 
which we found the rock-paintings of which we were in search. 
Much disappointment did the first view of the locality of the paint- 
ings cause ; for it was abundantly clear that, whatever their nature 
or origin, whatever their interest, ethnological or archaeological, ar- 
tistic or quaint, their future existence is almost certainly extremely 
limited. The rock on which they are painted does not rise per- 
pendicularly from the ground to its roof, but slopes back a little 
first. The owner of the land has taken advantage of the 
" shelter" to convert it into a cow house. The floor is covered 
with straw ; the cattle make themselves at home in it ; the 
milkers probably occupy their leisure moments in defacing the 
"paintings;" and between the rubbings of the cows, the scratchings 
ot the labourers, and also, perhaps, of visitors, and general dirt 
and neglect, probably a few years more will entirely obliterate the 
whole affair. 

We spent a good long while examining the curious designs 
visible on the hollow surface of the rock shelter, and forming 
speculations as to their nature and origin. The first thing that 
struck us was the extraordinary number of them. From the 
plate given by Dr. von Haast in the " Transactions," it might be 
imagined that the " paintings" were not numerous ; and although, 
in a phrase of his address here and there, he mentions that the 
rock is covered with them, yet he does not, I think, give any clear 
idea of the immense crowd of designs visible. In point of fact, 
the whole shelter wall, some sixty feet long and eight feet high, 
is covered with a labyrinth of drawings in black and red (the 
former very greatly predominating), mingled together, crossing 
each other, tangled up so inextricably that very careful and 
minute scrutiny would be required to unravel them. The scaling 
of the rock itself, and the constant rubbings and defacements to 
which it has been subjected, render it now a task of enormous 
difficulty to clearly decipher the paintings ; but even when they 
existed in their primitive freshness, I imagince there must have 
been a good deal of confusion for the spectators. 

It occured to one or two amongst us that one means of decid- 
ing the question which had been raised as to the European or 
aboriginal authorship of the paintings might be found in an 
analysis of the pigment in which they were executed. For this 
purpose a few chips of the surface, carefully selected from spots 
already crumbling of their own accord, were taken away. It was 
not until after our return to Christchurch that I found in Dr. von 
Haast's address a statement that " the paint consists of Kokowai 


(red oxide of iron), of which the present aborigines of New Zea- 
land still make extensive use, and of some fatty substance such 
as fish-oil, or perhaps some oily bird-fat." From the phrase used 
it would appear that Dr. von Haast had already procured an 
analysis of the pigment. 

I defer, for the moment, an account of the conclusions at 
which we, collectively or individually, arrived respecting these 
paintings, in order to complete the narrative portion of my work. 
After a pretty close inspection of the rock-shelter and its orna- 
mentation, above and below, we proceeded to the gorge above 
mentioned, where the creek cuts its. way through the rampart, 
examining as we went every rock giving indication of a " shelter." 
At the upper extremity of the gorge, just below the springs, 
occurred the smaller shelter of which I spoke just now. And 
here again (it was some three or four hundred yards from the 
larger one) we found other specimens of painting. The "shelter " 
itself consisted only of the hollow under a moderate sized rock 
or boulder. It was only about eight or ten feet long and two or 
three high, so that it was necessary to creep or crawl underneath 
to get near the painted surface. Here and there were only a few 
"paintings;" two or three, in black pigment, fairly distinguish- 
able and evidently similar to those in the large shelter, and one 
or two red patches which might be anything. The member of 
our party who had previously visited the place stated that when 
he first saw this shelter the earth and grass filled it much more 
than when we were there ; sheep, probably, had trodden down 
or eaten the grass and pressed down the earth to its present 
level ; indeed, small locks of wool adhered to the wall. 

Having thoroughly examined this spot and seeing no more 
indications of rock shelters in the vicinity, we turned our steps 
to the high road, where our coach soon picked us up. About 
sunset we reached the Weka Pass Inn, where the landlord, pre- 
viously instructed of the probable ravenous appetites of the party, 
provided a capital finish to the day's work in the shape of an 
excellent dinner. During the evening the natural subject of con- 
versation was the origin and meaning of the paintings, and these 
weae discussed in all their bearings as long as time allowed. I 
should have observed that as our party included individuals of 
many varied inclinations, the day's proceedings had not been 
confined merely to one object. The entomologist kept a sharp 
lookout for lepidoptera, and during the evening was continually 
popping out to inspect the trees in the garden " sugared " for 
his victims. Ferns were gathered whenever fair specimens were 
found. The conchologist searched in every direction for land and 
water shells ; the microscopical section dived into every pool for 
diatoms, desmids, or any other prey procurable. 

A good night's rest and a capital breakfast fitted us for the 
next day's proceedings. This time we devoted ourselves to more 
general wanderings, and splitting up into parties explored in 
various directions — some on the hills, some in the valleys. " Our 
artist," vagabondizing alone, discovered in a branch creek a lovely 


little limestone gorge, almost subterranean. A wandering party 
chancing to come within " cooey " of him were drawn to the spot, 
and recognising at once the fitness of time and place, seized the 
opportunity to bathe. The clear little stream, winding between 
precipitous cliffs some 30 or 40 feet high, clothed here and there 
with bushes, though in some places scarcely five feet apart, 
formed deep and limpid pools, inviting a plunge. Quickly 
stripping, we frolicked in the wave, whilst " our artist " sketched 
the varied aspect of the gorge. One of the party incautiously 
venturing to the outlet, found himself on his return to the inn 
exhibited in the sketch book under the form of Venus Anadyo- 
mene, an unwonted character, though familiar enough, perhaps, 
in the classical studies to which he is addicted. 

Returning to the inn and recruiting exhausted nature with 
lunch, we remounted our coach and returned to Amberley. The 
evening train carried us back to Christchurch, which we reached at 
eight in the evening. I think it was the feeling of every one of about 
the party that the trip from first to last had been successful. We 
had been favoured with weather so perfect that it could not be 
surpassed ; we had found civility and comfort everywhere ; we 
had seen what we went up to see, and had been satisfied ; and I 
believe that there was a unanimous opinion amongst us that no 
hitch of any kind had occurred to mar the enjoyment of our two 
days' excursion. 

It remains to indicate briefly the conclusions to which our 
examination of the Rock-paintings led us, collectively or individu- 
ally. It may be well first to give a concise summary of the 
theories which, as far as I am aware, have been formed concern- 
ing them. 

1st. The Maories attribute them to a mythical anterior race — 
Ngapuhi, according to Dr. von Haast ; Te Kahui Tipua, 
according to the Rev. Mr. Stack (Trans. Vol. X). 

2nd. Dr von Haast inclines to the belief that they are the work 
of shipwrecked Indian sailors serving as slaves among the 
primeval savages anterior to the Maori arrival here {lb). 

3rd. The Rev. Mr. Pargiter, of Ceylon, traces a similarity between 
the paintings and ancient Tamil characters (lb)* 

4th. Mr. Mackenzie Cameron, of Sydney, ascribes them to Budd- 
hist missionaries desirous of propagating their faith (Trans. 
Vol. XI). 

5th. The settlers generally appear to have an idea that they are 
the work of Europeans, idle shepherds or shearers daubing 
the rock with the raddle intended for their masters' sheep. 

6th. One or two persons (Europeans) have asserted that they are 
the actual authors of the designs. 

Clearly there is a wide range for choice here, between the 
mythical Ngapuhi and the nineteenth century shearer ; and, with 
the exception of the 6th, it is evident that all the opinions ex- 
pressed have not gone beyond the domain of pure theory. 

As far as our own views are concerned, I may at once elimi- 


nate the first of the above ideas. We had no opportunity (and 
I imagine very little power if opportunity had been given) of 
extracting a conclusion from Maori traditions. Besides, as the 
Maoris evidently confine themselves really to the statement that 
their own ancestors did not do the paintings, and envelope the 
true authors as far as they can in the thickest mythical mists, it 
is clear that their views, taken at the very best, are no more than 
negative, and useless for practical purposes. Any man can say, 
" I did not do it," or, " My grandfather did not do it ;" but if he 
goes on to found a statement of facts upon a dream or a fairy 
tale, there is an end of him as a practical witness. 

Passing, for a time, over the next three theories, we come to 
the view held by many people, and actually asserted by some, 
that the paintings are of European workmanship. And I think 
I am correct in stating that our examination of the locality, of 
the rock itself, and the paintings, led us to the unanimous opinion 
that this view is totally incorrect. Whoever may have been the 
artists, they were, as we thought, undoubtedly not European 
shepherds, shearers or sheep drovers. In the first place, the 
locality is away from the road, and although, doubtless, twenty 
or thirty years ago the Weka Pass was not traversed by a good 
metalled high road, yet even then a drover, to take his sheep 
through the " Basin," would, as it seems, have deliberately left 
an evidently easy track to wander causelessly over high hills and 
steep gullies. Secondly, the paintings are in more places than 
one in the " Basin ;" and it is to the last degree unlikely that a 
shepherd or a shearer should have amused himself by wandering 
about with a raddle pot, and a brush of lamp black to daub the 
rocks with unmeaning scrawls for pure mischief, especially con- 
fining himself to obscure over-hanging semi-caverns. Thirdly, 
the paintings (especially those in black pigment) are in immense 
numbers on the large shelter, as I said just now. So that our 
artistic shearer or drover must absolutely have spent, not only 
the hours of a single evening, or two evenings, in his eccentric 
work, but must have devoted himself to his task for days together. 
Fourthly, there does not seem to be the remotest resemblance in 
these paintings, black or red, to anything which the imagination of 
an uneducated European would have led him to daub on the rock, 
with one single exception, the queer object called a hat in Dr. von 
Haasts' plate, Transactions, Vol. X. Putting all these things together, 
and adding the evident " weathered " appearance and crumbling 
surface of the rock, we came, I believe, to the unanimous opinion 
that the fifth theory which I have mentioned is clearly erroneous, 
and that the sixth (which is not a theory, but an assertion) is as 
mythical as the Ngapuhi. 

Having rejected European authorship, the next question 
arising was the antiquity of the designs. And here we found 
ourselves necessarily without any sure guide. Dr. von Haast 
appears to lay considerable stress upon the " scaling " of the 
rock surface. But it is obvious that this can in no sense what- 
ever be taken as anything more than the merest indication. 


And as for the Maori traditions, or absence of tradition, their 
statements about their ancestors, fabulous monsters and so on, it 
is not uncommon, I think, to find that different theorists have a 
way of twisting these traditions pretty well in any direction they 
please (as for instance in the case of the Moa), and that there is 
no help to be gained from them when we get beyond a certain 
lapse of time. Practically, beyond say a hundred years, we fall 
into regions of fable with Maori traditions. And I think that 
the general opinion of our party on the point of the antiquity of 
the paintings was simply this, that whilst they undoubtedly are 
older than European settlement here, they may have been exe- 
cuted at any period previous to that ; and that is all that can be 

I am bound to confess that, having so far (as I believe) 
expressed the views which our party were able to arrive at in 
common, I am not in a position to give anything more as the 
result of unanimous or greatly preponderating judgment ; for 
the time at our disposal for discussion did not permit us to 
collect, as it were, the suffrages of the whole party upon the 
question, " Who did execute the paintings?" If I should be 
supposed to hint here that in any reasonable space of time 
(unless direct evidence should be forthcoming) such a decision 
could be reached, I should be sorry. For the question would 
rather seem to be one calculated to exercise the wits of many 
men for a very considerable time. All I mean to convey is that 
we, as a party, could not even approach a definite judgment on 
the point. Many diverse opinions were expressed individually ; 
none were collectively adopted. 

One view, which undoubtedly seems to possess elements of 
possibility, was put forward by our archaeological member. The 
large shelter, as I said above, was formed by a long flattish lime- 
stone rock sloping from the ground upwards, as a book might 
be raised from a table on one of its edges. The top formed a 
tolerably level platform, about twenty-five or thirty yards long 
and half-a-dozen wide. In front of this, facing the hollowed- 
out shelter, the grassy slope of the " Basin " rose towards the 
rampart above mentioned, about thirty yards away ; this slope 
forming a hill perhaps two or three hundred feet above the rock, 
and slightly curving round it. The theory propounded was that 
the rock had been used in past times as a natural stage, pulpit, 
or stand for oratory on occasions of large public gatherings, the 
audience being seated on the slope. Certainly no place could 
be better adapted for the purpose. One of our number, to test 
the effect of sound, went away some little distance on the slope, 
and thence could hear with the greatest of ease every word 
spoken from the top of the rock. It is well known that the 
Maori orators, when making speeches, were in the habit of 
running rapidly up and down for short distances, jerking out 
their forcible sentences ; and no better place for these declama- 
tory gymnastics could be found than the rock in question. 
What would seem to lend some colour to this theory is the fact 


that the " Basin " appears to afford none of the inducements 
required for ordinary Maori occupation. There is no eel stream 
handy (at least nearer than the Pass itself) ; there are even no 
cabbage trees. So that, it is contended, unless the Natives 
made use of the place for solemn public gatherings, one does 
not see, in common language, what the deuce they went there 
for. As for shelter from the weather, they could have found 
that in other places in the Pass itself, nearer to eels and other 
congenial food. Upon this theory, then, the paintings them- 
selves would have been the work of Natives in connection with 
some of their public gatherings, or else may have been the 
employment of idle individuals in the intervals of oratory, or 
while waiting for the chiefs to open the business. 

It should be mentioned also that several of our number 
recognised, or thought that they recognised, different " ages " in 
the paintings. Dr. von Haast states in his address (Trans. Vol. 
X., p. 45) that the black designs " are not contemporaneous with 
the red ones " because " they pass, not only indiscriminately over 
them, but many of them were only painted after the rock had 
already scaled off under the red ones;" and again, p. 51, he 
says that they pass " indiscriminately over the red ones as well 
as over each other." It appeared to many of us that the paint- 
ings might be divided into three classes. First, the red designs, 
all seemingly of one type. Secondly, black designs simply out- 
lined. Thirdly, black designs with the whole outline rilled up 
with pigment, not shaded, but evenly spread. The theory adopted 
by some of our number was that the red ones were the oldest, or 
to use the phrase adopted, " really archaic "; that the filled-up 
black ones, looking as if daubed on with the thumb, were less 
ancient ; that the black outlines were the most modern of the 
three. Of the intervals between each no opinion was, I think, 

Having now, I believe, given a fair exposition of the views of 
our party as a whole, and of individual sections of it, I may be 
allowed, perhaps, to state what is my own opinion upon these 
paintings, and to examine the theories which have been publicly 
put forth concerning them. 

(To be continued.) 




With the exception of those Invertebrata which can be satis- 
factorily preserved in the dry state — notably insects — the only 
thoroughly good permanent preservative is alcohol — the only 
one, that is, which preserves both internal and external structures 
with the minimum amount of alteration. I have italicized the 
word " permanent " in the foregoing sentence, because it is often 
of advantage to place a given specimen in alcohol only after 
previous treatment with some other preservative. Into alcohol, 
however, it should be sooner or later placed, and there retained ; 
and it is important to remember that the alcohol should be 
strong — undiluted rectified or methylated spirit. Anyone 
making a collection of hydrozoa, worms, molluscs, &c, must 
therefore be prepared for a considerable expenditure of 
alcohol, undue economy in this respect always resulting in flabby, 
half-rotten specimens, and complete waste of time and trouble. 

Besides alcohol, the following are the chief requisites : — 

i. Picric acid, used in the form of a cold saturated solution. 

2. Chromic acid, used as a 0.5 per cent, solution. 

3. Potassium bichromate, 3 1 per cent, solution. 

4. Osmic acid, a 1 per cent, solution. (This must be kept in a 
dark place. It is advisable to cover the bottle containing it with 
black paint or paper.) 

5. Acetic acid. 

6. Corrosive sublimate. 

7. Glycerine. 

8. A number of bottles of various sizes. Wide-mouthed bottles 
are, in nearly all cases, the best — e.g , the " Preston Salts " bottles 
sold by druggists, pickle bottles, &c. A few ointment pots — small, 
shallow porcelain vessels with lids, are also useful. 

9. A " lifter," for transferring small and delicate organisms, 
which cannot be touched with the fingers, from one vessel to 
another. A very convenient form is made by flattening out about 
three-quarters of an inch of the end of a piece of stout copper 
wire, and then bending the flattened portion upon the remainder, 
at an angle of about ioo° to 120 . 

In collecting marine invertebrata, it is advisable to take 
vessels of different sizes ; for instance, a common tin " billy " 
for large objects, and a few well-corked wide-mouthed 
bottles for small organisms. It is a good plan to take at least 
one bottle full of picric acid or potassium bichromate solution, 
and to place therein immediately any particularly delicate 


animals, such as the oceanic hydrozoa which are occasionally 
found on these coasts, and which do not readily bear transport. 

By far the majority of specimens may, however, be taken 
home in vessels of sea-water. The water should be changed 
occasionally during the day, and always immediately before 
leaving the shore. It is advisable, whenever practicable, to take 
a separate vessel of sea-water, and to renew that in the collecting 
bottles immediately on reaching home. 

A similar procedure will of course answer for fresh-water 
collecting. For terrestrial forms, match-boxes, &c, may con- 
veniently take the place of bottles. A very good collector's 
companion for ordinary walks is a common waterproof sponge- 
bag, which answers admirably for either marine, fresh-water, or 
land organisms. 

The work of preservation should be begun as soon as possible 
after reaching home ; a night's sojourn in the collecting vessels 
will cause the death of many of the more important specimens. 

The following hints for preservation of various invertebrata 
are founded partly on my own experiments, partly on notes 
furnished to me by Prof. Haddon, of Dublin, of the methods 
used at the Zoological Station at Naples : — 

SPONGES. — For ordinary purposes, place at once in al- 
cohol. For the preparation of microscopic specimens showing 
the constituent cells, take a small piece of the sponge, not larger 
than the end of one's finger, and place it in a small vessel {e.g. y 
a wine-glass), containing just enough sea-water to cover the 
specimen. Add a few drops of osmic acid, cover the vessel, and 
allow it to stand in a dark place for 24 hours, then rinse with a 
little alcohol to get rid of the acid, and place in alcohol for 
permanent preservation. 

Hydroid Polyps {Sertularians and Campannlarians). — 
Ascertain by examination with a low power that the specimen is 
actually living and has expanded polypites. Transfer quickly 
from the sea-water to pot. bichrom. solution : this kills the poly- 
pites in an extended condition. Keep in the bichromate for 24 
hours, then transfer to alcohol 50 p.c. for 24 hours, then to 
alcohol 75 p.c. for the same time, and finally to strong alcohol. 
By this treatment with alcohol of gradually increasing strength, 
shrinkage is greatly diminished, the specimen being at the same 
time thoroughly hardened. 

Instead of the bichromate, the polypites may be allowed to ex- 
pand in a small quantity of sea water and a little boiling water 
added to kill them ; then place in picric acid solution for 2 or 3 
hours, and finally treat with alcohol as above (Huxley and Martin). 

In both cases the alcohol should be changed until it is no 
longer discoloured by the bichromate or picric acid. 

MEDUS/E, SiPHONOHORA (Portuguese Man-of-War, &c), AND 
CTENOPIIORA. — Place either in potassium bichromate for 24hours, 
or in chromic or picric acid for 2 or 3 hours ; or place in the 
smallest possible quantity of sea water, and add a few drops of 
osmic acid. This latter plan produces the most beautiful speci- 


mens. Afterwards treat as above with alcohol of gradually in- 
creasing strength. Professor Hutton tells us that he has made 
a very successful preparation of a Medusa, retaining the natural 
colour, in the following way : — Make a mixture of 1 part of 
glycerine and 2 of water, and add a little alum and saltpetre. 
Dilute some of this fluid in a jar with an equal volume of water, 
and place the specimen in the diluted liquid. When the Medusa 
hassunk tothebottom,add,littleby little, more of the stronger fluid 
until it reaches the proportion of about 1 of glycerine and 3 of 
water. Probably this method, or some modification of it, will be 
tound to be of wide application to many delicate organisms, 
as glycerine often preserves animal colours in a very perfect man- 
ner, alcohol, chromic and picric acids, &c, completely discharging 
them. For histological purposes, however, this method would 
probably be of little value. 

ACTINZOA. — It is very difficult to kill sea-anemones in 
the expanded condition. One method is to invert over a specimen 
expanded in sea water a tumbler or beaker, and then to pass up 
into the air space above the water fumes of tobacco, through a 
bent glass tube. Another plan is to stupify slowly by adding 
alcohol or potassium bichromate, drop by drop, to the water 
containing the specimen. When quite dead treat with chromic or 
picric acid for about 3 hours,and afterwards with alcohol as above. 

ECHINODERMATA (Starfish, sea-urchins, &c). — Alcohol, 
about 70 per cent, for a day or two ; then strong alcohol, changed 
once or twice in the case of large specimens. In the case of 
large sea-urchins, a small hole should first be made in the test 
with a file, so as to allow the spirit to penetrate to the inside. 
Chromic or picric acids are not applicable in this case, because of 
their decalcifyingproperties, that is, unless the specimens are wanted 
for section cutting, in which case they should be placed in a com- 
paratively large quantity of chromic acid until all the carbonate of 
lime is dissolved out, and then transferred to alcohol, which must 
be changed several times. I find, however, that the small 
Holothurian Chirodota of Dunedin Harbour is best preserved by 
placing it alive into picric acid, and removing as soon as it is 
dead into alcohol. This does not give the weak acid time to 
dissolve the spicules to any appreciable extent. 

Turbellaria (Planarians, &c). — Place alive into " Lang's 
fluid," made of 100 parts of water, 1 5 of corrosive sublimate, and 4 
of concentrated acetic acid ; in half-an-hour transfer to 70 per cent, 
alcohol ; change several times, and finally place in strong alcohol. 

Annelida. — Picric acid or potassium bichromate, fol- 
lowed by alcohol of gradually increasing strength. 

Polyzoa. — Alcohol 70 per cent, for a day or two, and 
then strong aclohol. 

, Crustacea. — For large specimens with calcified exoskeleton 
(crabs, crayfish), use strong alcohol if it is desired to preserve the 
internal structure. If wanted only for the exoskeleton, place in 
equal parts of glycerine and water containing a little alum and 
corrosive sublimate, first removing as much as possible of the 
soft parts through small apertures made in the joint-membranes. 


It is usually sufficient if the liver, reproductive organs, &c, are 
removed through an aperture made in the membrane which 
unites the carapace with the abdomen. After 3 to 5 days remove 
from the glycerine fluid, allow to drain thoroughly, and after 
some days paint over with athinnish size made from isinglass or 
gelatine. This method retains, to a great extent, the natural 
colour and flexibility. For the smaller and uncalcified speci- 
mens (shrimps, amphipods, &c), use picric acid, followed as usual 
by alcohol ; or, if specially good specimens are desired, place in 
the smallest possible quantity of water and add a few drops of 
osmic acid. When the specimen has acquired a light brown 
colour (the time will vary according to the strength of the acid) 
transfer to weak alcohol, changing several times and gradually 
increasing the strength. Microscopic Crustacea may often be 
beautifully preserved in the same way, the whole operation 
being conducted, if possible, on a slide under the microscope. 
They may then be mounted either in glycerineorin Canadabalsam. 

Insects (including larvae) Myriapoda and Arachnida. — 
For internal structure, picric or chromic acid for 2-3 hours, fol- 
lowed by alcohol. For external characters the glycerine method 
may be found useful in some cases, but I have not made 
sufficient experiments in this direction to speak with certainty. 

Lamellibranchiata. — Alcohol, of about 70 per cent., for 
a day, then strong alcohol. Specimens may be killed in the 
expanded condition by placing them in hot water, or in vinegar ; 
but these methods do not always succeed. 

Gasteropoda. — Here again there seems to be nothing 
better than weak followed by strong alcohol. The larger the 
specimen the greater should be the quantity of alcohol, and in 
very bulky species, such as the black sea-slug Parmophorus of 
these coasts, it is advisable to make an incision through the mantle, 
so as to allow the spirit to make its way immediately among the 
viscera. For killing Gasteropods in the expanded condition 
different methods must be employed, according to circumstances. 
For Nudibranchs (Doris, &c), allow to expand in a small vessel 
of sea water, and add potassium bichromate solution, little by 
little, with a pipette. The fluid gradually diffuses into the 
water, and if care is taken not to transfer the animal to spirit 
until it is quite dead, very good specimens may be obtained. 

The Pulmonata are best killed by placing them in a tumbler 
or other vessel with a straight rim, quite full of water, and then 
placing a plate over it. The point is to ensure entire immer- 
sion. It takes many hours to kill snails, slugs, &c, in this way, 
but they almost invariably die in a fully extended condition. 
Here again care must be taken that the animals are quite dead 
before being placed in alcohol, as otherwise they will contract. 

Cephalopoda. — Make an incision into the mantle, and 
place in alcohol. In the case of large specimens, or if several 
small specimens arc placed together in a jar, it is unnecessary to 
use weak spirit first ; otherwise, as in other cases, this is advisable. 

TUNICATA. — Picric acid or potassium bichromate, fol- 
lowed by alcohol ot gradually increasing strength. 


Report of the Committee of the British Association 
on the manner in which rudimentary science 
should be taught, and how examinations should 
be held therein in elementary schools. 

(Extracted from Nature, of 22nd Sept., 1881, p. 

Rudimentary Science is taught in Public Elementary Schools 
in the form of — I. Object lessons ; II. Class subjects under article 
19, C.I., of the New Code ; III. Specific subjects under Schedule 
4 of the same Code ; IV. Science subjects preparatory to 
entering classes in connection with Science School. 

I. Object lessons are attempted in a large number of infant 
schools, and in some instances are very effective in developing 
the perceptive powers and intelligence of the children ; but in 
other cases they are too formal, and left too much to the junior 
teachers. In boys' and girls' schools they frequently appear 
upon the time-table, especially where, as in the schools of the 
London Board, they are looked upon as a necessary part of the 
instruction ; but they are generally given in an unsystematic, 
and often in an unsatisfactory manner. 

II. The teaching of science as a class subject under the Code 
only commenced last October, and thus no examinations have 
yet been held under it. Natural history, physical geography, 
natural philosophy, &c, are mentioned in Article 19, c. I., and it 
is stated that the instruction should be given " through reading 
lessons, illustrated, if necessary, by maps, diagrams, specimens, 
&c. "; but the teachers are limited to two subjects, and the old 
subjects — grammar, history, geography, and needlework — natu- 
rally retain their place in the great majority of the schools. 
Suitable reading-books for these rudimentary subjects have 
scarcely come into existence. 

III. The specific subjects of the fourth schedule include 
mechanics, animal physiology, physical geography, botany, and 
domestic economy ; but only two subjects may be taken (or 
three if the child has passed Standard VI.) ; and the schedule 
also includes English Literature, Mathematics, Latin, French, 
and German. Literature is a general favourite, and domestic 
economy is obligatory in girls' schools if any specific subject is 
taken at all ; so that the chance of any of the others being 
introduced is very much diminished. It must also be remem- 
bered that these subjects are only allowed to be taught to 
children in the Fourth Standard and upwards ; while only about 
one-fifth of the children in the boys' and-girls' schools are to be 


found at present in these standards. According to the Report 
of the Committee of Council for examination recently issued, 
there were 476,761 children presented for examination in these 
standards, of whom the following numbers only were examined 
in the science subjects : — 

Mechanics ... ... .. ... ... 2,109 

Animal Physiology ... ... ... ... 24,715 

Physical Geography ... ... ... . 34,288 

Botany ... ... ... ... ... ... 1*853 

Domestic Economy ... ... ... ... 50,797 

Out of 489 boys' and girls' departments under the London 
School Board, the specific science subjects were taken up as 
follows during the year 1880 : — 

Mechanics ... in ... 4 departments 

Animal Physiology „ ... 123 ,, 

Physical Geography ,, ... 112 ,, 

Botany ... .. ,, ... 9 ,, 

Domestic Economy ,, ... 172 ,, 

Mr. Hance, of the Liverpool School Board, has favoured us with 
an account of the systematic scientific instruction which is given 
in the Board schools of that town by a special science staff. The 
subject selected for the boys is mechanics, as defined in the new 
Code, with a considerable development in the direction of 
elementary physics. It has been in operation since 1877, and 
the results for the year 1880-81 are given in the following table : — 
Year Number Number Percentage 

1880-81. presented. passed. of passes. 

Stage I. .. 797 ... 442 ... 55.46 

„ II. ... 398 ... 261 ... 65.59 

,, III ... 122 ... 82 ... 67.21 

Total 1317 ... 785 ... 59.6 

Domestic eeonomy is also taught to the girls in a similar 
manner. In Birmingham 1200 scholars are receiving scientific 
instruction in the schools of the Board, and it is stated that the 
teachers uniformly find that " it added interest to the work of 
the school, that the children were eager to be present, and that 
the lessons were enjoyed, and were in fact giving new life to the 
schools." The Board have found the results so satisfactory that 
they are now furnishing their newest school with a laboratory 
and lecture-room. 

IV. As to science-teaching which does not fall under the 
provisions of the new Code, it is not probable that any large 
amount is attempted. In Manchester, however, the Board gives 
instruction to 404 children, all of whom have passed Standard 
VI., the highest ordinary standard, in the following subjects : — 
physiology, acoustics, light and heat, magnetism and electricity, 
chemistry, practical chemistry, botany. This teaching is illus- 
trated by means of good apparatus, &c, and has had a very 
beneficial effect upon the science and art classes of the town. 
When it is considered* that the provisions of the Code naturally 


form, in almost all cases, the extreme limit of what will be 
attempted in the schools, it is important that they should be 
placed as high as possible. This will be a great advantage to 
the stronger schools, and no disadvantage to the weaker ones, 
as the higher branches of science-teaching will of course be op- 
tional. Your committee have therefore arrived at the following 
conclusions : — 

I. As to object lessons. — That it is very desirable that Her 
Majesty's Inspectors should take object lessons into account in 
estimating the teaching given in an infant school, and that they 
should examine the classes in the graded schools wherever object 
lessons are given. 

II. As to class subjects. — That the teaching of such subjects 
as natural history, physical geography, natural philosophy, &c, 
should not necessarily be " through reading lessons," as oral 
lessons "illustrated by maps, diagrams, specimens, &c," are 
undoubtedly better when given by a teacher duly qualified to 
handle these subjects. They are of opinion also that it will be 
desirable to allow a larger number of class subjects to be taken 
up in any particular school, and to give in such case a propor- 
tionately increased grant. 

III. As to specific science subjects. — That a knowledge of the 
facts of nature is an essential part of the education of every 
child, and that it should be given continuously during the whole 
of school life, from the baby class to the highest standard. 
Of course, in early years this teaching will be very rudimentary ; 
but by developing the child's powers of perception and com- 
parison it will prepare it for a gradual extension of such 
knowledge. They consider also that the early teaching must be 
very general, while the later may be more specific. They think, 
however, that the science subjects as given in Schedule IV. are 
fairly open to objection, as being somewhat too ambitious in 
their nomenclature and in their scope, and that they ought not 
to be attempted unless the child has had a previous training in 
natural knowledge before entering the fourth standard. Thus 
the specific scientific subjects ought not to be distinct, as they 
practically are at present, from the previous teaching ; greater 
latitude of choice might be allowed in them ; and while they 
should not afford technical instruction, they should prepare the 
way for any technical classes or schools into which the children 
may subsequently enter. In regard to domestic economy, they 
are of opinion that most of the points embraced in the schedule 
would be useful to boys as well as to girls. 

IV. As to examinations. — That in the appointment of Her 
Majesty's Inspectors some knowledge of natural science should 
be considered as absolutely necessary ; that in examining the 
children they should direct their inquiries so as to elicit, not so 
much their knowledge of special facts as their intelligent 
acquaintance with the world of nature around them ; and that 
this may be much better done by oral examination than by 
paper work. 




(From Verhandl. der Physik-Medicin Gesellschaft in Wiirzburg, VII Band, 
p. 274, 1874.) 

No one in New Zealand seems to have made the attempt 
to collect and examine the curious animals constituting the order 
Pycnogonidae, and no doubt one of the reasons is that there is 
little or no literature on the subject accessible to the majority of 
readers. The earlier information is condensed into a small com- 
pass in M. Edwards' " Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces " which 
brings it down to 1840. Since that date the only original 
English papers dealing with the systematic arrangement of the 
order have been communicated by Goodsir, Gosse, and Hodge, 
and frequently in very out-of-the-way publications. Hesse's 
papers in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles" are of question- 
able value, while Griibe's are difficult to obtain, being scattered 
throughout several German publications. Lastly, Kroyer's valu- 
able contributions to the knowlegde of this subject are still more 
inaccessible to English readers. It was therefore a great step 
towards smoothing the way for future systematists, when Karl 
Semper, in 1874, published his researches under the title " Ueber 
Pycnogoniden and ihre in Hydroiden-schmarotzenden Larvenform" 
in the Wiirzburg journal. This communication deals chiefly 
with development, but appended to it is a classification and 
summary of all the known species, together with the complete 
bibliography on the subject. Hodge, in the Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist, (in 1864), states the whole number of British species 
at 32, belonging to 8 genera. Semper in 1874, gives 55 species 
(8 of which are doubtful), belonging to 1 1 genera, as the total 
known. Since the publication of his paper many more species 
have been added, chiefly as the results of deep sea dredgings, and 
these bring up the number probably to 100 or more. Dr. 
Dohrn's magnificent monograph, lately issued, brings our infor- 
mation up to the latest date. 

I have frequently come across a Pycnogonid while collecting 
Crustacea in rock-pools along the coast near Dunedin and Sum- 
ner, and have dredged it in great numbers in Otago Harbour 
among sertularians. I have also specimens from Oamaru, 
gathered by Mr. D. Petrie. Our species is Ammothea pyeno- 
gonides (Nob.) a European form which systematists and writers 
of zoological manuals have adopted as typical of the order. It 
is described and figured by de Quatrefages in the Ann. des Sc. 
Nat, Ser. III. Vol. IV., p. 71— PI. I (1845), and the figure is re- 


produced in Huxley's "Anatomy of the Invertebrates," p. 384. 
From the journal in question I have translated the following de- 
scription, which may be of service to collectors and students of 
Natural History : — 


" Head short, thick, and not distinguishable from the thorax. The rostrum or 
beak irregularly lanceolate, terminating in an obtuse point, thick, and two-thirds of 
the length of the body. Footjaws small, short, and hardly leaching beyond the' 
middle of the trunk. The palpi on the other hand extend beyond the mouth. The 
transverse diameter of the thorax is almost equal to its antero-posterior diameter. 
First articulation of the limbs very difficult to distinguish from the thorax. Oculi- 
ferous tubercle rounded and slightly swollen ; it is quite smooth, whereas the thorax 
bears numerous hairs and some strong spines. The palpi and legs are equally hairy, 
the three last articulations of the latter armed with strong spines." 

(Order Pantopoda.) 

Fam. I.- PYCNOGONID^E (Proper). 
Antennae (Kieferfuhler*) wanting. 
Genus I. — Pycnogonum, Brunnich. — Antennas and palpi wanting; ovaries 10- 
jointed ; metamorphosis complete. 
,, IT. — Phoxichilus, M. Edwards (Latreille). — Antennae and palpi wanting; 

ovaries 7-jointed ; metamorphosis ? 
,, III. — Pasithoe, Goodsir (Endeis, Phillippi). — Antennas wanting; palpi 
7-jointed ; ovaries 9-jointed ; metamorphosis ? 


Antennae present, but simple — not chelate. 
Genus IV. — Achelia, Hodge. — Antennae 2-jointed; palpi 8-jointed; ovaries 
9-jointed ; metamorphosis complete. 
,, V. — Zetes, Kroyer. — Antennae without claws, 3-jointed ; palpi io-jointed ; 

ovaries io-jointed ; metamorphosis complete. 
,, VI. — Paribcea, Philippi. — Antennae without claws, 2-jointed ; palpi 5- 
jointed ; ovaries 9-jointed ; metamorphosis ? 


Antennae 3-jointed, chelate. 
Genus VII. — I'allene, Johnston. — Palpi wanting; ovaries 10- 1 1 -jointed, wanting 
in the males ; metamorphosis abbreviated. 

,, VIII. — Phoxichilidium, M. Edw. (Orithyia, Johnston). — Palpi wanting; 
ovaries 5-jointed; metamorphosis complete ; larvae living in Polyps 
( Coryne, Hydractinia). 

,, IX.— Pephredo, Goodsir (? Phanodemus, Costa). — Palpi 3-jointed ; ovaries 
9-jointed ; metamorphosis ? 

,, X. — Ammothea, Leach. — Palpi 8 -9-jointed ; ovaries 9-jointed; meta- 

morphosis ? 

,, XI. — Nymphon, Fabr. — Palpi 5-jointed ; ovaries 9-jointed ; metamorphosis 

Geo. M. Thomson. 

* It is still an open question what terms should be applied to the three short 
anterior pairs of appendages. I shall therefore call them a7ttennoe, palps, and ovaries, 
as they are termed by Semper, but am doubtful of the correctness of this application 
of terms. 



(Translated from Dr. C. Semper's " Reisen im Archipelder Philippinen (Holo- 
thurien)," by Professor F. W. Hutton.) 

Order I. — Apeumona. 

No respiratory tree nor proper cloaca ; ambulacral system 
wanting. Tentacles lineal, feathered, or digitate. 

Family I. — Synaptidm. 

Tentacles feathered, or digitate. No radiating vessels in the 
skin. Bands of peduncled, ciliated, cups on the mesentery. 
Calcareous dermal plates in the form of anchors or wheels, very 
different from other Holothurians. 

Genus Syuapta. — Vermiform, with anchors in the skin, and 
I o to 25 digitate or feathered tentacles. 

Genus Anapta. — Vermiform, thin. Tentacles small, finely 
feathered. Closely covered with fine papillae. Entirely without 
wheels or anchors. 

Genus Chirodota. — Vermiform. Tentacles scutiform or digi- 
tate. Papillae in the skin, with wheel-like plates. 

Genus Synaptula. — Like Synapta, but viviparous. 

Genus Myriotrochus. — Skin smooth, with large, stalked, 
simple wheel-plates, which are not, as in chirodota, in groups in 
a bladder. 

Genus Rhabdomolgus. — Ten ciliated tentacles. No calcareous 
plates. Pelagic ? 

Family II — Eupyrgidce. 

No feet. Closely covered with calcareous scales. Fifteen 
simply digitate tentacles. 

Genus Eupyrgus. — Characters of the family. 

Fam ily III — Oncinolabidaz. 

Like Synaptidae, but with small feet. 
Genus Oncinolabes. — Characters of family. 

Order II. — Pneumonophora. 
A respiratory tree opening into the cloaca. 

Family I. — Molpadidce. 

No feet. With or without water-vessels in the skin. Ten- 
tacles cylindrical, digitate, or scutiform. 

Genus Haplodactyla. — Tentacles 15 or 16, cylindrical; skin 

Genus Molpadia. — Tentacles 12 to 15, digitate at the end. 


Genus Liosoma. — Tentacles 12, scutiform. Body cylindrical, 

Genus Caudina. — Tentacles 12, digitately divided at the end. 
Body strongly contracted behind. Skin very rough, with numer- 
ous calcareous plates. 

Genus Echinosoma. — Tentacles 12, stump-like. Body ascidian- 
like. Skin covered with large calcareous scales, which may carry 
a centre spine. 

Genus Embolus. — Tentacles 15, stump-like. Oesophageal 
calcareous ring wanting. 

Family II. — Dendrochirotcs. 

Feet- and lung-bearing Holothurians, with a completely de- 
veloped ambulacral system, and tree-like branching tentacles. 
Five muscles which spring from the circum-cesophageal plates, 
go through the whole cavity of the body. 

Sub-family I. — SticJiopoda. 

The small feet of the ambulacra arranged in well-marked 
rows ; the interambulacral areas almost always without any feet. 

Genus Cucumaria. — In all the five ambulacra similarly 
formed feet stand in several rows ; some species have them on 
the interambulacral areas. Body generally sub-pentagonal. 
Tentacles 10, frequently with two smaller ones, which conform 
to the middle radius of the trivium. 

Genus Ocuus. — The ambulacra, at least upon the back, with 
only a single row of widely-separated feet. Tentacles 10, 
irregularly branched, the two middle central ones smaller than 
the others. Large calcareous plates in the skin. 

Genus Colochirus. — The feet of the ventral surface in three 
clearly separated rows ; upon the back only ambulacral papillae. 
The two middle tentacles of the ventral side smaller than the 
remaining eight. Anus with or without calcareous teeth. 

Genus Echinocucumis. — Feet in five rows. Ten dissimilar, 
branching tentacles. Skin covered with long spiny calcareous 

Sub-family Gastropoda. 

Feet arranged in well-marked rows upon the clearly-defined 
ventral area. No feet on the back. Calcareous plates in the 
form of large scales. 

Genus Psolus. — Characters of the sub-family. 

Sub-family Sporadipoda. 

Feet surrounding the whole body evenly, rarely or never 
showing an arrangement into rows. 

Genus Thy one. — Tentacles 10, of which two on the ventral 
side are smaller. Feet more or less densely scattered over the 
whole body, but occasionally an indication of rows can be seen. 
Anus with or without calcareous teeth. 

Genus Thyonidium. — Tentacles 20. Five large pairs alter- 
nating with five small ones. The small feet are sometimes quite 


close, sometimes more scattered, and are then arranged in 
radiating rows. 

Genus Orada. — Tentacles 10 to 20, of which five simple ones 
are alternately smaller. Anus toothless. Feet distributed evenly 
over the whole body. 

Genus Phyllophorus. — Tentacles 12 to 16, within which is a 
circle of 5 or 6 much smaller ones. 

Genus Stereoderma. — Body covered with simple feet, which 
on the right or left side of the ventral area are in a double row. 
Anus toothless. Tentacles 10, the two middle on the ventral 
side smaller. 

Genus Hemicrepis. — Back, and anterior and posterior portions 
of the ventral surface with warts, upon which are feet. Ventral 
area densely covered with feet. Tentacles 12. 

Family Aspidochirotae. 

Feet- and lung-bearing Holothurians, with a well-developed 
ambulacral system, and scutiform tentacles. Retractor muscle 
of gullet wanting. Generally a single bundle of reproductive 
follicles on the left of the mesentery. 

Genus Stichopus. — Tentacles 18 to 20. Body four-angled. 
Ambulacral papillae standing upon warts, which are often 
arranged in longitudinal rows. Ventral surface flat, generally 
with three distinct longitudinal rows of feet. Two bundles of 
reproductive follicles on the mesentery. 

Genus Midleria. — Tentacles 20 to 25. Back convex, with 
the ambulacral papillae standing more or less closely together. 
Ventral surface flat with very numerous feet, which are some- 
times arranged in rows. Anus with five calcareous teeth. 

Genus Labidodemas. — Tentacles 20. Feet arranged in five 
double longitudinal rows. 

Genus Aspidochir. — Tentacles 12. Feet in five rows, but 
absent in front. Respiratory tree divided into five. 

Genus HolotJiuria. — Tentacles 20. Feet generally not in 
rows. Anus round or radiate, without calcareous teeth. 



The following species of Micro-lepidoptera from New Zealand 
are described by Mr. E. Meyrick in the Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society of New South Wales, vols. 5 and 6 : — 

Genus Gracilaria, Z. 
Head smooth ; no ocelli ; tongue long. Antennae as long 
or longer than fore-wings, slender, filiform. Maxillary palpi 


rather long, filiform. Labial palpi moderately long, ascending, 
arched, slender, cylindrical ; second joint smooth, sometimes 
loosely scaled beneath, terminal joint nearly as long as second. 
Fore-wings elongate, very narrow, parallel-sided, costa bent at 
apex or evenly pointed. Hind-wings very narrowly lanceolate, 
much narrower than fore-wings, cilia thrice or four times as 
broad. Abdomen elongate, slender. Legs long, slender ; 
middle tibiae often much thickened with scales. Fore-wings 
with 12 or ii veins, 5 branches to costa, no secondary cell, 1 
simple. Hind-wings with from 8 to 6 veins, 3 and 5 sometimes 
being obsolete ; 5 and 6 stalked, cell open. 

All the species are elegant, and some of great beauty ; when 
at rest they sit with the forepart much raised, and the two 
anterior pairs of legs, which are often elegantly marked, con- 
spicuously displayed. They are somewhat retired in habit, and 
may often be easiest found at rest on fences. 

The larvae are fourteen-legged, slender, always mining in 
leaves when young ; afterwards many of the European and 
American species construct hollow cones for habitations, by 
rolling up pieces of the leaves they feed on ; others remain 
miners all their life. All the Australian species, with the larvae 
of which I am acquainted, are miners throughout life ; nor have 
I ever seen indications of the familiar cones of this genus in 
Australia. The mining larvae usually leave the mine in order to 
form their cocoon. 

1. G. adelina, Meyrick (I.e., vol. 5, p. 142). — Head and thorax 
ochreous, reddish with violet reflections, face snow-white. 
Maxillary palpi whitish, externally ochreous, reddish. Labial 
palpi reddish-ochreous, white at base, lower half of terminal 
joint externally purple-fuscous. Antennae longer than fore- 
wings, pale reddish-ochreous, annulated with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen fuscous-grey, pale ochreous at base, beneath metallic- 
yellow. Legs pale ochreous ; anterior tibiae blackish ; middle 
tibiae very much thickened, deep reddish suffused with violet 
black. Fore-wings deep reddish-ochreous with violet reflections, 
with a very broad, pale metallic-yellow costal band, covering 
more than half the breadth of wing, and extending almost from 
base to apex ; the ground colour sends a conical projection into 
this band before middle, cutting half through it, and midway 
between this and base is a much shorter, obtuse projection, both 
suffused with deep cobalt-blue ; the lower % of the reddish- 
ochreous inner-marginal portion is marked from base to apex 
with regular transverse strigulae of brilliant deep cobalt-blue, 
appearing black in some lights ; cilia reddish-ochreous round 
apex, thence dark fuscous-grey. Hind wings and cilia dark 
fuscous-grey. Male and female, length 6 lines. 

This magnificent species is unsurpassed in the elegance and 
intensity of its colouring. I took one pair in dense swampy 
forest in January, near Hamilton, on the Waikato. It seems to 
be nearly allied to the North American G. violacella, Clem., and 
G. blaudella i Clem.- 


2. G. aitJialota, Meyrick (I.e., vol. 5, p. 143). — Head glossy 
dark grey, face paler. Labial palpi whitish, apex of second 
joint and a subapical ring of terminal joint black. Antennae 
longer than tore-wings, grey-whitish, with evanescent fuscous 
annulations. Thorax and abdomen dark-fuscous grey. Legs 
whitish, tarsal joints suffused with pale fuscous, except an apical 
ring, anterior and middle tibiae not thickened, suffused with 
fuscous above. Fore-wings unicolorous, dark, glossy, slaty-grey, 
with one or two pale scales at apex ; cilia dark fuscous, with 
three obscure blackish lines round apex, and a whitish hook. 
Hind-wings and cilia dark fuscous-grey. Male, length 4^ lines. 

One specimen beaten from forest near Dunedin, in January. 

3. G.ethela Meyrick (I.e., vol. 5, p. 152). — Head yellow on 
crown, crimson behind, face snow-white with a pale crimson-pink 
spot on each side. Maxillary palpi white, lower ^ externally 
pale crimson. Labial palpi white, second joint externally crim- 
son, beneath fringed with a few loose hairs. Antennae much 
longer than fore-wings, pale greyish-ochreous, basal joint yellow. 
Thorax yellow, anterior margin broadly crimson, and with a 
small crimson spot behind. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. 
Legs yellowish-white, tarsi with very slender blackish rings at 
apex of joints, anterior and middle tibiae slightly thickened, 
crimson-fuscous at apex, and with two slender dark fuscous 
rings. Fore-wings pale yellow, deeper along inner margin, with 
a bright crimson irregular-edged undulating central streak from 
base to apex, connected with inner margin by four perpendicular 
half- fasciae, one close to base, the others at %, yi, and ^, and 
expanding abruptly at apex into a large apical spot; at the base 
this streak reaches costa, and at */£ from base is again connected 
with it by a perpendicular spot ; beyond this on costa are two 
small crimson strigulae ; central streak in parts margined above 
with black ; parallel to its upper edge, and immediately above 
it, is a waved, black, longitudinal line, extending from midway 
between third and fourth inner-marginal spot to midway between 
fourth and apical spot ; apical spot pure crimson, containing a 
circular black spot above centre, above which the colour becomes 
brownish-ochreous and is margined on costa with black ; lower 
half of apical spot filled up with a sharp wedge-shaped snow- 
white spot, the base of which is yellow, and separated from the 
rest by a crimson line ; cilia yellow round apex, containing a 
blackish hook, crimson below apical spot, thence pale crimson- 
grey. Hind-wings dull pale purple-crimson, costal cilia grey, 
rest suffused with pale crimson. Male and female, length 
SyiSH lines. 

Var. A. — All the crimson markings replaced by dull fuscous. 

I took seven very perfect specimens (six typical, one of the 
variety) amidst dense growth in the swampy virgin forest near 
Hamilton, on the Waikato, in January, mostly under tree-ferns. 

4. G. acllomacha, Meyrick (I.e., vol. 5, p. 158). — Head and 
palpi snow-white, labial palpi with apex of second joint and a 
subapical ring of terminal joint black. Antennae longer than 


fore-wings, white. Thorax snow-white, with a small black 
shoulder spot. Abdomen dark fuscous, beneath with white 
rings and white towards apex. Legs white, tarsi with three 
black rings, anterior tibiae black, middle tibiae hardly thickened, 
apical half black. Fore-wings white, with coarsely scaled 
fuscous-black markings ; a cloudy, central, longitudinal streak 
from near base to disc above anal angle, connecting obscurely 
with seven oblique costal and five oblique dorsal streaks ; costa 
blackish at base ; first and second costal streaks thick, hardly 
oblique, meeting first and second dorsal streaks ; third slender, 
very short, not reaching central streak ; fourth strong, from 
middle of costa ; fifth slender, short ; sixth thick, black, very 
oblique, uniting with the small fifth dorsal on anal angle ; fourth 
dorsal, thick before middle; seventh costal slender, produced nearly 
to hind-margin ; apical spot black, large, round, cloudy ; cilia 
white round apex, dark fuscous at anal angle, with two black 
lines and a short black apical hook, thence fuscous-grey. Hind- 
wings fuscous-grey, cilia paler. Male, length ^]/ 2 lines. 

One specimen from forest growth at Wellington, in January. 

(To be continued.) 


Extracted from G. S. Brady's Monograph of this group. 

Family I. — Cyprim:. 

Genus Paracypris (G. O. Sars). 
Shell smooth, compact, elongated. Anterior antennae 7- 
jointed, beset with rather short setae ; posterior stout, terminat- 
ing in 4 strong curved claws ; ante-penultimate joint bearing at 
its base a pedicellated hyaline vesicle. Mandibles terminating 
in 5 or 6 long teeth, and bearing a 4-jointed palp, from the basal 
joint of which springs a narrow branchial appendage. External 
lobe or palp of the first pair of maxillae linear, not much broader 
than the rest. Second pair of maxillae provided with a branchial 
appendage, the palp elongated, conical, and inarticulate. Last 
pair of feet similar to the first in form and size ; both pairs 5- 
jointed, and terminating in a long curved claw, the last pair 
armed also with a short seta, which is directed upwards. Post- 
abdominal rami large, armed at the extremity with 2 strong 
curved claws, and a short slender seta ; the posterior margin also 
bears 2 long setae ; one eye. 


I. Paracypris polita. G. O. Sars. — Seen from the side, the ca- 
pace is elongated, siliquose or sub-triangalar ; greatest height at 
the anterior third, and equal to more than ^ of the length. An- 
terior extremity evenly rounded, posterior much attenuated, 
pointed. Dorsal margin arched in front, and sloping steeply 
behind ; ventral concave along the greater portion of its length. 
Seen from above, it is much compressed, oval, not quite 4 times 
as long as broad, greatest breadth in front of the middle ; ex- 
tremities obtusely pointed. End view oval. Shell smooth and 
polished, almost destitute of hairs ; colour yellowish white. The 
setae of the anterior antennae are nearly equal in length to the 
6 preceding joints, sixth joint being longer than the rest. The 
ante-penultimate joint has at its inner apical angle 2 setae ; and 
from its basal portion springs a fine tubular filament, which ends 
in a pyriform sac or vesicle. The post-abdominal rami are gently 
curved, the exterior claw somewhat longer than the other. Male 
unknown. Length i-22nd in., height 1-5 5th in. 

(The specimens found in Wellington harbour are only doubt- 
fully referred to this species). 

(A common North European species. Also found fossil in 
glacial deposits of Norway and Scotland). 

Genus Phlycteuophora, (G. S. Brady). 

Carapace elongated, not higher in front than behind ; shell 
smooth, and usually more or less ornamented with dark coloured 
blotches or striae. Anterior antennae 7 -jointed, beset with mo- 
derately long and slender setae ; posterior 4-jointed, stout, ending 
in 4 strong curved claws ; second joint bearing a stalked hyaline 
vesicle and a brush of short setae. Mandible strongly toothed at 
the apex, bearing a 4-jointed palp, which is destitute of a bran- 
chial appendage (?). First pair of maxilla divided into 4 linear 
setiferous segments, and having at the base a branchial plate 
bearing 6 setae ; second pair 4-jointed (?), flexuous, provided with 
a moveable hinge between the second and third joints ; terminal 
claw long, reflexed against the limb. Postabdominal rami well de- 
veloped, bearing two strong terminal claws. Spermatic gland of 
the male cylindrical, beset with a spiral of delicate setose filaments. 
1. Phlycteuophora Zealandica, G. S. Brady. — Carapace elon- 
gated, compressed ; seen from the side, subsiliquose ; greatest 
height in the middle, equal to less than y 2 the length ; anterior 
extremity well rounded, posterior narrowed, and ending in a 
subacute angle near the ventral surface ; dorsal margin well 
arched, and continued in an unbroken curve to the infero-posteal 
angle, ventral margin slightly sinuated in the middle ; seen from 
above, the outline is ovate, widest in the middle, and tapering 
only slightly to the broadly-rounded extremities ; width and 
height about equal ; end view sub-circular, rather narrowed and 
angular below. Shell-surface smooth, whitish, marked with a 
few irregular strigae of a blackish hue, and on the ventral surface 
with a broad longitudinal and transversely striated squamous 
band. Length, i-26th in. 


Also found at Port Jackson, Australia, in a depth of 2-10 
fathoms ; and in Humboldt Bay. New Guinea, in 37 fathoms. 

Genus Aglaia (G. S. Brady). 

Shell smooth and polished, of about equal height before and 
behind, compressed, subcylindrical. Anterior antennae 7-jointed, 
beset with short, stout setae ; posterior robust, and bearing at 
the apex of each joint several strong curved setae ; furnished 
also with a very small hyaline vesicle, and on the penultimate 
joint with a lash of very short setae. Mandibles slender, divided 
at the extremity into about 5 blunt teeth, and furnished with a 
large, narrow, branchial palp. First pair of jaws divided into 
4 elongated segments, and bearing a distinct branchial appen- 
dage ; second pair flexuous, 4-jointed, last joint armed with 3 
setae, one of which is very long, and finely pectinate on its inner 
margin. Postabdominal rami moderately robust, bearing 2 
curved terminal claws, one seta on the anterior, and 2 on the 
posterior margin. Testis disposed round the body of the 
animal ; mucous gland of the male elongated, and composed of 
7 series of whorled filaments. 

1. Aglaia clavata, G. S. Brady. — Shell elongated, reniform ; 
seen from the side rather lower in front than behind, height 
greatest in the middle, and equal to less than half the length, 
extremities well rounded, dorsal margin gently arched, ventral 
slightly sinuated in the middle ; seen from above, the outline is 
subclavate, widest behind the middle, tapering very gradually 
towards the front, and scarcely at all behind ; anterior extremity 
very obtusely pointed, posterior broadly rounded ; width and 
height nearly equal ; end view circular ; shell-surface perfectly 
smooth. Length, i-45th inch. 

Genus Macrocypris (G. S. Brady). 

Carapace elongated, attenuated at the extremities ; valves 
unequal, the right larger than the left, and overlapping dorsally ; 
hinge-line flexuous. Surface of the shell smooth, polished, and 
destitute of hairs. Antennae short and robust ; anterior 
7-jointed, tapering to the apex, bearing numerous short setce ; 
posterior 5-jointed, last 2 joints very short ; terminal claws 
elongated ; second joint bearing a bundle of short 2-articulate 
setae. Mandibles large, dilated, and armed with 6 or 7 strong 
teeth ; palp elongated, 4-jointed, and provided with a branchial 
appendage. The first pair of jaws have an unusually small, 
subovate branchial plate, and the external segment is narrow, 
and not larger than the rest ; second pair destitute of a branchial 
appendage ; palp in the female large and subpediform, 4-jointed, 
the last joint armed with 3 claws ; in the male, very robust and 
subcheliform. First pair ot feet much elongated, 5-jointed, last 
joint armed with 1 or 2 long curved claws ; second pair very 
different, covered entirely by the shell, 5-jointed, terminal claw 
very long and recurved. Postabdominal rami rudimentary, 
forming 2 small simple appendages attached to the posterior 


part of the abdomen. No eye. Male smaller than the female ; 
copulative organs large ; spermatic glands long and narrow ; the 
lateral filaments apparently not arranged in a verticillate 

i. Macrocypris tumida, G. S. Brady. — Shell oblong, tumid, 
subovate ; seen laterally the anterior extremity is broadly 
rounded, the posterior obliquely rounded, produced, and 
obscurely angular below ; dorsal margin boldly and evenly 
arched, highest in the middle ; ventral straight ; height 
equal to half the length ; seen from above the outline is 
broadly ovate, widest in the middle, and tapering very slightly 
towards the extremities, which are broadly rounded ; the an- 
terior slightly mucronate, width equal to the height ; end view 
nearly circular. Shell-surface smooth. Length i-i6th inch. 

Also got in Royal Sound, Kerguellen Island, in 28 fathoms. 

Family II. — Cytherim;. 

'Genus Cythere (Miiller). 

(Characters shortly given in Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XI., p. 254.) 

1. Cythere imirryana, G. S. Brady. — Carapace of the female, 
as seen from the side, oblong, subquadrangular, scarcely higher 
in front than behind, height equal to half the length, anterior 
extremity rounded, posterior narrower, subtruncated, and rather 
angular, the lower angle rounded* off; dorsal margin nearly 
straight, but towards the hinder end, suddenly depressed and 
excavated ; ventral margin sinuated in the middle, and turned 
upwards behind ; seen from above the outline is subovate, width 
nearly equal to the height, sides slightly curved and nearly 
parallel, extremities obtusely rounded ; end view subhexagonal, 
with obtusely rounded angles. Surface marked with numerous 
closely-set small angular excavations. Length i-62nd inch. 

2. Cythere scabrocuneata, G. S Brady. — Shell compressed, 
ovate-oblong in its dorsal aspect, and having all its margins very 
uneven ; seen from the side, the shape of the female shell is that 
of a long triangle with the apex behind ; all the margins, but 
especially the dorsal, denticulated or jagged, highest in front ; 
the dorsal and ventral margins gently curved and converging 
equally to the pointed posterior extremity ; seen from above the 
outline is ovate, twice as long as broad, and widest near the 
middle, extremities broad and rounded off, lateral margins curved 
and converging rather more abruptly behind than in front. 
Shell-surface rough, with prominent nodules and scattered ill- 
defined ridges. Length i~33rd inch. The shell of the male is a 
good deal narrower and longer. 

(Also found in Bass' Straits, in 38-40 fathoms, and in the 
Inland Sea, Japan, in 15 fathoms.) 

Genus Cytheropteron (G. O. Sars). 

Valves mostly subrhomboidal, tumid, unequal, and different 
in shape, the right valve more or less overlapping the left on t he 


dorsal margin ; surfaces of the shell variously sculptured, punc- 
tate, papillose, reticulated, or transversely rugose; ventral surface 
produced laterally into a prominent, rounded or spinous ala ; 
posterior margin produced into a more or less distinct but obtuse 
beak ; hinge formed by 2 small terminal teeth on the right, and 
by a minutely crenated median bar on the left valve. Muscle- 
spots usually 4, linear-oblong, arranged in an obliquely transverse 
row just above the middle of the ventral margin. Anterior- 
antennae shortly setiferous, and composed of 5 joints ; the pen- 
ultimate joint elongated, and bearing on the middle of the 
anterior margin 2 hairs ; posterior antennae distinctly 5-jointed, 
flagellum long. Mandibles of moderate size ; palp 3-jointed, 
branchial appendage bearing 2 very small setae. Terminal lobes 
of first pair of maxilla long or narrow ; branchial plate bearing 
on its external margin two non-ciliated setae, which are directed 
downwards, and arise from a separate lobe. Feet long and 
slender, with slender terminal claws. Abdomen ending in a 
long, narrow process ; postabdominal lobes bearing 3 short hairs. 
Copulative organs of the male armed behind with 3 spiniform 
processes, one of which is 3-furcate; eyes wanting. 

I . Cytheropteron wellingtoniense, G. L. Brady. — Shell, seen from 
the side, flexuous in outline, subrhomboidal, highest in the middle, 
height equal to nearly two-thirds of length, anterior extremity 
depressed, rounded off, posteriorwider, lookingobliquely downward, 
produced in the middle into a short, broad, and obtuse beak, dorsal 
margin boldly and evenly rounded, ventral convex, sinuated in 
front and behind the middle ; seen from above, the outline is 
subovate, widest behind the middle, where the latter alae project 
only very slightly ; from this point the lateral margins slope with 
a gentle curve towards the anterior extremity, which is obtuse 
and slightly mucronate, more abruptly and almost in a straight 
line to the hinder extremity, which is acuminate ; width equal 
to the height ; the end view is equilaterally triangular, the angles 
rounded, and the lateral margins rather boldly curved, ventral line 
nearly straight. The shell is almost smooth, but marked on parts 
of its surface with closely set minute puncta, the ventral surface 
is indented longtitudinally along the median line, and bears also 
a few curved striae ; the lateral alae are curved, scarcely angular, 
and but slightly prominent. Length i-43rd inch. 

(To be continued.) 



The University of New Zealand. — The two seats 
in the Senate rendered vacant by the death of the Rev. Wm. 
Johnstone and the retirement of the Rev. Dr. Stuart, have been 
filled up by the appointment of the Rev. W. Salmond, D.D., 
Professor of Theology in the Otago Presbyterian Theological 
College ; and of Prof. Macgregor, Professor of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy in Otago University. 

The present position of Science subjects in the examinations 
of the University is somewhat unsatisfactory to teachers and 
students alike, and it is to be hoped that the matter will receive 
further consideration at the forthcoming meeting of the Senate. 
There is not yet a sufficient amount of scientific leaven in the 
present constitution of the Senate, but it is to be hoped that 
what there is will succeed in leavening the whole. 

On the Occurrence of Pterostylis Aphylla (Lind- 
ley) in New Zealand. — Last summer Mr. Sidney Fulton, 
of Outram, discovered an orchid on the Lee Stream Flat, 
which he could not refer to any known New Zealand 
species. Specimens were forwarded to Mr. Petrie and my- 
self, but were too far past flowering to enable us to identify 
them. This season the same ground has been searched 
earlier, and the plant has been obtained in flower by 
the same indefatigable collector, and we are thus enabled to add 
another species to our New Zealand flora. The new species 
is Pterostylis aphylla, LindL, hitherto only found in Tasmania, 
but closely allied to the Australian P.parviflora. It is the most in- 
conspicuous species of the genus, and belongs to a section hitherto not 
represented in this Colony ; all our other species have a single 
flower on the scape, while this bears several in a raceme. The 
pedicels of the individual flowers are peculiarly twisted, so as to 
bring some of the flowers face to face, while others follow each 
other up in a most remarkable manner, all but the terminal one 
facing towards the rachis. This peculiarity is referred to in 
Bcntham's Fl. Austr., vol VI., p. 361, where the plant is shortly 

The following is the description of our New Zealand speci- 
mens : — Leaves in radical rosettes, y^ — x / 2 inch long, ovate, sub- 
acute or obtuse, shortly petiolate, distinctly reticulated, withering 
at the time of flowering. Scape, 2 — 4 inches high, with 1 — 4 
flowers, often furnished below with 2 or 3 empty bracts ; flowers 
greenish-brown in colour. Galea about 3 lines long, much in- 
curved at the sub-acute tip, lower lip broad, almost obtuse at the 
apex, which is divided into two short lobes, which do not project 


beyond the apex of the galla. Labellum short, obtuse, with a 
short, undivided, and rounded basal appendage. Wing of the 
column broad, nearly square, produced downwards in a short, 
rounded lobe. 

New Zealand Systematists and Collectors. — A good 
deal of valuable assistance to those working at systematic 
zoology and botany can be rendered by persons who have not 
themselves sufficient time to devote to such work, but who are 
willing to undertake the task of collecting. It requires, besides, 
very slight scientific knowledge to commence the making of col- 
lections, and the acquisition of special knowledge and the taste 
for it grow by observation. Much good work has already been 
done in this direction by various members of the Dunedin 
Naturalists' Field Club, and this is a line of usefulness which 
such clubs may well seek to follow out more fully. 

We shall therefore be glad if systematists working out any 
particular group of animals or plants, or who are willing to name 
collections for those who will forward them, will communicate 
the fact to our columns, as they may thus be enabled to obtain 
specimens from all parts of the Colony. The following gentle- 
men are desirous of obtaining specimens of the particular groups 
named, and we would ask our subscribers to aid them to the 
extent of their ability :— 

Prof. Hutton, Christchurch— Land Shells (preserved in spirit). 

Mr. F. F. Cheeseman, Auckland — Nudibranchiate Molluscs (preserved in 
spirit. Collectors are requested to note the colour, size, shape, &c., of the specimens 
while thev are still alive). 

Capt. Broun, Auckland— Coleoptera (see his article in the current number). 

Mr. Chas. Chilton, Christchurch — Crustacea. 

Mr. G. M. Thomson, Dunedin — Lower Crustacea, Entomostraca, &c. 

We hope in future numbers to publish the names of other 
workers, and trust that members of Field Clubs and others will 
take the hint. 

Recent Papers on Mollusca (By Prof. F. W. Hutton). — 
On a Neiv Genus of Rissohm. — This paper describes a new genus, 
for which the name Dardania is proposed, intermediate between 
Barleeia and Rissomce, having the shell and simple opercular 
lobe of the former, combined with an operculum much like that 
of the latter. One species is described, D. olivacea from 

On the Hydrobiince of New Zealand. — The different 
species of molluscs inhabiting the fresh and brackish waters of 
New Zealand, and belonging to this sub-family, are all shown to 
belong to the same genus Potamopyrgus. The eight species 
mentioned in Prof. Hutton's " Manual of the New Zealand 
Mollusca," are reduced to three — viz., P. cumingiana, P. corolla, 
and P. antipoda. A new species is also added — P.pupoides — 
from the brackish water of the Heathcote estuary. It is a very 
small species, with an oblong shell of only four whorls. The 
dentition, as well as the shells, of the different species are figured 


The Ferns and Fern Allies of New Zealand is the 
title of a work recently brought out by Messrs Wise, Caffin & 
Co., of Dunedin, and George Robertson of Melbourne. As the 
author is the editor of this journal, it is not intended to do more 
in these columns than mention the fact of its publication. The 
book has been very nicely got up by the publishers, and is illus- 
trated by lithographed plates showing the characters of all the 

Microscopic Preparation of Copepoda. — The following 
mode of preserving these little crustaceans is given by C. F. 
Giesler (in American Nat. for Sept. 1881, p. 690) : — Place the 
living specimens in alcohol, and leave them for some little time 
till they become yellowish coloured. Then pour off the alcohol, 
and macerate for one day in a mixture consisting of a strong 
solution of pure carmine in concentrated ammonia and a little 
glycerine. Then wash the staining liquid gradually off, first 
with water and then with alcohol, and preserve in glycerine for 

I use the following method myself: — I kill the animals by 
placing them in a little clear water, and gradually adding 
glycerine- water (1 part glycerine to 2 parts distilled water). The 
water is drawn off after they are quite dead, and replaced by a 
little glycerine-water, to which pure glycerine is slowly added. 
They may be kept in this for an indefinite length of time, and 
when wanted as permanent preparations, may be mounted in 
glycerine jelly. I have some preparations made four years ago 
after this manner, in which the natural colours and appearance 
of the animals are beautifully preserved. As a general rule 
animals preserved in glycerine become rather more transparent 
than in their natural condition. G.M.T. 

On MlMULUS Radicans. — This pretty little plant grows 
abundantly on the Lea Stream Flat in Otago, from which loca- 
lity I have received numerous specimens from Mr. S. Fulton, of 
Outram. In most of these the flowers were of very abnormal struc- 
ture, and many were evidently compounded of two or even three 
flowers aggregated into one. In those of the most normal form 
the two lips are very distinct, the upper purple, narrow-oblong in 
form, and bi-lobed ; the lower widely 3-lobed, and with a wide 
band formed of 3 rows of brownish-yellow hairs leading down to 
the honey cavity. The lamellate stigma stands straight up 
against the upper lip, with its flat lobes facing the opening of the 
flower, and underneath it are the four stamens, their filaments 
being greatly curved together and forming two arches in the back 
of the flower. Each flower has a single bract on the peduncle. 
As in all the species of the genus the lobes of the stigma are irri- 
table ; those examined by me. took nearly a minute to close after 
being touched, but they had been gathered some hours. Usually 
they close completely in from 10 to 20 seconds after irritation, 


and even more rapidly if the irritation is continuous, as when 
they are touched repeatedly with a fine brush. All the flowers 
were very fragrant. In the most abnormal flower examined, at 
least two flowers had become merged together, forming an irre- 
gularly cup-shaped flower about 3/£ inch in diameter. The calyx 
was hemispherical, and had 14 lobes of irregular sizes; the corolla 
showed 10 lobes, readily distinguishable as the two white lower 
lips, each irregularly 3-lobed and facing one another, and provided 
with the usual bands of hairs ; and the 2 upper lips, one purple 
and entire, the other 3-lobed, the large central lobe being white, 
but without a honey guide. The stamens were 12 in number, 
arranged without any regularity round the base of the corolla, 
while the stigmas were 2 in number, facing one another, and 
opposite the upper lips. Lastly, the two bracts on the somewhat 
flattened peduncle showed that apparently only two flowers had 
become aggregated. The most surprising feature of all the 
flowers was that not one was strictly normal in form, while most 
were absolutely monstrous. 

" Knowledge." — This is the title of a new weekly magazine 
devoted to science, and brought out under the editorship of Mr. 
R. A. Proctor. The aim of the publication is professedly " to 
bring the truths, discoveries, and inventions of science before the 
public in simple but correct terms — to be, in fact, the minister 
and interpreter of science for those who have not time to master 
technicalities." In addition to the articles, papers and reviews 
which constitute the usual pabulum furnished by science perio- 
dicals, the new magazine is to contain a mathematical section, 
and columns for whist and chess, regarded as scientific games. 
Judging from the opening number, the physical sciences will be 
chiefly represented, and no doubt astronomical subjects will re- 
ceive a very full share of attention. The magazine is on quite a 
different footing from any other scientific publication, and its 
low price ought to ensure it a wide circulation, while the name 
of its eminent editor is a guarantee of the quality and accuracy 
of the information which it is intended to disseminate. 

Recent Additions to the Crustacean Fauna. — It is 
gratifying to be able to record the advent of a new worker in 
this branch of science, Mr. Chas. Chilton, B.A., of Canterbury 
College. This gentleman has contributed two valuable papers to 
the Canterbury Philosophical Society, of which short abstracts 
are appended. The occurence of subterranean Crustacea is very 
remarkable, and would lead to the conclusion that there must be 
extensive areas of water at no great depth in the Canterbury 

Mr Geo. M. Thomson has also been doing further work in the 
same line, and at a meeting of the Otago Institute on 22nd. 
November, read a paper describing several new species. An 
abstract of these papers is appended : — 


"Additions to the New Zealand Custacea," (read October 7, 1881) by Chas. 
Chilton, B. A. — In this paper the following Crustacea were described : — Hymenicus 
marmoratus sp. nov., a small crab common in Lyttelton Harbour, but apparently 
hitherto undescribed. Allied to H. varius. Elamena (? ) lacustris sp. nov., a 
fresh water crab from Lake Pupuke, Auckland. Doubtfully referred to Elamena. 
Anthura flagellata sp. nov., an Isopod, a single specimen of which was obtained 
from Lyttelton Harbour. Microdentopus maculatus, Thomson. An animal 
resembling this species in everything buc the gnathopoda, was hence described as 
the male. It resembles but is distinct from Aora typica. 

"On some Subterranean Crustacea," (read November 3rd, i88t) by Chas. 
Chilton, B.A. — The Crustacea described in this paper were all obtained from a 
pump at Eyreton, North Canterbury. There are 4 species, 1 Isopod and 3 Amphi- 
poda. They are all destitute of eyes. The Isopod, Cruregus fontanus, nov. gen. 
et. sp., is remarkable for the absence of the last pair of thoracic legs. The Amphi- 
poda are Calliope subterranea, sp. nov. Of this the female is very common, but the 
male is rare. Crangonyx compactus, sp. nov. A species of this genus is found in 
in wells in England. Gammarus fragilis, sp. nov. This species is rather rarely 
found, but is larger in size than the others. Since, writiug the paper I have found 
that the animal I have described is a female. 

" Additions to the Crustacean Fauna of New Zealand," (read 22nd November, 
1881) by Geo. M. Thomson, F.L.S. — Ten species are described in this paper as 
follows: — (1) Squilla tridentata, n. sp., allied to S. indefensa, T. H. Kirk. (2) 
Paranthura costana, Bates, a species originally described as from the British seas. 
(3) Anonyx corpule?ttus, n. sp., near the Greenland A. holbolii, and (4) A. exiguus, 
Stimpson, originally described from Eastern N. America. (5) Phoxus batei, Has- 
well, an Australian species. (6) Polycheria obtusa, n. sp., near the Australian P. 
tenuipes. (7) Leucothoe trailii, n. sp., near the N. American L. grandimanus. 
(8) Moera quadrimanus, Dana., a Fijian form, and (9) M. petriei, n. sp. (10) A 
remarkable form of Amphipod for which a distinct genus, Iphigenia, is proposed, 
under the name /. typica. The general form is like Icillius, Dana, but it is even 
more Isopod-like. The most of the species are from Stewart's Island, a few from 
Otago Harbour. 



A meeting of the Governors was held in the Colonial Museum, 
Wellington, on 10th November, His Excellency the Governor 
(president) in the chair. 

The chief business was the making of arrangements for the 
publication ot the ensuing volume of the " Transactions." Up to 
date fifty original papers, accompanied by forty plates, had been 
received, and more were expected, as some of the societies had 
not ended tor the season. The forthcoming volume promises to 
be a most interesting one. 

Dr. Newman's proposal that the meetings of the Institute 
should be held at the chief places in the colony— after the fashion 
of the British Association — lapsed. 

22nd October. — Dr. Hector (president) in the chair. 
New members — Messrs. Williamson and C. Gillespie. 
Papers— 1. Notes on the Mineralogy of New Zealand, by 


S. H. Cox, F.G.S. (This paper, which dealt with the ores ot 
arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and bismuth, was the second of a 
series on the same subject.) 

Dr. Hector in commenting on the paper, pointed out the 
similarity of the mineral deposits of the Thames and Coromandel 
districts to those of the Comstock in America, and of Schemnitz 
in Hungary. He considered from the nature oi the rocks and 
associated minerals, that there was reason to expect that as mining 
works were carried on to greater perfection, a somewhat similar 
developement might take place at the Thames. He also pointed 
out that the minerals found on the West Coast occur under condi 
tions and in a formation similar to those at Gympie Creek in 

2. Mr. Romilly gave an account of a recent inspection of some 
of the less-known islands of Western Polynesia, and exhibited 
several hundred objects illustrative of the domestic life and mode 
of warfare ol the islanders. He pointed out that Mr. Wallace 
was in error in supposing that the natives at Astrolabe Bay (New 
Guinea) were to be distinguished as a race that did not use bows 
and arrows, or manufacture pottery. The latter he had seen the 
women making ; and he produced specimens both ol pots and oi 
powerful bows and arrows, the latter with bamboo tips, which 
he had obtained there. In reply to a question by Mr. Chapman, 
the author stated that the natives of the interior ol the islands 
were smaller, and darker-coloured ; also better armed, especially 
with stone weapons, than the Coast natives, with whom they were 
continually at war ; but each seemed to maintain their own districts. 

His Excellency Sir Arthur Gordon commented on the fact 
that while the natives of each little group of islands, even when 
quite close, produced objects having distinctive and peculiar 
characters, still there was an extraordinary similarity between 
those Irom localities furthest apart. This he attributed, not to 
the common origin of the natives who designed the objects, but to 
the gradual developement of similar designs under similar circum- 
stances, and he instanced the identical form ol the stone axes ol 
the prehistoric period in Europe with those of recent manufacture 
in New Zealand, and also the similarity of earthen pots made in 
Fiji with those made by the natives in the Amazons. 


3rd October. — T. Peacock, Esq. (president) in the chair. New 
members — Mr. A. Bull and Capt. Thomas. 

Papers — 1. Ancient Swiss Lake Dwellings, by Neil Heath. 

2. On the Flora of the Nelson Provincial District, by T. F. 
Cheeseman, F.L.S. 

3. Recent advances in Photography, by Josiah Martin, F.G.S. 

14th November. — T. Peacock, Esq., (president) in the chair. 
New members—Rev. D. W. Runciman, Capt. Fidler, Messrs. H. 
N. Garland, W. H. Grace, Jas. Haslett, W. C. Kensington, G. 
W. Williams, and G. S. Smith. 

Papers — 1. On New Species of Coleoptera, by Capt. T. Broun. 
This paper described 40 new species. 


2. The occurence of the Australian Dollar-Bird (Eurys- 
tomns pacificus, G. R. Gray) in New Zealand, by T. F. 
Cheeseman, F.L.S. A single specimen, the first recorded 
as occurring in this Colony, was exhibited. It was shot near 
the Manukau Heads by Mr. Cowan, and irom all appear- 
ance was wild, and had not escaped from captivit}. The bird is 
of local occurrence in its native habitat, New South Wales, and is 
purely insectivorous, and is said by Dr. Gould to feed principally 
on coleoptera. The specimen, when shot, was found to have its 
crop distended with coleoptera. It had no doubt strayed from 
Australia, and managed to cross the 1300 miles ol sea which 
separates New Zealand from New South Wales. 

3. On various subjects, by Jas. Barber, C.E. A short paper, 
bearing the above title, and dealing briefly with two or three 
matters of interest. 

4. Percentage of Citric Acid in Limes grown in Auckland, by 
J. A. Pond. The general results of an examination and comparison 
of limes brought from the Pacific Islands and of those grown in 
Auckland, showed that the latter had a very much larger per- 
centage of acid than was yielded by limes from any other locality, 
amounting to 8.13 per cent. This result led the author to think 
that a large industry would yet be established in the district ior 
the growth of limes, and the preparation from them ol citric acid. 

5. A translation ol the myth ol the Maui Irom the best Maori 
sources, by Judge Maning. 

6. On the Shores ol the Unknown, by A. E. Mackechnie. 


October 13th. — Prolessor J. von Haast, in the chair. Mr. C. 
H. Bridges was elected a member. 

The lollowing papers were read : — 

1. On Vertical Triangulations, by Mr. C. W. Adams; 

2. On Fresh Water Bivalve Shells of New Zealand, by Pro- 
fessor F. W. Hutton. 

3. Additions to New Zealand Crustacean Fauna, by Mr. C. 
Chilton, B.A. (see Notes, page 43.) 

4. On the preparation of spontaneously inflammable Phos- 
phine, and on a new form ol Burette, by Mr. T. A. Mollett. 

5. Remarks on the carved-stone bird, named Korotangi by 
the Maories, now in the possession ol Major Wilson, by Prolessor 
J. von Haast. 

6. On a new species ol Pleurjsigma, by Mr. John Inglis. 

Mr. W. Maskell exhibited living specimens of the large scale- 
insect Iceryapurchasi, which has recently found its way into New Zea- 
land. This insect threatens to do extensive damage to wattles 
(Acacia sp.) unless some means can be devised to stop its ravages. 

November 3rd. — Annual Meeting, Prolessor J. von Haast in 
the chair. Messrs. D. Blair, F. Barkas, B. K. S. Lawrence, and 
the Rev. J. Buller, were elected members. 

Office-bearers for the ensuing session were then elected as 
follows : — President : Professor J. von Haast, Ph.D., F.G.S. ; Vice- 
Presidents : Professor F. W. Hutton and Mr. R. W. Fereday ; 
Hon. Treasurer: Mr. W. M. Maskell; Hon. Secretary : Mr. Geo. 


Gray ; Council (in addition to the foregoing} : Messrs. T. Crook, 
T. S. Lambert, and H. R. Webb ; Auditors : Messrs. C. R. Blakiston 
and W. D. Carruthers. 

The following resolution was agreed to — " That all sums 
received lor lite subscriptions shall be invested in the names ot 
two or three trustees, who shall be members of the Institute, to be 
appointed by the Council, and the interest only arising from such 
investment shall be applied to the uses ot the Institute." 

The lollowing papers were then read — i. On some subterra- 
nean Crustacea, by Mr. C. Chilton, B.A. (see Notes, page 43). 

2. On the New Zealand Hydrobiinge, by Professor F. W. 
Hutton, (see Notes, page 41). 

3. On a new genus of Rissoinae, by Prolessor F. W. Hutton 
(see Notes, page 41). 

The Annual Report was then read, of which the lollowing is 
an abstract : — Nine ordinary meetings and one special meeting 
have been held, at which twenty-eight papers were read. These 
were contributed by thirteen members, and comprise fourteen on 
zoology, nine on miscellaneous subjects, three on botany, and two 
on chemistry. Six lectures were also delivered. Sixteen members 
have been elected, making the number at present on the books 

l6 5- 

The donations comprise 22 works to the library, and three 

valuable type collections of microscopic objects, viz., Polyzoa, by 

Professor Hutton ; N.Z. Coccidae and N.Z. Desmidiae, both by 

Mr. W. M. Maskell. 

The microscopical section has held an average of two meetings 
per month since the beginning of the session, and at these a large 
number of interesting exhibits have been made. 

The balance-sheet shows that the annual receipts amounted 
to ^193 14s. 3d. and the expenditure to ^168 9s. id., leaving a 
balance in hand of £25 5s. 2d. 


November 22nd — G. M. Thomson, Esq. (president) in the chair. 

Papers — 1. On a new Carex, by D. Petrie, M.A. This 
species was gathered by Messrs. Pelrie and Thomson in Paterson 
Inlet, Stewart's Island. The author has named it C . longiculmis ; it 
is allied to, but quite distinct from C. tvifida. 

2. Additions to the crustacean fauna of New Zealand, by 
Geo. M. Thomson (see Notes, page 43). 

3. Taieri floods and their prevention, by W. Arthur, C. E. 
The author advocates the erection of a dam on the Upper Taieri 
at the outlet of the river Styx, and considers that this will suffice 
to keep back sufficient storm water to enable the river to be easily 
retained within its banks in the lower Taieri Plain. 


October 10th. — The Bishop of Waiapu (president) in the 

The chief business was the reading of an exhaustive paper by 
the Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. Colenso, " On the fine perception of 
colours possessed by the ancient Maories," being a reply to Mr. 


Stack's paper "On the colour- sense of the Maori," published in 
the 12th Volume of the Institute Transactions. An animated 
discussion ensued. 

A number of ancient Maori articles, some said to be souvenirs 
of Capt. Cook, were exhibited by Mr Loche. 

November 14th. — The Bishop of Waiapu (president) in the 

Papers. — :. A description of some New Zealand plants ; 
2. A description of some New Zealand shells, both by the Hon. 
Secretary, Mr. W. Colenso, F.L.S. 

Among a large number of exhibits laid on the table were 
several N.Z. insects, large land shells from the northern parts of 
the Island, and two fossil teeth (Mammalian) obtained from a 
great depth in sinking an artesian well. 


The spring meetings of this Club have not been so well 
attended as usual, but the individual members have qeen doing 
good work, particularly in the department of entomology. Six 
meetings have been held, and excursions made to the various 
localities in the neighbourhood of Dunedin. Three plants not 
hitherto found in the district must now be included in the Club's 
lists, viz., Cotula australis, Hook, J., and Polycarpon tetraphyllum, L. 
(introduced), both of which occur abundantly at Purakanui ; 
and the rare Pterostylis aphylla, Lindley, found by Mr. S. Fulton 
near Outram. Two considerable collections of spiders have been 
made, and the members would be glad to hear of anyone working 
out this group. 



(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — Mr. T. D. Gibson Carmichael, of Castlecraig, Dolphing- 
ton, Scotland, is studying the Myriapoda, and wishes to work up 
those of New Zealand. I should be much obliged to anyone who 
will send them to me to be transmitted to him. They should be 
preserved in alcohol, not dried, and each bottle should have on it 
the locality where the collection was made, and the name of the 
collector. For transmission by post the spirit may be poured off, 
and a piece of rag, or blotting-paper, damped in spirit, put in the 
bottle. — I am, &c, 

F. W. Hutton. 

Christchurch, January 16, 1882. 





Beck's Large Best Binocular Stand,* with Concentric Rotating Stage, Iris 
Diaphragm, Graduated Draw Tube, Stage Forceps ; 4 Pairs Eye-pieces (viz. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and a single No. 4 and No. 5) ; 4 Objectives (viz. 2 in., § in., 
four-tenth in., and one-fifth in.) ; Achromatic Condenser, with Revolving 
Diaphragm, Stops, Aperture from 25° to 80°, etc. ; Opal, blue and dimmed 
Glasses for moderating the light; Parabolic Illuminator; Large Bull's-eye 
Condensing Lens, on Stand ; Eye-piece Micrometer, with Jackson's Adjust- 
ing Screw ; Stage Micrometer ; Wollaston's Camera lucida ; Quadruple Nose- 
piece ; Screw Compressorium ; Glass Trough, with WcJge and Spring. 

The whole packed in two Handsome Mahogany Cases, 

Price - £65. 

(Cost here £80). 


With 3 Powers, rack adjustments, and accessory apparatus, 
in plain case. 

Price - £7. 

Also, Beck's Improved Dissecting Single Microscope, 

e, with two single and two Coddingto 
in Strong Mahogany Case. 

Price - £5 10s, 

Complete, with two single and two Coddington Lenses, 
in Strong Mahogany Case. 

Apply, A.B„ 
Care Messrs. J. WILKIE and Co., 




|)(^*tlty* ^ &ttiw\m> 



MARCH, 1882.] 

[No. 2, Vol. I. 



^ UUlMlJI 


Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut sifalsum est, adcingere contra. 

■»<»>.r»«#*>«*V <«*»/«».« 


Hints on the preservation of Coleoptera. Capt. T. Broun, Auckland 

A Visit 'to the Weka Pass Rock-paintings. W. M. Maskell, Christchurch 

A Plea for the Stars. Rev. Thos. Roseby, LL.D., Dunedin 

General Notes— 

A New Pleurosigma — Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of New Zealand — New Zealand 
Systematists — List of N. Z. Sertularians, collected in the neighbourhood of Wellington — 
Recent Papers on Mollusca — N. Z. Hair-worms — Change of Nomenclature of Two Moths 
— Adenochilus Graci'is — "The Southern Science Record" — New Zealand Fiora. 

Meetings of Societies 

Wellington Philosophical Society— Southland Institute- 
"On the Origin of the New Zealand Flora"). 

-Otago Institute (Presidential address 

Review— "A Great Mathematical Question (by T. Wakelin, B.A.)" 











No. 2., Vol. I.-APRIL, 1882. 



Part II. 

In a former article an attempt was made to show how beetles 
might be captured ; in the present one I propose dealing with the 
•somewhat difficult matter of permanent preservation. 

The insects having been caught must, first of all (in the case 
of such as are to be pinned) be thoroughly dried. In order that 
this may be effectually done it will be necessary to procure or 
make what is termed a setting-house. Its outside measurements 
are — height, 12 inches ; breadth, 8 inches ; depth, 5 inches. The 
sides should have five equidistant grooves in each, into which the 
setting-boards slide. These ought to be made of old cigar-boxes, 
should have two or three sheets of cork tacked or glued on each, 
and then be covered with thin white paper. The two or three 
boards nearest the bottom may be entire, but the others should 
form two or three separate slides. The door and back are best 
made of finely-perforated zinc with wooden frames, so as to per- 
mit the free circulation of air. Into this receptacle all beetles 
should be placed as soon as they are pinned or mounted on card- 
board ; they ought to be kept there for a fortnight, and if the 
setting-house be placed in a verandah during dry breezy weather, 
the result will be more satisfactory. When quite dry the insects 
should be removed to the cabinet, or what are called store-boxes 
may be substituted. A well made insect-cabinet is a costly affair, 

* Continued from page 12. 


but is not absolutely necessary ; the store-boxes can be obtained 
from a natural history dealer at a moderate cost. (I think Mr. 
E. W. Janson, 35, Little Russell Street, London, W.C., would 
supply what is needed for about 3s. each, and which, though desti- 
tute of glass covers, will with ordinary care keep a collection in tole- 
rably good order). They can be arranged on a shelf like books, 
and if preferred they can be made so as to resemble books ; the 
boxes, however, will become more expensive when covered with 
cloth and lettered. Many collectors imagine that camphor pro- 
vides security against mites, the pests of naturalists. I would 
not recommend anyone to rely upon it alone ; no doubt it is use- 
ful, and if carefully attended to might go a long way towards 
keeping up an atmosphere inimical to such mischievous little 
creatures. A better plan is to immerse each insect in a bath of 
corrosive sublimate diluted to the required extent with alcohol. 
In order *to find out the proper proportions, take a common glossy 
black beetle, and drop a little of the solution upon it with a small 
brush ; when dry, notice if a slight film or silvery spot be formed, 
and if so add more alcohol ; try again and again until no depo- 
sit can be seen when the beetle dries. I treat all my beetles in 
that way ; but, in addition, take care to keep a piece of sponge 
saturated with spirits of turpentine in every tray or bot. Beetles 
should be pinned through the right wing-case (elytron) in such 
a way that the point will pass through between the middle and 
hind legs ; but those that are fragile or too small for that opera- 
tion, should be mounted on slips of card-board. If it be desired 
to have a representative collection of the indigenous coleoptera 
that scarcely anyone would look at twice, stick the beetles on a 
piece of pointed cardboard with gum-arabic ; but if it be wished 
to get up a collection that can be referred to and examined with 
delight, and prove a source of pleasure to every lover of nature, 
the slovenly practice alluded to must be eschewed, and skill and 
unwearied assiduity take its place. 

The larger beetles when pinned may be secured to the setting- 
boards, care being taken that the pin does not project more than 
Y^ inch beyond the under side of the insect ; the limbs can then 
be placed in the desired positions, and be held there by means 
of small pins. In a week these small pins can be removed, and 
the insect pushed as far up on the pin as may be necessary. 

The manipulation of the minute species is much more diffi- 
cult, and if the insects have not been kept amongst bruised lau- 
rel, it will be almost impossible to move the legs, antennae, etc., 
without breaking them. I set out mine by means of a very fine 
needle stuck into a handle about three inches in length, or some- 
times with a fine camel-hair brush. The insect must be kept 
steady with a pair of small pliers held in the left hand ; it must 
be turned over on its back, and as the limbs are too small to be 
easily seen, a watchmaker's glass should be used. When pro- 
perly expanded the beetle should be reversed, lifted up, and 
placed on the cardboard by damping one of the fingers. The 
first essay, most likely, will end in failure ; practice alone will 


give the required proficiency. The best kind of cardboard for 
the purpose is '* Bristol." It should be cut into convenient slips, 
large enough for a row of six or seven insects. The beetles can 
be separated by a pair of small scissors as soon as the gum is 
quite dry, and the sides and ends having had all superfluous card- 
board cut away, each insect can be labelled and placed in the 
setting-house to dry. 

Many collectors mount their specimens with gum-arabic only. 
It is objectionable, because when dry it leaves a certain amount 
of gloss. A much better plan is to use a mixture of gum-traga- 
canth and gum-arabic. After a good deal of experience, I can 
recommend the following method for the preparation of the 
mixture. Take a small wide-mouthed bottle with glass stopper, 
put into it a small clear piece of gum-tragacanth about the size 
of the finger-nail, and just cover it with clear water; in a few 
hours add a teaspoonful of water, and next morning a similar 
quantity, do the same the following day ; by that time the gum 
will have absorbed all the water and become much swollen and 
soft, but if it appear too dry a little more water may be poured 
on it, and then, but not till the third day, it may be well stirred. 
It should then be so thick that none would come out of the bottle 
when turned on its side, and in that state would be unsuitable 
for mounting insects ; but by adding two or three pieces of gum- 
arabic, and stirring them well, the mixture will become some- 
what liquified and just of the right consistency. If the two sorts 
of gum are put into the bottle at once, covered with water, and 
frequently stirred, the gum-tragacanth will only partially dissolve 
and form very minute lumps, which will appear unsightly and 
seriously interfere with the setting-out of small beetles. The 
mixture will keep in good condition for a month or more, but it 
is better to make a small quantity only and renew it before it can 
become mouldy. 

Before the specimens are placed in the cabinet or store-boxes, 
they should be cleaned with a camel-hair brush dipped into 
benzine, and if mould should appear subsequently they should 
be again treated in the same way. 

Enough I hope has been written to enable any intelligent in- 
dividual to find and preserve a sufficient number of beetles to 
form a tolerably good collection. I am well aware that many 
little details as to capture and manipulation have been omitted, 
but experience and perseverance will supply their place much 
better than written directions. If complete instructions for the 
finding of beetles had been written, a detailed history of the 
modes of life of every group, and indeed of very many genera 
and species must have been given, and in the case of setting-out 
a similar course must have been pursued with reference to struc- 





Part II. 

I believe that no apology is necessary for an attempt to throw 
light upon the origin of these curious paintings, nor do I think 
that any harm is likely to result from the addition of yet ano- 
ther theory to those already put forth. From the conflict of 
many opinions probability at least may be expected to emerge ; 
and if the aboriginal history of these islands is worth knowing at 
all, it deserves a thorough examination and conscientious enquiry 
from many points of view. I confess to a suspicion that in this 
matter, let theories be absurd or theories be probable, we shall 
never get beyond theory. In the absence of documents and 
records such as, for example, men put in the cavities of founda- 
tion stones of a building, nobody is ever likely to know for 
certain who executed the Weka Pass paintings, any more than 
we know who carved the Lion Gate of Mycenae, or the palaces 
of Palenque. At the same time, no good purpose would appear 
to be served by leaving the question always in the ground, cir- 
cumscribed by a few suppositions, none of which seem to possess 
when fully examined the elements of probability. This being 
the case, I shall venture to suggest a theory of my own, which 
may or may not, as the event will show, have valid claims to 
credence. But it is requisite first to investigate the speculations 
already put forth. 

Of these speculations the only two which can be said to 
possess any scientific character at all are that of Professor von 
Haast in the ioth, and that of Mr. Mackenzie Cameron in the 
nth volumes of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 
In the former the author inclines to the belief that the "paint- 
ings " may be the work of some Oriental sailors, cast away in 
New Zealand, made slaves by the natives, and employing their 
leisure time in decorating the rocks ; and the precise locality 
from which these sailors came is supposed to be Ceylon or 
Southern India. Mr. Mackenzie Cameron, on the other hand, 
considers them as the work of Buddhist missionaries who, starting 
from the north of India, have (according to him) propagated 
their doctrines and symbols all over the continents of Europe 
and Asia, and may therefore (he says) be fairly believed to have 
evangelised New Zealand. 

It may at once be remarked that there is a main point of si- 
milarity between these two theories, namely that they both make 
out the "paintings" to be Oriental and Indian (whether southern 
or northern). 

* Continued from page 20. 


There is no need, as remarked in the first portion of this pa- 
per, to refer to the Maori traditions, or absence of traditions on 
this subject. I think experience has shown that scientific men 
who have formed a theory find little difficulty in twisting Maori 
traditions any way they please. Some, for example, hold that 
the moa has been extinct for untold ages, and lightly and airily 
discard or adopt Maori tradition as they please, setting no value 
on it if it happens to be somewhat strong against them, or at- 
tempting to refer it to some ostrich or cassowary in distant 
islands if they cannot get rid of it altogether. Whether the cas- 
sowary ever inhabited any island whence the Maoris could have 
travelled, I cannot precisely say, and the point has been a little 
neglected I think in moa controversies. But, totally apart from 
the absence ox presence of Maori traditions as to these paintings, 
the question remains whether in a matter of so small importance 
to them it is worth while laying any stress upon their opinion. 
The moa was, of course, an object of the very highest importance 
to whatever race of people were living here with it, and one can 
very easily understand that it would occupy an exceedingly high 
place in their songs, legends, histories, etc. But a set of coloured 
daubs, on an obscure rock hidden away in a secluded valley, even 
supposing that at the time of their first execution they could at- 
tract attention, would very soon pass out of the minds of a race 
of savages who had many other more important matters — war, 
fishing, feasts — to think about. So that, in all probability fifty 
years or so after the first appearance of the paintings, the natives 
(who can scarcely be credited with archaeological tastes) would 
have forgotten all about their origin. And then the natural re- 
sult would follow. Historical truth having been lost, legend — 
that is to say, confession of ignorance — would take its place. 
When a Maori, or any other savage, ascribes anything to mythi- 
cal ancestors, fabled gods, monsters, etc., that simply means, to 
my mind, that he knows nothing whatever about it, and being 
disinclined to say straight out that he does not know, he takes 
refuge in legendary fog. I by no means desire to undervalue 
native tradition, provided it ascribe anything to ordinary human 
ancestors and their agency ; but when it comes to ogres, Te Ka- 
hui Tipua, monsters, Nga-puhi, and such like, I take it that all 
this simply means, " we don't know anything about it ; we have 
forgotten the whole affair." A native gentleman of the name of 
Mataiha seems, from Dr. von Haast's account, to set down the 
paintings as the work of the Nga-puhi, a mythical archaic race, 
from which I should be inclined to say that Mr. Mataiha's opi- 
nion may be set aside as possessing no value whatever ; and he 
is stated to be " the best living authority on Maori traditions in 
the South Island." 

Lest I should be misrepresented on this point, it is necessary 
to observe here clearly that it is not Maori tradition as a whole 
which I would depreciate, but Maori tradition in particular. 
Nobody, I suppose, would deny the enormous value in many 
ways of the legends, genealogies, histories (if they can be so 


called) of aboriginal races. And probably the Maori tradition 
of the existence of " Nga-puhi " and similar bygone people em- 
bodies many germs of truth over-laid with fiction. All I mean 
to say is that the ascription of such works as the " paintings " to 
" Nga-puhi," or to any mythical personages, should be placed on 
the same footing as the ascription of rings on the grass to the 
fairies — that is, taken simply as confession of ignorance, and set 
aside accordingly. 

Coming, then, to the two theories above-mentioned, I shall 
take first that of Mr. Cameron. I find that Dr. von Haast 
(Trans. Vol. XI. p. 157) calls it an " important " communication, 
which " opens up quite a new field for research into the early 
history of these islands, and goes far to prove the great antiquity 
of the paintings in question." And the Rev. Mr. Stack, in Vol. 
XII., calls it extremely interesting, and expresses great reluct- 
ance at having to differ from it. If these encomia were directed 
merely to the aspect of Mr. Cameron's paper as a specimen of 
intellectual ingenuity, of the faculty of elaborating strings of 
words from nothing, one could only smile and pass on. Unfor- 
tunately, they probably mean more than this. And in the 
interests of true science in this Colony, in the desire for truth 
and calm enquiry, in the desire also that our annual transactions 
should be a credit to New Zealand, I feel bound to express regret 
that so feeble, ill-considered a production should have been per- 
mitted to appear in print in the eleventh volume. I do not know 
Mr. Cameron ; I have never heard of him (perhaps to my shame) 
before the publication of his paper. What may be his claims to 
be considered an authority on archaeology I cannot say. But if 
they are to be measured, as probably they are, by the paper in 
question, it becomes very doubtful how far they are of any value; 
for, ingenious as they may be, if it is put forth with a semblance 
of great learning and an affectation of recondite knowledge, and 
yet turns out upon examination to be founded upon a basis of 
patent and easily avoided error, respect for the author's in- 
genuity can scarcely make up for wonder (if nothing more) at 
his want of care and industry. 

I do not propose to enter into any discussion as to Mr. 
Cameron's ideas of the missionary proclivities of the Buddhists, 
their travels to the extreme west of Europe, their amalgamation 
with the Phoenicians, their carvings on stone at Aberdeen and 
Dingwall, and so on. On such questions as these, controversy 
would be endless, tiresome, and useless ; and, of course, one 
would have to consider a little previously a question which Mr. 
Cameron quietly begs, the antiquity of Buddhism. I am aware 
that, by even suggesting that the great Gautama himself was not 
as ancient by several centuries as is popularly supposed, I should 
open up a controversial field of illimitable extent, into which 
there is not the least need to enter now ; nor need I comment 
upon Mr. Cameron's statement that Ezekiel means by "The Isles 
of the Sea " the chain which begins with Sumatra and ends with 
New Zealand. Whether the sea has any other isles, whether 


Ezekiel knew anything about Sumatra, whether there is a 
" chain " from Sumatra to New Zealand any more than to Tahiti, 
and such like questions, should all be discussed before touching 
this statement ; but the moment Ezekiel is dragged in, there is 
an end to all reasonable discussion. However, the main fault of 
Mr. Cameron's paper lies, not in his scriptural and historical 
eccentricities, but in the following sentences : — " We have clear 
philological testimony that the serpent-race of India in early times 
obtained a foothold in New Zealand. This will be further 
brought out below." The words are emphatic — " clear philolo- 
gical testimony." And how does Mr. Cameron bring out his 
evidence ? By etymologically considering the Maori names — 
Te Kahui Tipua and Nga-puhi, the two mythical races alluded to 
above. " Te," he says, is the definite particle " the ;" " Kahui 
Tipua," the deceitful, wicked dog-race ; " nga," from the Sanskrit 
" naga," serpent ; and " puhi," from " puh," race. It appears 
further that the dog-race'is Burmese, and the serpent-race Indian, 
and no explanation is vouchsafed as to the manner in which 
these two serpent-races joined together to colonise New Zealand. 
But, anyhow, a person professing to use philological arguments 
ought at least to know his parts of speech. Allowing that " te " 
equals " the," it is obvious that if" Kahui Tipua" means " deceit- 
ful dog-race," the first thing to be clear about would be, which 
word meant " deceitful," and which word "dog-race." Yet Mr. 
Cameron quietly remarks that he " should wish to know which is 
the adjective !" What, I wonder, would be the fate of the un- 
happy schoolboy who should venture to construe " bonus puer " — 
" puer," the good ; " bonus," boy ? In Scott's inimitable " Anti- 
quary," Mr. Oldbuck is represented as establishing an ancient 
Roman encampment at the Kaim of Kinprunes, on the authority 
of Claudian's line — " Ille Caledoniis posuit qui castra pruinis." 
But not even in the exuberance of his humour did Scott venture 
to depict his philological antiquary as founding his claim upon 
accidental similarity, careless of thesimplestrudimentsof grammar. 
It has been reserved for Sydney to produce, and for New Zealand 
to enshrine in print a philologist who is not ashamed to confess 
high ignorance of the accidence of the language which he selects 
for his experiments. What possible value can anybody be dis- 
posed to place on a theory based upon so flimsy a foundation ? 
Mr. Cameron concludes his paper with the peculiar remark, " If 
furnished with the necessary philological and ethnological 
materials I might be able to indicate the early history of your 
island." Probably any person, if furnished with " the necessary 
material," might be enabled to do such a thing ; yet, I doubt 
whether Mr. Cameron, unless condescending to the study of the, 
rudiments of grammar, could satisfactorily accomplish the task. 
I have written strongly upon this matter, and it may perhaps 
be thought that in so doing I have stepped beyond legitimate 
controversy, more especially with regard to an author unknown 
to myself, and indeed a stranger to this country generally. But 
there are times when some plain speaking is desirable. A gen- 


tleman who is commonly reputed to be a high authority upon 
native questions in the south of New Zealand, has called Mr. 
Cameron's production " extremely interesting." A Fellow of the 
Royal Society terms it "important," and "opening anew field ;" 
it was read at a meeting of a Philosophical Institute ; it has been 
published in the annual volume of the New Zealand "Transac- 
tions ;" and it has remained for two years in that volume 
unanswered, uncontroverted, and a specimen to all the world of 
the philological work done in the Southern Seas. Is it therefore 
too much to say that its appearance, coupled with the praises 
lavished on it, is the reverse of creditable to the New Zealand 
Institute and to the cause of science in this Colony ? 

Passing to the theory of Dr. von Haast, I think that there is 
a great difference noticeable. Mr. Cameron, trying to float in the 
clouds without sufficient machinery, falls into an abyss of absur- 
dity. Dr. von Haast, whether his theory be right or wrong, at 
least has endeavoured to examine the ground pretty closely, and 
to support himself by actual observation. Still I am obliged to 
say that there does seem to be in his paper (Trans. Vol. X., p. 
44, etc.) evidence of his having unwittingly begun his reasoning 
trom, as it were, the wrong end. It seems as if, having made up 
his mind (from previous studies) on the antiquity of the native 
races, he has endeavoured to make the paintings fit in with his 
preconception, rather than to use them as premises to lead 
him to a conclusion. Satisfied, as I believe he is, that a very 
ancient race existed in these islands before the Maori, and exter- 
minated, ages ago, the moa, he appears to have accepted 
at the first blush the rock paintings as additional evidence on the 
same side, and to have commenced by asking himself the ques- 
tion — " How can I make these fit in with my other conclusions ?" 
A curious proof of this is, I think, afforded by a sentence or two 
of his paper. He says, p. 45, that " The paint consists of 
Kokowai (red oxide of iron), of which the present aborigines of 
New Zealand make still extensive use, and of some fatty sub- 
stance ;" and on page 51-53, describing the contents (all com- 
prised in a depth of ift. 2in.) of the earthen floor under the 
shelter, he gives no instance of any implements being found 
differing from those used by the Maoris. The presence of 
fragments of moa bones he does, indeed, take as a proof that the 
paintings were anterior to Maori occupation; but this is evidently 
only a part, or a consequence, of his preconceived theory men- 
tioned just now. In fact, ignoring altogether the Maori paint 
and Maori implements, he assumes the existence on the spot of 
an anterior race, who left no traces whatever of their habitation 
there. This strikes me as being much the same as if a man, find- 
ing a basket of carpenter's tools, should at once conclude in his 
mind that they must have belonged to a shoemaker; or, as if 
Roman utensils found under the Roman Wall in England should 
be taken as proof that the wall was built by the Caledonians. 

Postponing for awhile an examination of Dr. von Haast's 
explanation of particular figures, I must refer to what is really 


the main part of his theory, namely — that the paintings are the 
work of Cingalese sailors, cast away in New Zealand long ages 
ago. It is by no means my wish to impute to this idea any of 
that absurdity which distinguishes that of Mr. Cameron, because, 
undoubtedly, considering that we have known this country only 
for a little over a century, sailors might have been wrecked on 
its shores a thousand times over, coming from every conceivable 
country, in past times. And if the Maoris themselves came here 
over the sea from other lands, I see no reason why Cingalese 
or any other sailors might not have done so likewise. But, of 
course, before accepting any such idea it would be necessary to 
settle a few preliminary questions. First, are, or were, the 
Cingalese given to long voyages ? Next, what sort of vessels 
had they to stand a journey as far as New Zealand ? Again, 
what are the prevailing winds between Ceylon and here ? And 
so on. Without desiring to settle any of these questions now, I 
think that they, and others, ought to be a little considered before 
we yield ourselves up to the Cingalee theory. And then, also, a 
troublesome question would still remain : why on earth should 
these shipwrecked mariners employ themselves in daubing the 
Weka Pass Rock (and that rock alone) with characters so 
peculiarly meaningless ? 

But Dr. von Haast appeals to the Tamil bell found in the 
North Island. There is, of course, no reason why, because this 
bell is in the north, the rock paintings should have been done by 
Tamil sailors in the south ; at least I fail to see the connection. 
Still, undoubtedly, the bell is a " crux " to some extent ; that is, 
it is evidence that it came to New Zealand from Ceylon ; but it 
yet remains to be shown how it came. Where was it found ? 
How deep was it buried ? Who dug it up ? Is there absolutely 
no evidence whatever of its arrival ? I cannot answer these 
questions ; but whatever their answer, I see no connection 
between the bell and the paintings. Dr. von Haast, p. 47, says, 
" in comparing the peculiar figures with the writing on that bell, 
I was at once struck by the marked resemblance between both." 
Certainly, people do see remarkable resemblances sometimes ; 
but I would defy any unprejudiced person to compare the plate 
given by Dr. von Haast of the rock paintings, or the originals 
themselves, or Mr. Cousins' copies of them (in the Canterbury 
Museum), with the inscription on Mr. Colenso's bell, and say 
that there is the faintest likeness observable. 

That, somehow or other, various objects have at different 
times anterior to English occupation reached New Zealand from 
other lands is, I suppose, indubitable. There is this bell for 
example ; there is the curious stone bird obtained by Major 
Wilson ; and there are probably others. But need we go back 
to the depths of antiquity to account for them, or hunt up 
Buddhist missionaries, Cingalese castaways, or Kahui Tipua, to 
father them on ? Setting aside chances of gales driving canoes 
or proas hundreds of miles, do we know how many European 
ships touched at New Zealand since Vasco doubled the Cape of 


Good Hope? Tasman we know of ; Marion, D'Urville, Cook, 
we know of; La Perouse we may bring within conjecture. 
But how many more may have been here and left no record ? 
From 1497, the year when the ships of Portugal first drove before 
the westerly winds of the Indian Ocean, to 1769, the year when 
Cook landed in New Zealand, surely there is scope, and to spare, 
for visits by scores of European ships which might, or might not, 
have carried men willing to keep records of their journey ; which 
might or might not have been lost afterwards ; which might or 
might not have left, or lost by stealing, various articles and 
implements. A fair illustration comes to my hand here. In a 
book entitled "The Discoveries of Prince Henry," by R. H. 
Major, of the British Museum, is found amongst other maps one 
which the author calls " the Dauphin's map," and which was 
executed for the use of the heir of France in the year 1 5 30. In this 
map the northern, and parts of the western and eastern coasts of 
Australia, are very distinctly laid down ; also there is a large 
island shown, which (I believe) ought to be taken for New Cale- 
donia. Furthermore, on p. 298 of the book, Mr. Major says — 
" It should be mentioned that New Zealand is also shown by 
these early maps to have been then discovered." Who could 
have been these discoverers ? Who, almost alone, about the year 
1530, ploughed the waters of the South Indian and Southern 
Pacific Oceans ? Certainly the Portuguese ; and an interesting 
connection between them and the Tamil bell might easily be 
found, in the fact that the chief Portuguese settlement in the 
east was Goa, on the south-western shore of India. It is a simpler 
and more likely means of accounting for the Tamil bell, to my 
mind, to suppose that a Portuguese ship, one of many cruising 
about the Eastern seas, touched at New Zealand and there lost 
this bell, than to assume the travels of a Cingalese vessel, none 
of which has been known at any other time to have ventured 
so far to sea. Nothing can be more reasonable than to suppose 
that a Tamil bell might be on a ship of Portugal, whose sailors 
must have been in constant communication with Ceylon and 
Southern India ; few things less probable than a journey to New 
Zealand by Tamil sailors in their miserable craft. 

I am wandering somewhat from my particular subject ; but 
as this Tamil bell was brought into discussion by Dr. von Haast 
in connection with the rock paintings, I have ventured to throw 
out the suggestion just made, not as desiring to found a theory 
thereon, but as a hint which somebody may perhaps be inclined 
to follow out. Indeed, as I remarked just now, there seems to 
me to be not the very faintest resemblance between the figures 
on the Weka Pass Rock and the inscription of the bell. And 
this brings me to consider a little the particular interpretation 
of the figures given in Dr. von Haast's paper ; a question on 
which I have only space to say a word or two. In so doing, I 
must refer readers to the plate given in Vol. X. of the Transac- 
tions of the New Zealand Institute, as I am unable to give illus- 
trations here. 


There are a few of Dr. von Haast's statements which, I think, 
require some correction. First, on p. 45, referring to the black 
paintings which, he says, " pass indiscriminately over " the red 
ones, hecalls them "of a more primitive nature." How a work over- 
lying another can be more " primitive " than it, is scarcely intelli- 
gible, if the word refers to the age of the two. And if " primi- 
tive " is used in reference to the style of art, meaning " rude " or 
" inferior," then an opinion is expressed which probably few 
persons viewing the originals will agree with. In point of fact, 
the best (so to speak) resemblances to natural objects which can 
be discovered in the paintings are found in the black ones. And 
I think that Dr. von Haast has fallen into a slight error in ne- 
glecting, as he seems to have done, these black figures, which are 
in immense numbers all over the rocks, but which he passes by 
with scarcely a comment. The four sitting quadrupeds, of which 
he gives in his plate only an obscure figure of one pair, without 
a reference number and hardly noticeable, are really almost the 
most conspicuous of all, and are very much less " primitive " in 
design than the red nondescripts on which he lays stress. And 
the figures of which he gives a few examples at the top of his 
plate, also unnumbered and scarcely referred to in his paper, are 
in hundreds on the rock, perfectly recognisable, clearly represen- 
tations of men intermingled with tridents and other implements, 
and are by no means, as compared with the red ones, such rude 
designs as he considers them. 

Again, on p. 47, he says, " it is clear that there is some 
method in the arrangement which at once strikes the eye as 
remarkable." I fancy that in this phrase he refers only to the 
red paintings ; but, in any case, probably the first impression 
upon the beholder is exactly the reverse, namely that there is no 
" arrangement " whatever, the black and the red figures being 
daubed on anyhow and anywhere. 

On the same page, " Only two representations of man can be 
recognised." On the contrary, human figures are, as I said just 
now, in hundreds. 

So much for a few of the general statements in Dr. von 
Haast's paper. Coming to particular objects, I find one difficulty 
in dealing with these, from the fact that at the time of our visit 
to the rock the paintings were by no means clear in outline. 
Whether they were very much better in 1876, when Mr. Cousins 
appears to have copied them, I do not know ; anyhow, his draw- 
ings show somewhat distinct outlines which, in the case of the 
red paintings, are scarcely to be found now. Assuming, however, 
that greater clearness was at that time available, and that the 
copies are sufficiently accurate in a general way, there are some 
parts of Dr. von Haast's interpretation which appear to be some- 
what far-fetched. My references are to the figures of his plate in 
Vol. X. Nos. 1 and 3 may fairly be considered as figures of 
whales, though it is not quite clear why the first should be said 
to be " diving," or the second as differing from the first in having 
two heads. Why No. 4 should be considered a " snake " it is not 


easy to say ; and this figure is one of those whose outline on the 
rock is so indistinct that it may be called anything ; but the 
" protruding tongue " is perhaps a stretch of fancy leading to the 
neglect of the obvious suggestion (if animal it is) that it might 
mean simply an eel. No. 9 is said to be either a moa or a 
cassowary ; might it not with equal likelihood, if a bird at all, 
be a seagull or a weka ? This figure is also very indistinct at 
the present day. No. 1 1 is called " a taniwha," whilst No. 8 is 
only " a dog." If both represent quadrupeds, why not reverse 
the interpretation ? No. 10 is "evidently a weapon, and might, 
being close to the bird, indicate the manner in which the latter 
was killed during the chase ;" an interpretation strained with a 
vengeance ! No. 17, in the plate, is incomplete, at least as com- 
pared with Mr. Cousins' original drawing (in the Canterbury 
Museum), where a stream of smoke is made to issue from the 
cup-shaped top. Has there not been here also a little stretching 
of fancy, considering that the " smoke " may be due only to the 
scaling of the rock-surface ? No. 14 is, without doubt, one of the 
most extraordinary and puzzling of all the paintings ; Dr. von 
Haast calls it (as indeed it looks) a hat ; Mr. Cameron says that 
it means a Buddhist temple. Without stopping to decide this, 
or to examine the succeeding figures, which may or may not 
represent what Dr. von Haast considers them to mean, I pass on 
to No. 27, which is said to depict a " huge snake-like animal. . 
. . probably a Tuna tuoro," a mythical monster eel. I imagine 
that the reason for this is the extraordinary length of the animal, 
and the fact that an obscure little figure, supposed to be a man 
running away, is placed before it. This " man," it may be said, 
is extremely indistinct at present, and in any case might with 
equal probability be considered as running away from No. 25. 
But the question arises — why is No. 27 a " huge " animal, a 
" monster ?" There can be but one reason, the size of the paint- 
ing ; but in that case there would seem to be some defect in 
logic. The size of a drawing has nothing to do with the size of its 
object. The Jupiter of Phidias was many feet high, the Colossus 
of Rhodes was much higher ; was the latter an indication that 
Apollo was greater than Jove ? And if size goes for anything, 
why should not No. 29, the " man " be as probably a " dwarf" as 
No. 27. is a "monster?" Or, again, take No. 9, the supposed 
" moa ;" this is not so large as the " man," No. 29, but it would 
scarcely be conceded that moas stood no higher than the 
average of men. I would not lay stress upon this point were it 
not that Dr. von Haast uses the size of this figure, No. 27, as a 
peg whereon to hang a deduction that the authors of these 
paintings were Indian, and desired to represent to their native 
masters " huge snakes or crocodiles." In pursuance of this idea, 
he further says that " Nos. 23 and 25 might be crocodiles, No. 27 
a boa constrictor." It is worth while, too, to remark that this 
No. 27 is five times as long as No. 1, supposed to represent a 
sperm whale ! 

I need not now refer to a number of small complicated 


figures which Dr. von Haast considers so remarkably like the 
inscription on the Tamil bell, having already stated that I fail to 
see the faintest resemblance between the two. At the same time 
it may be freely confessed that such figures as Nos. 6, 13, 16, 21, 
may be compared by persons of different idiosyncrasies to any 
number of various objects — No. 6, say, to a feather in perspec- 
tive, or a pen, or possibly a flying bat, or a cabbage leaf, and so 
on. A great deal in such enquiries depends upon the first prin- 
ciple — the point of view chosen. No. 21a (the right-hand figure 
of the pair) instead of resembling a Tamil letter, has, to my 
mind, something of the appearance of a restored pterodactyl in 
geological books. But speculation on these points would be 
endless and probably unprofitable. 

On the whole, then, the theory propounded by Dr. von Haast, 
whilst it is very evidently the result of much care and thorough 
desire to rest on actual evidence, and in this contrasts in a most 
favourable manner with the vagaries of Mr. Mackenzie Cameron, 
does not seem to embody entirely satisfactory conclusions ; 
there is even a suspicion about it of an effort to prop up, as it 
were, some former theories. It is by no means my province to 
set up a dogmatic opinion of my own on the subject, yet I think 
there is sufficient importance in these rock paintings to warrant 
the full examination of them and the contribution from any 
observer of the results of his enquiry. My own opinion (which 
is submitted solely in the desire for truth) is a very unpretending 
one. It is founded upon what I believe to be, in such matters 
as these, an axiom of the highest consequence, although by no 
means universally followed out. The golden rule in discussing 
such subjects as the rock paintings ought to be this — that unless 
very plain and circumstantial evidence to the contrary be forth- 
coming, the simplest and most patent solution should be 
accepted. I illustrate my meaning again by the basket of tools 
which I mentioned above. A set of carpenter's tools found on 
the high road ought, unless there be some collateral circumstances 
pointing distinctly in another direction, to be assumed to be or to 
have been the property of a carpenter, and not of a shoemaker 
or a tailor. And so also in the case of the rock paintings ; the 
paint is Maori, the implements and relics found under the ground 
are Maori, the natives in the vicinity have for generations been 
Maori. Therefore, unless some distinct and clear evidence to 
the contrary be forthcoming, the simplest, straightest, and most 
natural conclusion is that the paintings also are Maori. To 
attribute them to fabulous Kahui Tipua is nonsense ; to hunt up 
shadowy Buddhist missionaries on the strength of bad grammar 
isridiculous; to wandertoadistanceaftercastaway Cingalese sailors 
is a waste of time and energy. No reasonable traveller seeing a 
high road leading straight to his journey's end, would willingly 
leave it to scramble devious over swamps and crags ; and the 
same should be the case in this instance. 

My belief is, then, that the rock paintings of the Weka Pass 
are simply the work of some Maori artist or artists, not necessarily 


done at any one time, by no means of any great antiquity, and 
without any particular collective meaning. Maoris, like all 
savages, are only children in many things. A school boy will 
cover a wall with all sorts of scrawls and figures, some large, 
some small, in whatever colours and pigments happen to be at 
his hand. Sometimes one can detect resemblances to natural 
objects, sometimes no likeness can be made out. Sitting the 
other evening in a schoolroom during a public lecture, I found 
the desk before me covered all over with schoolboy work. 
Amongst other devices a huge cow (at least it had four legs and 
two horns) sprawled all over the desk, and just between two of 
the legs was a figure evidently designed for a human being. It 
did not occur to me that the artist had meant the quadruped for 
a gigantic or fabulous monster, merely because it was so much 
larger than the man. I take it that the Maoris of old time 
were, in matters of art, nothing better than the ordinary school- 
boy, and that their daubs on the Weka Pass Rock, done with 
red paint when they had no black, and with black paint when 
they had no red, were simply on a par with the multifarious 
scrawls with which boys naturally decorate any surface handy to 

I am aware that there is one reply which may be made to 
this, that the " paintings " are not in the ordinary style of Maori 
art, and that Mr Stack (Transactions Vol. X., p. 55) speaks of 
them as of " far greater antiquity " than Maori work. But, first, 
even Mr Stack only attributes them to the Ngati mamoe, who, 
as far as I can make out, seem to have lived here no more than 
two or three hundred years ago. Secondly, is it possible to 
compare Dr. von Haast's figure No. 1 (the diving sperm whale) 
or his No. 3, with the figure from South Canterbury given in the 
same plate by Mr Stack, without seeing a very close resemblance 
thereto, except that in one case there is mere outline and in 
the other parallel lines ? Thirdly, supposing even great diversity 
of style, that need not entail diversity of race any more than the 
" graffiti " of Pompeii are evidence of a race of artists different 
from those who painted the Villa of Diomed, any more than the 
" artists of the valentines in our shop windows just now need be 
of different race from Mr Millais or Mr Leighton." 

My paper is already too long, and I need do no more than 
conclude with the expression of my belief that these "paintings" 
are nothing more and nothing less than a set of daubs on the 
rock, the work of ordinary native draughtsmen, scrawled as 
children scrawl on walls or desks, and entirely destitute of any 
symbolic meaning, whether of Buddhistic, Indian, or other exotic 

P.S. — I find that, in the first portion of my paper, when en- 
deavouring to give an account of the different opinions expressed 
by members of our party on the antiquity of the rock paintings, 
I omitted to mention one which is, I think, of considerable 
importance. I have said that Dr. von Haast, in his address, lays 
a good deal of stress upon the scaling, or weathering of the rock. 


surface, and in one place he remarks that the black figures have 
in several instances been painted on spots where the rock has 
scaled away " under the red " figures. The phrase used conveys 
the impression that the scaling has taken place after the red figures 
were painted. But it was the opinion of some of our party (con- 
versant with geological evidences) that this statement requires 
some modification, for they found instances where the red designs 
had evidently been painted over spots where scaling had already 
taken place. In point of fact the paintings are scarcely any- 
where laid on the surface of the rock itself ; they rest on a coat- 
ing of stalagmite covering the rock, and it is this stalagmite 
which has scaled off. It is evident that, if this opinion is correct, 
the " scaling " cannot, in any sense, be used as an argument in 
favour of the antiquity of the paintings. In my first part I have 
alluded to it as, at the best, only an extremely weak and vague 
sort of evidence, but, on the hypothesis just mentioned, it becomes 
an argument in favour of the (comparatively) modern rather 
than archaic execution of the paintings. 

I did not myself hear, at the time, the expression of opinion 
which I have just mentioned ; nor did I myself notice the geo- 
logical evidence in question, and so it was omitted in my paper. 
It has since been brought under my notice by members of the 



In the pages of a scientific periodical so largely occupied with 
discussion of the structure and life history of varied forms of 
animal and vegetable life, and whose pedal note is hardly ever 
struck except at the words species nova, it will not do to say any- 
thing in depreciation of Biology. 

And yet there are other sciences which might well claim a 
share of the attentions now almost engrossed by the youngest 
sister of the family ; and it is on behalf of one of them — an elder 
sister indeed, but not less fair — that I am desirous of putting in a 
plea. I refer to Astronomy. For one well educated man who is able 
to tell the story of Gamma Virginis, I suppose there are a score 
in our community who know the life history of Volvox Globator, 
and fifty who can identify the various species of Hy7nenophyllum. 

Yet of all physical studies there is none whose objects are 
more beautiful in themselves than those of astronomy ; none fur- 
nishing more ample scope for the exercise of the scientific spirit, 
or whose facts have more readily admitted the modern scientific 
interpretation ; while the majestic scale of the subject, its colos- 


sal proportions, give it an elevation and sublimity all its own. Its 
time-periods seem, rather, like hours on the dial-plate of eternity. 
The spaces of its immensity are confounded, practically, with 
infinity itself. 

In view of all this it is remarkable how few people take more 
than a superficial interest in the subject. Even the circles and 
apparent motions of the celestial sphere, simple as they are, and 
ever open to observation, are to most people unknown and unin- 
telligible, The planets .are unrecognised. Beyond a knowledge 
of one or two conspicuous constellations — not always certainly or 
steadily known — these " flowers of the sky " have to most no 
more meaning or interest than the " yellow primrose " to the soul 
of Peter Bell. It is astonishing how few people accurately know 
even the Southern Cross. Its appearance in any new position 
seems always an occasion of bewilderment. One of the best 
educated men I know was recently trying to point it out to me 
in the constellation of Canis Major — a mistake something like 
looking for illustrations of the anatomy of Invertebrates in the 
body of a barrel-organ ! 

I have spoken of the prevalence of biological study. I have 
ventured to suggest that some of the enthusiasm with which it 
is pursued might be advantageously diverted — raised/injact, from 
earth to heaven. Yet I am conscious that to put biology in 
antithesis to astronomy, is to do an injustice" to^both. The two 
sciences have so close a connection, that the intermediate subject 
of Geology may be said to be common property. The cosmical 
aspects of geology belong to the science of astronomy. Nay 
more. It is remarkable that one of thegreat puzzles of geology — 
the problem of glacial periods — finds its solution in some of the 
great rhythmical movements of the solar system. The point is 
one of so much interest, and is so well fitted to conciliate the 
rival claims of the two lines of study, that I am tempted to tell 
the whole story. 

The Earth's orbit, its revolution round the sun, is at present 
nearly circular. Not quite, however, for its ellipticity is such 
that, during our (southern) winter, we are about three million miles 
farther from the sun than during our summer. This slight dif- 
ference of distance does not itself make any sensible difference 
in the temperature between north and south ; but it has an effect 
on the length of the seasons, through one of the great laws of 
orbital motion, and in that way has a quite appreciable effect on 
the temperature. It makes the cold period of the year in the 
southern hemisphere nearly eight days longer than the warm 
period ; and correspondingly, of course, it makes the warm 
period in the northern hemisphere nearly eight days longer than the 
cold period. And such a difference has a sensible effect on tem- 
perature. It probably accounts for the greater collection of ice 
around the South Pole. In consequence of the precession of 
the equinoxes, this condition is subject to a gradual change, 
which, in the course of about 10,500 years reverses the inequa- 
lities of temperature above described. Ten thousand years hence 


it will be the northern hemisphere which will have more cold, 
and the southern less. 

This difference of temperature is a conspicuous, or at least 
quite appreciable, fact even now when the Earth's orbit is nearly 

But the Earth's orbit is continually oscillating within certain 
limits of eccentricity, and the more eccentric the orbit the more 
conspicuous becomes this difference of temperature. The eccen- 
tricity of the orbit at present is only .016 ; but 250,000 years 
ago — I quote the figures of Croll's interesting computation — 
it was .0258 ; and 210,000 years ago — the last epoch of 
maximum eccentricity — it reached the ratio .0575 — a 
fraction which represents an appreciably elongated ellipse — an 
ellipse so elongated that (by Kepler's Law of " equal areas in 
equal times ") the difference between the length of the period of 
cold and the period of warmth in each year would amount, in 
each hemisphere, in alternate cycles of 10,500 years, to a con- 
siderable portion of the year. Suppose the difference amounted, 
as a certain epoch, to three weeks — a term quite within the 
maximum limit — how enormous must be the effect of such 
a disparity. Give the northern hemisphere, for some thousands 
of years in succession, three weeks more winter, and three weeks 
less summer than at present, and its temperature would become 
so reduced as easily to account for all the phenomena of what is 
called the glacial epoch. 

I have been tempted into this digression for the purpose of 
showing how much closer is the connection than might at first 
be supposed between astronomy and biology. The instance 
may also stand as an illustration of the general interest of the 
subject under review. 

But I am happy to avail myself of a New Zealand publica- 
tion to set forth — beyond the general interest of the subject — 
the special attractions of astronomy for ourselves ; for ourselves, 
I mean, as living in the southern hemisphere. 

In view of the rich field of observation open to us, far exceed- 
ing in profusion, and in telescopic interest, that of our brethren 
in the northern hemisphere, it is lamentable to see how little 
scientific curiosity has been excited concerning it, and how little 
has yet been done. Take the latest edition of Proctor's Atlas. It 
was constructed for northern observers, yet there is no southern atlas 
to take its place, and the student is compelled to use, as his very 
best available aid to the topography of the stars, a publication 
which he is obliged to read upside down. Not only so ; the 
atlas, it is true, was not constructed to meet our requirements, 
and it is therefore unfair to complain, from our point of view, of 
its defects. But its defects, in the southern region, are of the 
most glaring character. Scores of interesting objects, all within 
the reach of instruments of moderate power, and all faithfully 
recorded by Sir John Herschel in his " Cape " observations, are 
conspicuous by their absence. So with the splendid manual of 
Mr. Edward Crossley. Some fifty, perhaps, of the better known 


double stars of the southern region are noted ; but for every one 
thus indicated ten are " nowhere." 

Yet nearly half a century has elapsed since the date of Sir 
John Herschel's Cape observations. Exoriare aliquis ! 

The field is rich beyond expression. The grandest binary 
system in the heavens, having the additional interest of being 
the nearest of the stars, Alpha Centauri, is invisible to English ob- 
servers. A'piia Cruets, the brightest star of the Cross, \< a pair un- 
matched in splendour and beauty by any northern object. The 
glory of the great nebula of Orion we share with our brethren 
under the Great Bear ; but the equally mysterious and awe-in- 
spiring nebula around Eta Argus belongs to ourselves alone, and 
has the added interest of the great Variable, which lies still 
obscurely buried in its haze. The glorious object hard-by, H 
3315, was confessed by Sir John Herschel to be the most superb 
star cluster he had ever seen. The " Gem Casket " of our 
Sout/ieru Cross presents, within the narrow limits of one or two 
minutes of a degree, a variety of colours unmatched in the 
heavens. The wonder and mystery of the Magellanic Clouds 
have no northern parallel. The southern region of the Milky 
Way presents a variety of structure, with contrasts of condensa- 
tion and vacuity, nowhere else so strikingly displayed. 

How numerous, too, are the unsolved questions — questions 
towards which the labours of the humblest observer might be a 
contribution — of our southern skies. Is Alpha Crucis a binary? 
Is Gamma Centauri? The balance of evidence seems to favour 
the view that they are ; yet the recorded measures are so vari- 
able and unsteady as to leave no little room for doubt. 

What is the movement of/. Eridani ? It promised to be a 
binary of short period. But I find my friend Mr. Russell, of 
Sydney Observatory, contending that the one star is simply 
becoming separated from the other by the large proper motion 
of p 1 , and that the supposed orbit of p z is simply an apparent 
straight line. 

To make a rough selection out of a number of Southern 
objects readily observable at the present time (March), and 
within the range of telescopes of quite moderate power — 3 or 
l]/ 2 -inch aperture, — I might name Theta Eridani, 12 Eridani, 
H3416 Toncari, H3475 Hydri, Theta Reticuli, H3752 Leporis, 
Dunlop's 32 Puppis, H3928 Puppis, B.A.C. 2336 Carirm, B1507 
Carince, B.A.C. 2753 Puppis, Epsilou Volantis, B.A.C. 2866 
Velorum, H4188 Velorum, Upsilou Argi\s, H4455 Hydrae, B.A.C. 
41 1 5 Centauri, H4522 Muscat, B5442 Triauguli, Hi Lupi, H4848 
Scorpii, H4850 Scorpii, Rho Oppiuchi, H4896 Arat — all of which 
arc objects of great beauty and interest, and most of which are 
awaiting further observation, to determine whether they are 
merely optical doubles or physically-connected systems. It is 
worthy of notice that, of the above casually-selected twenty-four 
objects, only eight are marked as doubles in Proctor's Atlas, 
while Crossley's superb "Handbook of Double Stars" knows 
only three. 


To this list I might add such objects as the closely-aggre- 
gated globular cluster known as 47 Toncari, and the similar, but 
less dense, cluster, Omega Centauri — stupendous objects, with 
adequate optical power, and even faintly resolvable with tele- 
scopes of moderate aperture. 

Several objects of great beauty, just within the range of 
common telescopes, appear to be entirely neglected. Our 6-inch 
and 1 o-inch telescopes disdain to look at them ; and humbler 
observers seem to have quite lost sight of them. Take, e.g., 
4949 A rce, a lovely double, each about 6 mag., and distant about 
2". Or take H5246 Indi, each 8 mag., distant about 2". Or 
take H5319 Grids — a very delicate test for a 3^-inch, — each 8 
mag., and less than 2" apart. What scientific journal ever 
notices them ? Crossley is ignorant of them, and Proctor 
acknowledges them not. Even Webb only notices one of the 
three. Their names lie buried in Sir John's Cape catalogue. 
Their loveliness smiles upon us from the distant heavens in vain. 

A noble field of investigation lies open in those coarser star- 
clusters wherein our southern heavens are so rich, such as H3179 
and H3111 in Argo, H3660 Arce, and the cluster around Kappa 
Cntcis. If the exact places of the larger stars which compose 
these groups could be plotted, and an accurate chart of their 
positions at a given epoch made, it would be very interesting 
hereafter to note any indications of drift, or of such changes as 
the manifest physical connection of the associated stars suggests. 
Mr. Russell, of Sydney, has attempted something of the kind 
with the Kappa Cruris cluster, and his chart is one of the most 
interesting products of that observer's industry. 

It is true that the difficult work, and most of what may be 
called the strictly original work, of observation lies outside the 
reach of all but large and costly instruments. But how 
ingenious, serviceable, and really original a use may be made of 
instruments of moderate aperture, Mr. J. H. Pope has well 
shown in his paper on Double Star Measurements (Transactions 
of N.Z. Institute for 1878, pp. 141 -144). 

And even when the instrument is not of such a character as 
will enable the observer to add anything to the accumulating 
data of astronomical investigation, it will at least enable him to 
understand, appreciate, and form an intelligent opinion upon 
the many interesting questions which Astronomy opens for 

The details of the nebular theory, in its application to such 
planets as Jupiter and Saturn, are not only recognised, but in a 
manner realised, when even* a common telescope reveals in the 
one that series of belts whose form, number, tint, and shading 
are so constantly varying that a view of the planet after the 
lapse of a few months is almost startling for its novelty ; and in 
the other, that superb system wherein we discern the evolutionary 
process in flagrante, and see in those flights of satellites vestiges 
of the origin of our solar system. 

We talk of the dead moon, and of sun-spots, but to realise 


what is meant by this we have need to study the phenomena for 
ourselves. We have need to see with our own eyes the deep 
shadows on the floor of Plato, the yellow streaks, the deepening 
penumbra, the nucleus, black as Erebus, of a sun-spot. 

With this ability to understand, this realisation of the 
phenomena of the science, there comes the capacity to form an 
intelligent judgment on some of its theories. What is to be said 
of Proctor's theory of the architecture of the heavens ? his 
theory of the nebulae ? of star-streams and star-drift ? What — 
to come nearer home — are we to think of the startling theory, 
which may yet render New Zealand famous, propounded by 
Professor Bickerton ? We shall admire his courage, and respect 
his solid astronomical learning, at any rate, even if we remain 
unconvinced that the visible universe has taken its present form 
from a certain remote " partial impact." The more ambitious 
claims of the theory we may refuse ; but the theory itself, as an 
explanation of a large number of stellar phenomena, is, I think, 
entitled to very respectful attention. 

To the large number of students of high mathematical 
ability which our seats of learning are now sending forth, the 
mathematics of Astronomy offer deeply interesting work. The 
dynamics of Prof. Bickerton's theory itself give rise to a whole 
series of curious problems. 

The appearance of the great southern comet of 1 88 1 afforded 
at least one mathematical astronomer amongst us an oppor- 
tunity of exercising his learned ingenuity in the calculation of 
its elements. Mr. Arthur Beverley must forgive me for em- 
ploying this means of inducing him to give wider publicity to his 
skilful computation. The neat graphical method employed 
deserves permanent record as an original contribution towards 
the solution of a problem which Sir Isaac Newton himself 
described as perdifficillimiun. 

My plea is nearly concluded. But I am anxious that even 
those who possess no instrument should feel how interesting is a 
knowledge of the constellations only, whose outlines appear to 
the unaided eye. " Why (says Carty) did not somebody teach 
me the constellations, and make me at home in the starry 
heavens which are always overhead, and which I don't half know 
to this day?" Their return to the same places in the sky is 
looked upon by those who have learned to recognise and love 
them with the same feeling as one greets the face of an old friend, 
watches the first budding of the hawthorn hedge, or looks out 
upon the first fall of winter's snow. . 

I have no wish to speak unkindly of Volvox globator. I 
would not have anybody know less of the fructification of the 
Equisetacem. But I should be glad if the effect of this paper 
shall be to induce some to raise their eyes from earth to heaven, 
and behold the beauty, contemplate the remoteness, and realise 
the wonder, the glory, and the mystery of the stars. 



A NEW Pleurosigma. — It may interest microscopists to 
learn that Pleurosigma has at last been discovered in New 
Zealand. Mr. Inglis, of Christchurch, a few weeks ago, dis- 
covered this diatom, which he takes to be a new species, and 
names " Pleurosigma Crookii," in a drain at New Brighton. He 
has subsequently found the same species inland at Weka Pass, 
North Canterbury. 

Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of New Zealand 
(By Prof. Hutton) : Read to Phil. Inst, of Canterbury, 2nd 
March, 1882. — Polytropa cheesemani, sp. nov. — Resembles P. striata, 
but has only five spiral grooves on the body whorl, and four or 
five well-developed teeth inside the outer lip ; the interior is 
bright purple. Collected at Port Waikato by Mr. T. F. Cheese- 

Pleuvotoma awamoaensis, Hutton. — This species, originally de- 
scribed as a fossil from Awamoa, has been found by Mr. T. F. 
Cheeseman, at Waiwera, where it is not uncommon. 

Adeovbis (?) petterdi, Brazier. — This species, originally de- 
scribed as a Fossarina from Tasmania, has been found by Mr. 
Cheeseman at Waiwera, and by Mr. C. Matthews at Omaha. 
Its operculum and radula prove that it belongs to the Tvochidce. 

Acmcea flammea. — Quoy and Gaimard (Patteloida) common 
throughout New Zealand. 

Acmcea conoidea. — Quoy and Gaimard [Patteloida). Found at 
Sumner with Littorina. 

Patella olivacea, sp. nov. — Shell of a uniform olive brown, in- 
side silvery with a narrow black margin , numerous subequal 
radiatory ribs ; apex between one-third and one-fourth of the 
length of the shell from the anterior end. Found at the Bluff 
and at Dunedin. 

Calliopcea felina, sp. nov. — A very small black animal, with a 
yellowish spot round each eye, and about fourteen large branchiae 
on each side. Found in Lyttelton Harbour. 

N. Z. Systematists. — We have much pleasure in adding to 
the list of names already given those of Mr. T. W. Kirk, of the 
Colonial Museum, Wellington, and Mr. E. Meyrick. The 
former gentleman is already well known for his researches on 
Crustacea, Molltisca, and Annelida, and is desirous of obtaining 
specimens belonging to these groups. 

Mr. Meyrick has recently come to this Colony, having 
received an appointment in Christ College, Christchurch, and is 
engaged working up the Micro- Lepidoptera {Py rales, Tor trices, 


Tinea). Extracts from his papers in the Trans. Linn. Soc. of 
N. S. Wales appeared in the last, and will be continued in 
succeeding numbers of the Journal. Mr. Meyrick will be glad 
to receive specimens from all parts of the Colony, and will name 
any collections entrusted to his care. 

" List of N. Z. SERTULARIANS collected in the neighbour- 
hood of Wellington, with notice of additional species," is the 
title of a paper recently read before the Wellington Phil. Soc, 
by Mr. T. W. Kirk. After enumerating the species usually to 
be found in the neighbourhood of the Empire City, he notices 
the occurrence on our coasts of two species not previously 
recorded. The same author read a paper describing several 
new marine Planarians, a group of beautiful coloured leaf-like 

Recent Papers on Mollusca (By T.W.Kirk). — i. Additions 
to the list of N.Z. Shells. — This paper describes two new species of 
Buccinulus — viz., B. gracilis, longer and slighter than B. Kirki ; 
and B. Huttoni, a pretty little shell, shorter and stouter in pro- 
portion than either of the others, spire very short, and bearing 
brown markings, whereas all the remaining New Zealand species 
are pure white. The paper also contains an acconnt of the 
occurrence of N eritina fluviatilis in New Zealand. 

2. Descriptions of New Shells. — Contains (i) a description of a 
new genus, Htittonia, to which Euchelus bellus, Hutton (Cat. Mar. 
Moll., p. 37), must be referred ; and two new species — H. tricolor 
and H. hamiltoni. This genus is readily distinguished from 
Euchelus by the presence of a deep notch at the anterior end of 
the columella. Also a very fine Aplysia, A. hamiltoni, measuring 
nearly an inch and a-half in length, the animal of which weighed 
three-quarters of a pound. 

3. Neiv Cephalopoda. — Founding a new genus {Steenstrupia), 
and 3 new species. (1) A beautiful little cuttle, belonging to 
the genus Sepiola. This genus has not previously been recorded 
from New Zealand, though it is known to inhabit the Australian 
seas. The new species is called 5. pacifica. (2) Description of a 
giant Squid, the body of which measured 9ft. iin. in length, and 
the tentacular 25ft. It belongs to the genus Architeuthis, Steen- 
strup, and has been named A . verrilli, after Prof. Verrill, who has 
written so voluminously about the giant squids of North 
America. (3) New genus and species, Steenstrupia Zealandia. 
The specimen on which this genus is founded was stranded at 
Lyall Bay, Cook Strait. It is noticeable for its long cylindrical 
body, its short sessile arms, all of equal length, and its thin 
rhomboidal fins, which are posterior and lateral. 

N. Z. Hair-worms. — In the Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist, 
for November last (ser. 5, vol. 8, p. 325), Dr. L. Orley describes 
the hair-worms {Gordiidce) in the collection of the British 


Museum. Of the fourteen species described (nearly half the 
known species), two are trom this Colony ; their description is 
appended. The microscopic structure of the cuticle of both 
species is figured in the paper referred to. 

1. GordiiLs diblastus, Orley. — Female, length 40 centim. ; 
male, length 16-20 centim. Body slender, tapering at both 
extremities, especially posteriorly. The extremities are some- 
what swollen and button-shaped. The tail of the male has two 
lobate processes of nearly equal thickness throughout their 
whole length. Thickening in the region of genital aperture 
inconspicuous. Cuticle with very slightly raised crossing lines, 
and covered with pale spots. 

2. Gordius pachydermia, Orley. — Male, length 16-20 centim. 
This species is especially distinguished by the thickness of its 
cuticle, which is covered with a great many more or less 
elevated papillae of various sizes. No crossing lines are to be 
seen ; and the cuticle appears almost structureless. Body of a 
red-brownish colour, tapering continuously at the extremities, 
especially at the anterior. Semicircular depressions giving rise 
to a superficial segmentation. Tail of the male has two lobate 
very short processes, equally broad throughout their whole 
length, running almost parallel, and not touching each other. 
The horseshoe-shaped thickening in the region of the genital 
aperture inconspicuous. 

Change of Nomenclature of Two Moths. — Mr. A. G. 
Butler, of the British Museum, finds that two of our moths 
hitherto known under the names of Polygonia fortinata and 
Selenia gallaria belongs to the genus Azelina. This genus is 
especially South American, but it occurs all through America 
and the West Indies. It is not known in Australia. 

ADENOCHILUS GRACILIS (Hook, F.) — This rare and curious 
orchid appears to have been found hitherto only in the North Island, 
and at one locality. In Hooker's Handbook of the Fl. of Nov. 
Zeal., the only remark as to habitat is : " Bay of Plenty, Colenso "; 
and in Mr. Colenso's paper on the Botany of the North Island, 
in Vol. I. of the N.Z. Inst. Trans., the plant is recorded as found 
near Lake Waikare. With these exceptions, no mention of its 
occurrence has been made in any New Zealand publication. 

It was with much pleasure therefore that I found the plant 
this last January, when botanising in the neighbourhood of Lake 
Hauroto (Howloko), in the south-eastern corner of the South 
Island. It grows in the dense Fagus forest which extends from 
the Waiau river westward to Preservation Inlet, and is asso- 
ciated with Caladenia minor. From its small size, and its growing 
among dense patches of soft green moss, Nertera and Corysanthes, 
it is very easily overlooked, except when in flower. It is 
interesting to find that this curious generalized form has so wide 
a range. From the fact of 'its being found in two so widely 
separated localities, it is probable that its occurrence in inter- 


mediate regions has been overlooked. Mr. Petrie informs me 
that he believes it occurs in the forest at the head of Lake 
Wakatipu, but he has only seen the leaf. G.M.T. 

" The Southern Science Record." — This publication is 
steadily increasing in merit and interest, and will no doubt soon 
have — as it deserves — a very large Australian publication. The 
February number contains several interesting articles, including 
an excellent one by Mr. W. H. Wooster, on " Zeiss's Microscopic 
Objectives." Mr. French's papers on " Victorian Ferns and their 
Habitats," and Mr. D. Best's on the " Longicorn Beetles of 
Victoria," have each reached their fifth part. Mr. A. J. 
Campbell continues his useful papers on " Australian Birds' 
Eggs," while reports are given ( of the meetings of the Field 
Naturalists' Club of Victoria, the Microscopical Society of Vic- 
toria, and the Wellington Philosophical Society ; which last, 
however, is stated to have been held on 21st July \ 1882. 

New Zealand Flora. — The great botanical want of the 
Colony now is a new Flora. It is to be hoped that the depart- 
ment over which Dr. Hector presides will see its way to appoint 
some efficient botanist to undertake the preparation of such 
a work. What is wanted is a work dealing only with the 
Flowering Plants and the Vascular Cryptograms, and to be 
issued at a price which will bring it within the reach of the 
many students of botany annually issuing from our schools and 
colleges. The " Handbook of the N. Z. Flora " is out of print, 
and only obtainable at a high price ; besides which, the 
numerous additions made to our knowledge since its publication 
leave it now very incomplete. 



nth February. — The annual general meeting was held at the 
Museum ; Dr. Hector, president, in the chair. 

New members : Messrs. J. Reid and Charles Monaghan. 

The Secretary, Mr. Gore, read the annual report of the 
Society for 1881, which stated that seven meetings had been held 
since the meeting in February, 1880. The average attendance oi 
members had been greater than during the previous years, and 
papers had been read on the following subjects : — 


1. "On the Sand Dunes in the Wellington District," by Mr. 
T. L. Travers. 


2. " On Tin Ore at Reefton," by Dr. Hector. 

3. " On the Mineralogy of New Zealand," by Mr. S. H. Cox. 

4. " On the Extinction of the Moa," by Mr. C. H. Field. 

5. " On the Deposit of Moa Bones at Motanau," by Mr. A. 

6. " On New Fossil Shells of New Zealand," by Mr. T. W. 

7. " On Solar Heat," by Mr. J. C. Crawford. 


8. " On the Lung Worm in Sheep," by Mr. J. Buchanan. 

9. " On Marine Planarians, or Leaf Worms," by Mr. T. W. 

10. " On the Notornis," by Dr. Buller. 

11. " Description of Hybrid Bird Specimens," by Dr. Buller. 

12. " On the Sea Trout (Salmo Trutta) in Nelson Harbour," 
by Dr. Hector. 

13. " On New Recent Shells of New Zealand," (2 papers) by 
Mr. T. W. Kirk. 

14. " On Some New Cuttle Fish," by Mr. T. W. Kirk. 

15. " On Sertularians, collected in Wellington," by Mr. T. 
W. Kirk. 

16. " On Abnormal Coloured Specimens of Kakapo," by Mr. 
T. W. Kirk. 


17. " On New Species of Plants in the South Island," by Mr. 
J. Buchanan. 

18. " On the Alpine Plants of Otago," by Mr. J. Buchanan. 
19 "On the Abnormal Growth of New Zealand Flax," by 

Rev. P. Walsh. 

20. " On New Plants, Tararu, etc.," by Mr. J. Buchanan. 

21. " On Lichen Dyes," by Mr. W. Levin. 


22. " On Supposed Paraffin at Waipa," by Mr W. Skey. 

23. " On Poisonous Quality in the Brachy glottis repandi" by 
Mr. W. Skey. 

24. " Description of a Visit to Islands of Polynesia, with 
Specimens," by Mr. Romilly. 

25. " On the Extinction of the Maori Race," by Dr. Newman. 

26. " On Circular Motion," by Mr. T. Wakelin. 

27. " On the Rabbit Nuisance, with Remedies," by Mr. H. 

A summary of the proceedings, with extracts from the papers, 
had appeared immediately after each meeting in the Southern Science 
Record, which was published in Melbourne, and this extended the 
interest in the work of the Society outside New Zealand. The papers 
had all been forwarded to the manager of the " New Zealand Insti- 
tute," with a view to their publication in the forthcoming volume of 
" Transactions." Sixteen additional members had been elected 
during the year, making a total at the present time of 303 members 
on the roll. Twenty-four volumes, besides many periodicals and 
pamphlets, had been added to the library, and a large number of the 
latter had been recently bound. From the statement of receipts 


and expenditure submitted by the Treasurer, it appeared that there 
was a credit balance of £75 15s in the bank. 

The report and balance-sheet were adopted, and the following 
gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuing year, the names 
having been submitted to the meeting by the Council : — President, 
Mr. W. T. L. Travers, F.R.S. ; Vice-Presidents, Hon. J. R. Johnson 
and Dr. Buller, CM G., F R.S. ; Council— Dr. Newman, J. P. Max- 
well, N. Govett, M. Chapman, Dr. Hector, L. H. Cox, T. King; 
Secretary and Treasurer — R. B. Gore ; Auditor — Oliver Wake- 
field ; Librarian — T. W. Kirk. 

The President stated that the substitution of Mr. Wakefield 
for Mr. Ballantyne, as auditor, was in consequence of Mr. Ballan- 
tyne having resigned. 

A vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Ballantyne for his services 
as auditor to the Society. 

Dr. Hector said it was usual for the Presidents during some 
portion of their tenure of office to address the Society upon its 
general work, or upon some special subject. The last two Presi- 
dents had each delivered a more complete address than he could 
hope to make to them that evening, for he had been taken by 
surprise by the early date of the meeting ; but at the same time 
there were some remarks he would like to make before they 
proceeded to the business of the ordinary meeting. He thought, 
from the report just read, that the Society might be congratulated 
upon the work done during the past year. It had not been brilliant 
work, and they had missed the lectures of previous years on special 
subjects interesting and instructive. This had been the case 
chiefly because the hall had been required for other purposes, and 
their meetings could not be held regularly. It was also a difficult 
matter to get good lecturers. He trusted before next year that 
one of the great drawbacks to making these lectures attractive 
would be removed, and that the lime-light apparatus would be 
ready. Everything was now almost completed, so that in a very 
short time it would be possible to make the illustrations of the 
lectures visible to all present. Great improvements had been 
effected in the Library arrangements, and Mr. Kirk had been 
appointed Librarian, and would be responsible for the books of 
the Society. They had now a really very excellent library of 5000 
volumes, and the catalogue was available in manuscript for the 
use of members. In connection with the Museum, it had always 
seemed to him to be a great drawback that there had not been 
more scope given for rendering the large collection and library 
more available for the purposes of direct tuition, but he might say 
that arrangements were now in course of formation by which 
lectures would be carried on in connection with the College. 
Collegians who desired to study these subjects would, under the 
arrangements he contemplated being given effect to, be able to 
attend classes at the Museum and Library, which would be con- 
ducted by competent persons. He hoped these classes might be 
open to members of the Society, and to such of the general public 
as desired such a course of study. With reference to the work of 
the past year, it had been chiefly the reading of papers. This 
kind of work required the co-operation of members residing in 
different parts of the Colony, in order that the results might be 
useful. In this connection he might particularly refer to the paper 


by Mr. Buchanan on " Some diseases of sheep and cattle in New 
Zealand." These diseases were propagated by the development 
of certain minute forms of animal life, and the symptoms ought to 
be studied by the different flock-owners in the Colony, and the 
results communicated to the Society, or to some person engaged in 
these investigations, for the purpose of comparing results. The 
progress of these diseases had been studied to a remarkable degree 
of late. As had been stated in one of these papers, there were 
already signs of our acquiring the means of warding off these 
diseases, and protecting animals from their inroads in the same 
way as we now — very imperfectly here — protected the community 
from the attacks of smallpox. This important matter was well 
worth the attention of all members of the Society who took an 
interest in scientific researches which had a direct bearing upon 
the welfare of the human race. With reference to smallpox, the 
apathy displayed as to the best means of protecting ourselves from 
the scourge appeared to him to be almost criminal. We were 
naturally protected against the incursion of a vast number of 
diseases, but an outbreak of smallpox here would be disastrous. 
In the first place, comparatively few of the people of New Zealand 
realised the horrible nature of this disease, and vaccination was a 
matter in which a very partial interest was taken. If the matter 
were brought more prominently before the public by proper means, 
aided by compulsory vaccination, he thought it quite possible that 
we might get rid of the necessity for the quarantine system. We 
might then take our chance of the small number of cases which 
might occur in the community. There had been a great cry raised 
of late in favour of what was called animal vaccination — that was, 
vaccination with lymph taken direct from the calf, instead of 
with lymph taken from the arm of an infant. In his opinion there 
was a good deal of misapprehension in this matter. Vaccination 
was really sowing the seed of smallpox in the system in the same 
way that carrots or turnips were sown in a garden. • These germs 
of disease lost power by passing through a certain diluting process ; 
and some time ago a proposition was made to dilute the virus with 
milk. There was no doubt that lymph could be passed through a 
calf and then used ; but in any case everything depended on 
having pure seed. Those who advocated animal vaccination must 
take care that the body of the animal selected did not contain the 
seeds of other diseases ; and those who were in favour of human 
vaccination said that their dread of other diseases arose from 
careless vaccination, and the taking of lymph from the arms of 
unhealthy children. In both cases it was necessary to take great 
care that the seeds of any other form of disease were not intro- 
duced by vaccination ; and for his part he did not see any 
difference in the risk attending arm-to-arm vaccination and what 
was called animal vaccination. The Government had been put to 
great expense in providing the means of vaccination, and it was to 
be hoped that an unreasonable prejudice against it would not exist 
much longer. He had been led to make these observations be- 
cause he had been thinking the subject over a great deal of late. 
It was a subject open to much discussion and calm thought, for 
the purpose of getting rid of the cobwebs of prejudice which sur- 
rounded it in the public mind. Another interesting paper is one 
by Mr. Travers upon the effects of certain floods. In arranging 


the papers of the " Transactions " for the printer, he found that a 
valuable paper was read before the Otago Institute by Mr. Arthur 
on a similar subject, and both opened up a question of great 
importance and interest. Mr. Arthur had shown that storms 
could be gauged in such a manner that we could ascertain what 
amount of moisture was likely to be deposited upon a certain area 
of country. Advantage might be taken of this knowledge to 
erect dams to hold the quantity of water that might fall within a 
given time. These dams might be placed in favourable positions 
for trapping the water and allowing it to flow slowly to the sea, 
thus preventing the damage done by floods. Every person could 
find time to take the reading of a rain gauge, and by a comparison 
of results much valuable information might be thus gathered. He 
would like to see a far greater interest taken in the matter. Not 
long ago Professor Stokes, one of the secretaries of the Royal 
Institution, read a remarkable paper on the effect of electrical 
storms caused by revolving currents of air which passed over 
distant parts of the earth's surface possessing extremes of 
temperature. He (Dr. Hector) thought we might be on the brink 
of discovering some link between these electrical storms and 
earthquakes, but to solve this question would necessitate a much 
more complete equipment in our observatories than we possessed 
at present. We must take some more accurate means of recording 
the passage of earthquake shocks, their duration and locality. In 
the matter of zoological work the past year would be known as 
the Notornis year. This bird was once supposed to be extinct with 
the moa, but now it was to be hoped that more specimens would 
soon be available for their inspection and study. He might 
mention that Dr. Buller's new manual of the " Birds of New 
Zealand " was now through the press. The last sheets had been 
corrected, and the work would, in a few days, be in the hands of 
the public. In botanical work the Society had placed on record 
some very interesting discoveries, most of which had been in 
relation to the alpine flora of New Zealand. They had now got a 
very complete collection of live plants from the mountain ranges, 
specimens of which had been distributed by the Government to 
the different gardens in the Colony. They had also just received 
a very complete collection from Stewart Island. The most valu- 
able series of observations commenced by the late Mr. Ludlam 
had not been carried out, and no one had yet taken the matter up. 
These observations were in connection with the budding and 
fruiting of various kinds of plants. Much valuable information 
might be obtained in this manner, and might prevent us making 
mistakes in the introduction of forest and other trees. After some 
further remarks, Dr. Hector concluded by thanking the members 
of the Society for the manner in which they had supported him 
during his term of office as President. 

An ordinary meeting of the Society was then held for the 
reading and discussion of several papers, the first of which was by 
Mr. Victor Falkner, " On a Fundamental Error in Dynamics, the 
Theory of Gravitation, and the Nebular Hypothesis." The paper 
was illustrated with diagrams and apparatus, but the latter did not 
work in a satisfactory manner, owing to the insufficient height of 
the hall. The paper dealt with Newton's explanation of Kepler's 
laws, and that part of the nebular hypothesis that hinges in it. 


The writer contended that dynamics was essentially an experi- 
mental and inductive science, and that little reliance could 
be placed on the results of deduction in it. He argued 
that such an important problem as that involved in the 
Newtonian theorv should never have been accepted as proved 
without experimental demonstration. After entering iully upon 
Newton's theory and labours, Mr. Falkner stated that the 
accepted hypotheses assumed that the path of a body propelled 
in free space by an impulse, or travelling tangentially at uniform 
velocity, and attracted to a centre with a force varying inversely 
as the square of its distance from that centre, is an ellipse of 
which the attracting centre is in one focus (or a similar conic 
section), and an orbit similar to the planetary and cometary. This 
assumption he denied, and affirmed that the path of a body 
subject to an impulse, or its equivalent, moving in free space, and 
subjtct to any central force, is such a figure that the attracting 
point is in its centre, or at the intersection of its axes. The paper 
was listened to with interest, and after it had been read, 

Mr. M. Chapman contended that the matter was not one that 
could be dealt with by experiment, but must be dealt with by 
mathematical investigation. He could not believe in Mr. 
Falkner's results for a single instant. 

The Chairman expressed a hope that Mr. Falkner would not 
upset the " Nautical Almanack." 

It was resolved, owing to the lateness of the hour, that the 
other papers should be taken as read. They were, " New Cuttle 
Fish," by Mr. Kirk ; " List of Sertularians, collected in Wel- 
lington," by Mr. Kirk ; " Capture of a Californian Salmon," b} 
Dr. Hector ; " Fossil Cetaceans," by Dr. Hector; " New System 
of Telegraphic Weather Reports," by Dr. Hector. 

A number of interesting exhibits were brought under the 
notice of members. Among them were specimens of New Zealand 
crows, showing abnormal colouring ; New Zealand sponges, pre- 
sented by Mr. J. A. Smith, of Napier; specimens of coal from 
Coal Creek ; specimens of quartz from Landon's Reef, Colling- 
wood Ranges ; Welcome Mine, Reefton ; Fiery Cross, and Just 
in Time Mines, Reefton ; and Alpine Mine, Lyell ; a certificate of 
the First Order of Merit awarded at the Melbourne Exhibition to 
the Colonial Museum for exhibits of flax and hemp ; the silver 
seal for the Colony of New Zealand, defaced by Her Majesty in 
Council, and presented to the Museum by the Colonial Secretary. 

Dr. Hector said that some of the sponges would have a very 
considerable commercial value, as it had been ascertained that 
sponges could be propagated. 



31st January. — J. T. Thomson, Esq., president, in the chair. 

The following annual report was read: — During the year 19 
new members were elected ; the total membership is now 55, and 
of these one, Mr. George Joachim, is a life member. The Council 
considered it due to Mr. Joachim to elect him to life- membership 
for his handsome present of 18 vols, of the " Monthly Micro- 
scopical Journal." These volumes are very elegantly bound, and 


constitute a valuable addition to the Institute's library. In 
accordance with Rule 7, /30 has been voted for new books, and a 
cabinet of mineralogical and geological specimens During the 
year six meetings were held, and eight papers read, which were as 
follow : — 

1. " A Source of Water Supply for Invercargill," by Mr. 

2. " Buddhistic Philosophy," by the President, Mr. J. ;T, 

3. " Habits of Bees," by the Rev. J. Paterson. 

4. " Formation of Lake Wakatipu," by Mr. Stuart. 

5. " On the Conversion and Civilisation of the Maoris," by 
the Rev. Mr. Wohlers. 

6. " The Importance of Forestry," by Mr. M'Arthur. 

7. <k Co-operation." by Mr. Cuthbertson. 

8. " Burns," by Mr. Mehaffey. 

Considering the youth of this Society, the Council thinks that 
a lair amount of work hms been done. 

The officers for the current year were then elected. Mr. J. T. 
Thomson was re-elected President, Mr. W. S. Hamilton was elected 
Vice-President, the Treasurer (Mr. J. C. Thomson) and Secretary (Mr 
P. Goyen) were re-elected, and Dr. Galbraith, and Messrs. Denniston, 
Scar drett, Robertson and Mehaffey were elected members of Council. 


31st January. — The annual meeting was held in the Museum, 
Dunedin, the President, Mr. Geo. M. Thomson, F.L.S., in the 

Mr. D. Cosgrove was elected a member. 

Prof. Parker, the Secretary, read the following report : — 

11 During the present session seven meetings have been held, 
including the present annual meeting. Nine original papers have 
been read — four on geological, three on botanical, and two on 
engineering and surveying subjects. At two meetings lectures 
were delivered — one by Dr. W. Haacke, on ' The Development of 
Medusa ' ; the other by Mr. R. Jones, on ' Electric Lighting.' 
Five new members have joined the Institute during the year, bring- 
ing up the total number of names on the roll to 223. A deduction 
will, however, have to be made from this number, as several mem- 
bers have their subscriptions two years and upwards in arrear, and 
have therefore, strictly speaking, severed their connection with the 
Institute. The number of important books purchased during the 
year has been so considerable as to necessitate a re-arrangement 
of the library, which is now in progress. The Council desire to 
emphasise the fact, which seems to be largely lost sight of, that 
free use of the library is one of the privileges of membership. The 
receipts for the year, including a balance of ^"12 8s. from last year, 
amount to ^"202 6s. 8d. The expenditure, amounting to £186 2s. 
5d., includes £68 9s. 6d. for paying off overdraft from the Union 
Bank of Australia. The usual payment to the Museum has, how- 
ever, still to be made, and will have to be added to the year's 
expenditure. There it> at present a clear balance in hand of £15 
1 8s. 3d., besides which the reserve fund in the Post Office Savings 
Bank now amounts to ^"159 10s. 8d." 



The election of office-bearers for the ensuing session was then 
held, and resulted as follows :— President, Mr. W. Arthur, C.E. ; 
Vice Presidents, Messrs Geo. M. Thomson, and Geo. Joa- 
chim ; Hon. Sec, Prof. Parker ; Hon. Treas., Mr. D. Petrie, M.A.; 
Auditor, Mr. D. Brent, M.A. ; Council— His Lordship the Bishop 
of Dunedin, Rev. Thos. Roseby, LL.D., Messrs Montgomery, 
Blair, and Gillies, Professors Scott and Brown. 

Mr. Thomson, the retiring President, then delivered the fol- 
lowing address : — 

Among the many questions of interest which offer themselves 
for solution to the botanist, none possess more fascination than 
those dealing with the geographical distribution of plants ; and if 
this is so in other parts of the world, it is doubly so in New Zea- 
land, where the existing conditions are almost unique. The pre- 
sent distribution of our flora leads up to a wider and far more 
interesting question, viz., its origin, and the investigation 01 this 
brings under review many collateral subjects, among which may 
be considered the tormer land connections existing between what 
is now New Zealand and other parts of the world. 

The main question cannot be considered alone, but must be 
taken in conjunction with the origin and distribution of our fauna, 
and with the great geological changes which have been effected 
in past times, and which have brought about in our time a distri- 
bution of land and water very different from that which existed at 
the end oi the Secondary or commencement of the Tertiary period. 

But it would be almost impossible in the limits of a single ad- 
dress to discuss the subject in all its aspects, and I shall therefore 
confine myself to a small portion only o± it, stating in the first place 
what has been written on this topic, and then pointing out some 
oi the interesting facts which an examination of it reveals. 

Every naturalist who has visited New Zealand has had his 
attention drawn to the many remarkable features of its fauna and 
flora, but Sir Joseph Hooker, Prof. F. W. Hutton, and Mr. Wal- 
lace are the only writers whose works I am acquainted with who 
have attempted to solve the problems presented to them. 

The first- named botanist, in the introduction to the Flora 
Novae Zealandiae, has summarised the information at his disposal 
in a masterly essay, which forms the basis of our knowledge as 
to the distribution of the flora. But he has not sought to trace 
the origin of our species, more directly confining himself to their 
affinities and to their occurrence in other countries, but not 
seeking to solve the question as to how they have found their way 
here. Between the publication of the Fl. Novae Zealandiae (in 
1853) and the issue of the Handbook (in 1867) about 200 species 
of flowering plants were added to the Flora ; while up to date 
about 150 more species have been added, bringing the total up to 
1085 species. More close and accurate investigations of many of 
our local botanists are the means of continually adding to this 
list. Still the general conclusions arrived at in the Fl. Nov. Zeal. 
have not been materially altered by recent discoveries. 

Sir Joseph Hooker was struck by the preponderance of 
Australian types among those plants which he found to be 
common both to New Zealand and other countries of the world. 
Nearly one fourth of these plants were Australian, nearly one- 
eighth South American, and one tenth common to both Australia 


and South America. Of the remainder, about one-twelith were 
shown to be European, and one-sixteenth Antarctic. When we 
find similar plants in two widely-separated parts of the globe, we 
are naturally led to consider how they have reached these 
distant localities ; and if no satisfactory solution of the question 
is afforded by an examination of their structural means of dis- 
persion, we are further tempted to speculate on the former land 
connections which have existed. The preponderance of Australian 
plants in New Zealand is not to be accounted for by proximity 
alone, as the wide extent of sea which separates the countries 
forms the most effectual of all barriers to the migration of the 
majority of plants. Sir J. Hooker points out that no theory of 
transport of the forms common to the two regions will account 
for the absence of " the Eucalypti and other Myrtacece, of the whole 
immense genus of Acacia, and of its numerous Australian con- 
geners," for the absence of Casuarina, Callitris, Dilleniacece, &c, and 
the rarity of such large Australian orders as Proteacece, Rutaceoe, and 
StylidiecB. Nor will any theory of variation account for these 
facts. And he continues : — " Considering that Eucalypti (Myrtacece) 
form the most prevalent forest feature over the greater part of 
South and East Australia, rivalled by the Leguminosa alone, and 
that both these Orders (the latter especially) are admirably adapted 
constitutionally for transport, and that the species are not par- 
ticularly local or scarce, and grow well wherever sown, the fact 
of their absence from New Zealand cannot be too strongly pressed 
on the attention of the botanical geographer, for it is the main 
cause of the difference between the floras of these two great 
masses of land being much greater than that between any two 
equally large continuous ones on the face of the globe." Read in 
the light of our accumulated knowledge, the following remark is 
of interest : — " New Zealand, however, does not appear wholly as 
a satellite of Australia in all the genera common to both, for of 
several there are but few species in Australia, which hence shares 
the peculiarities of New Zealand, rather than New Zealand those 
of Australia." That is to say, that he saw that those plants 
which occur both in Australia and New Zealand had not neces- 
sarily all passed from the former to the latter country, but that in 
many cases the opposite had occurred. After describing the 
affinities existing between the plants of New Zealand and those 
of South America, Europe, and the Antarctic regions respectively, 
and further pointing out some remarkable Pacific Island peculi- 
arities in our flora, Hooker concludes by stating that the existing 
botanical relationships " cannot be accounted for by any theory of 
transport or variation," but that they are " agreeable to the 
hypothesis of all being members of a once more extensive flora 
which has been broken up by geological and climatic causes." 

Leaving out of account minor speculations on this subject, we 
may next consider the second writer named, who deals — although 
indirectly — with the question. 

Professor Hutton's theory,* deduced from the distribution of 
the struthious birds in the Southern Hemisphere, is, that there 
formerly existed a great "Antarctic continent stretching from 

*"On the Geographical Relations of the N.Z. Fauna," by Capt. F. W. 
Hutton. N.Z. Inst. Trans,, vol. V., p. 227. 


Australia through New Zealand to South America, and perhaps 
on to South Africa. This continent must have sunk, and 
Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa must 
have remained isolated from one another long enough to allow of 
the great differences observable between the birds of each country 
being brought about. Subsequently New Zealand must have 
formed part of a smaller continent, not connected either with 
Australia or South America, over which the moa roamed. This 
must have been followed by a long insular period, ending in 
another continent still disconnected from Australia and South 
America, which continent again sank and New Zealand assumed 
somewhat of its present form." 

It is of course assumed that this former extensive Antarctic 
continent existed at a date anterior to the first occurrence of 
mammals either in Australia or South America ; and conse- 
quently that all subsequent immigrants from Australia, or from the 
islands lying to the north, must have found their way across the 
intervening expanses of ocean. Prof. Hutton recognises many of 
the difficulties in the way of this theory, as, for example, the 
occurrence of grass- birds (Sphenoeacus) in both Australia and New 
Zealand, and the existence of the genus Ocydromus (woodhtns, &c.) 
in New Zealand, Lord Howe's Island, and New Caledonia, as the 
birds of both these genera are almost, or quite, unable to fly. 

The examination of our fresh-water fish leads him to the 
conclusions, " either that our connection with Australia was later 
than with South America, or that in the old continent New 
Zealand and Australia were inhabited by one, and South America 
by another species " of the grayling family. " The fresh-water fish 
also prove that our connection with the Chatham and Auckland 
Islands was much later than with Australia." And then he goes 
on to say: — " The distribution of Anguilla latiwstris, which is not 
found nearer than China (and of A . obscum, a closely allied species, 
which occurs in the Fiji Islands), adds its testimony to that of 
Lotella and Ditrema (other species named by him), of a former 
connection with that part of the world not by way of Australia ; 
and we shall find that this remarkable connection with China and 
the Indian Archipelago, thus dimly shadowed out by the fishes, 
gets stronger and stronger as we review the invertebrate animals." 

The examination of these lower forms leads to the same 
general conclusion — a strong relationship, on one hand, with 
Australia, and a similar, but distinct, relationship with islands and 
countries to the north. 

In summarising the facts of the geographical distribution of 
the fauna, the following results are arrived at by him: — i. " A 
continental period during which South America, New Zealand, 
Australia, and South Africa were all connected, although it is not 
necessary that all should have been connected at the same time ; 
but New Zealand must have been isolated from all before the 
spread of mammals, and from that time to the present it has 
never been completely submerged. This continent was inhabited 
by struthious birds," &c, &c. 

2. After a period of subsidence, a second continent came into 
existence, "stretching from New Zealand to Lord Howe's Island 
and New Caledonia, and extending for an unknown distance into 
Polynesia, but certainly not so far as the Sandwich Islands." And 


while this continent was connected with China, either directly or 
by a chain of islands, it must have been cut off from the New 
Hebrides by a strait. 

3. " Subsidence again followed, and New Zealand was 
reduced for a long time to a number of islands, upon man} of 
which the moa lived." This supposition is necessary to account 
for the number of species of Dinomis which formerly existed, as 
the birds must have been " isolated from one another for a 
sufficiently long period to allow of specific changes being brought 

4. Elevation ensued, the isolated islands became connected 
together into one large island, which was not however connected 
with Polynesia, and over which the various species of moa 
roamed. And lastly, 

5. By a process of subsidence the islands assumed something 
of their present form. 

This theory is a most ingenious one, and is well worked out, 
and had available information been at hand as to the depth of the 
circumjacent seas, no doubt many of the conclusions arrived at 
would have been modified. The geological evidences are adduced 
in support of it, and though the distribution of the flora is not 
critically gone into, certain remarkable facts of the distribution of 
genera such as Eucalyptus, Stilbocarpa, Metrosideros, and others are 
brought forward by way of corroboration. 

Some four years after the publication of Prof. Hutton's paper, 
Mr. A. R. Wallace's great work on the " Geographical Distri- 
bution of Animals " came out, in which due consideration is given 
to the question of the origin of the New Zealand fauna, and to the 
discussion of Prof. Hutton's views. Mr. Wallace, in this work, 
does not agree with the idea that there was a former great 
antarctic land connection, but believes that there was a great 
southward extension of land, perhaps considerably beyond the 
Macquaries, and that this being within the range of floating ice 
during the colder epochs, and within easy reach of the antarctic 
continent during the warm periods, there arose " that inter- 
change of genera and species with South America which 
forms one of the characteristic features of the natural history of 
New Zealand." Prof. Hutton's theory is primarily based on the 
distribution of the struthious birds, but Mr. Wallace is of opinion 
that the ancestral struthious type probably once spread over the 
larger portion of the globe, and that as higher forms, particularly 
of the carnivora, became developed, it was exterminated every- 
where except in those regions where it was free from their attacks, 
and that in these regions it developed into special forms adapted 
to surrounding conditions. This conclusion is supported " and 
rendered almost certain by the discovery of remains of this order 
in Europe in Eocene deposits, and by the occurrence of an ostrich 
among the fossils of the Siwalik Hills." 

While considering that no other form of animal inhabiting 
New Zealand requires a land connection with distant countries to 
account for its presence, Mr. Wallace concludes, in accordance 
with principles well established in an earlier part of his work, 
that the existence is demonstrated of an extensive tract of land 
in the vicinity of Australia, Polynesia, and the antarctic conti- 
nent, without having been actually connected with any of these 


countries since the period when mammalia had peopled all the 
great continents. 

Last year the issue of Mr. Wallace's most interesting work 
on " Island Life " added another contribution to our knowledge 
of the question under discussion, and the three chapters devoted 
to New Zealand put the problems very clearly before us. A very 
important factor, and one which had not hitherto been considered, 
is now introduced, viz., the relative depths of the seas sur- 
rounding Australia and New Zealand. It is shown, by the aid of 
a map, that if the whole of the circumjacent ocean, which is at 
present less than 1000 fathoms in depth, was to be elevated above 
sea-level, a very remarkable change in the conformation of the 
existing land would take place. New Zealand would be extended 
very greatly to the west and north-west, and two long narrow 
arms would stretch, one to Lord Howe's Island, and the other by 
Norfolk Island to the Great Barrier Reef, and thus a connection 
with North-eastern Australia would be made. The same eleva- 
tion would extend the area of Australia, round its western, 
southern, and eastern coasts, while a long tongue of land would 
unite it with Tasmania, and would reach to the 50th parallel S. 
latitude. But even with this great elevation of 6000ft., a wide sea 
would remain between New Zealand and temperate Australia. 
The northern extension of Australia would connect it on the one 
hand with Malaysia, Borneo, and Celebes, while from New Guinea 
a broad eastern extension would include the New Hebrides. 
Starting from these indications, Mr. Wallace shows that we ought 
to expect to find that New Zealand was most probably connected 
at a remote period " with tropical Australia and New Guinea, and 
perhaps, at a still more remote epoch, with the great southern 
continent, by means of intervening lands and islands," as "a sub 
marine plateau at a depth somewhere between one and two thousand 
fathoms stretches southward to the antarctic continent." 

It is not my intention here to follow Mr. Wallace in all the 
arguments he adduces to show the origin of our fauna, but a few 
of his facts are suggestive and confirmatory of his theory, as 
opposed to that of Prof. Hutton's, which he again discusses at 
some length. Thus our struthious birds are shown to be allied, 
not to the rheas of South America, but to the cassowaries and 
emus of North Australia and New Guinea. Again, " the starling 
family, to which four of the most remarkable New Zealand birds 
belong (the genera Creadion, Heterolocka, and Calleas) is totally 
wanting in temperate Australia, and is comparatively scarce in 
the entire Australian region, but is abundant in the Oriental 
region, with which New Guinea and the Moluccas are in easy 
communication. It is certainly a most suggestive fact that there 
are more than sixty genera of birds peculiar to the Australian 
continent (with Tasmania), many of them almost or quite confined 
to its temperate portions, and that no single one of these should 
be represented in temperate New Zealand." 

But this connection with tropical Australia must necessarily 
have been at a remote period, before the latter received its 
mammalian fauna, or else that portion of Australia which was in 
connection with New Zealand " was itself isolated from the main 
land, and was thus without a mammalian population." And this 
is the essentially novel and interesting part of the theory/ which 


Mr. Wallace seeks to prove by an examination of our flora, and 
by the existing geological conditions of Australia. 

Stated concisely, his conclusions are, that for a long period of 
time Australia was divided into two islands, a western and an 
eastern. In the former of these, the peculiarly characteristic 
Australian genera, both of plants and animals, originated. The 
eastern island stretched in a long narrow line from the tropics to 
the south of Tasmania, and in connection with its tropical portion 
there was probably a prolongation of New Zealand to the north- 
west. By this bridge, with its southerly and south-easterly 
ramifications, a stream of immigrants set in from the tropical 
regions further north, so that numerous genera, and even species 
of plants, as well as some animals, were spread along both shores 
of the sea separating New Zealand from Australia. The subse- 
quent depression of the northern area caused a separation of New 
Zealand from tropical Australia, while the elevation of the com- 
paratively shallow sea separating the western from the eastern 
island united these two into the great continental island of 
Australia, over the whole of which the peculiar western forms 
spread rapidly, and apparently at a much greater rate than the 
tropical and eastern species did. While the presence of the 
Australian, Asiatic, and Polynesian elements in the New Zealand 
flora are traceable to this former land connection, the antarctic 
and South American forms are believed to be due to immigration 
from outlying islands and extensions of land to the South, and the 
European, or more correctly the arctic, element is explained by 
the extraordinarily aggressive character of the so-called Scandi- 
navian flora, which has enabled it to push its colonists over the 
three great southern areas — viz , South Africa, South America, 
and Australasia. 

Mr. Wallace's explanations of the origin of our flora must 
commend themselves as extremely satisfactory to every one 
capable of judging of the questions under consideration. Our 
subsequent knowledge may modify some of his conclusions to a 
slight extent, but it is by the publication of such hypotheses and 
theories, and the application of them for the solution of difficult 
problems, that correct ideas are most rapidly attained. Not only 
is our interest heightened by such speculations, but definite issues 
are placed before our minds, and we are enabled to judge more 
and more accurately of these, and to recognise how vast the field 
to be traversed is. It is well to bear in mind that, as our stock of 
lacts increases, so also does our knowledge of our ignorance, and 
that the latter often increases in a much more rapid ratio than the 
former. We begin by discussing a limited question, satisfied 
perhaps that we have sufficient information accumulated to enable 
us to give a definite answer, but at every turn collateral points are 
raised, until at last we feel ourselves tace to lace with an over- 
powering mass of questions all demanding solution, and are at the 
same time conscious of our inability to grapple with them. But it 
is only given to the lew — to a very limited few indeed — to be able 
to generalize and build up into a homogeneous whole the hetero- 
geneous materials collected by the multitude. We can all help to 
accumulate these materials together, leaving it to the master- 
minds of science to use the fruits of our labours. 

I have very briefly attempted to show what are the principal 


theories enunciated to account ior our flora. I now propose to 
examine some of the modes by which plants become distributed, 
particularly noticing their application to New Zealand plants; and 
turther, to show a little more in detail than Mr. Wallace could 
afford to do in a general work, the relations of our flora to that of 

In examining such a problem as the distribution of plants, it 
is manifest that one of the most important considerations to be 
taken into account is their mode of dispersal, and chiefly, 
of course, the mode of dispersal of their seeds. Some 
plants, such as the strawberry, no doubt have the power of 
spreading themselves over wide areas by means of their long 
trailing shoots, as we see this plant doing at the present day 
wherever it has been introduced. But even the strawberry 
appears to be dispersed much more by its seeds than by its 
suckers, and it is the seed therefore which must be considered 
chiefly. The most important agents concerned in the dispersal of 
seeds are, (1) the wind, (2) birds or other animals, and (3) ocean 
currents. Besides these, icebergs may have been the means of 
bringing some plants to our shores, rivers have certainly dis- 
tributed them from higher to lower levels, and lastly, human 
agency has been an efficient cause in late years. But for the 
first of these extra causes — viz., icebergs — we have no data beyond 
very general ones to go upon, and the other two have little bearing 
on the wide question of the origin of the flora. (1) The wind is 
certainly a most efficient agent in the dispersal of seeds, and many 
plants have their seeds specially adapted for the purpose oi being 
so distributed. The order Composite shows the greatest specializa- 
tion in this respect, the calyx-limb being modified in a large pro- 
portion of the species into a pappus, which acts as a parachute. 
The order is the largest in the New Zealand flora, numbering 
24 genera, and including 167 species, but from its wide-spread 
means of dispersion is of less value than less highly differen- 
tiated orders. The majority of the plants of this order are either 
Australian, or are allied to Australian forms, a few being of very 
wide distribution. Another contrivance for wind-dispersion is 
found in .the persistence ot the stigma in the form of long feathery 
awns on the achenes. This is represented in the genus Clematis, a 
genus occurring in all temperate climates, and ot which the New 
Zealand species, as well as the Australian, are all endemic. Its 
origin here is therefore an open question. The genus Atherosperma, 
belonging to a specially South American order, is similarly cha- 
racterised, but its occurrence here has no special significance, as 
Australia possesses an endemic species, as well as New Zealand. 
The genera Epilobium and Pavsonsia both have tufts of hair on their 
seeds to aid in their dispersal ; the former is a very wide-spread 
genus in all temperate regions, and some of its species are common 
to both hemispheres, while the latter is an Asiatic and Australian 
genus. The only other contrivances which aid in the wind- 
dispersal of our New Zealand plants are wings on the fruits or 
seeds. These occur, but feebly developed, on the nuts of Fagus, 
and on the seeds of Knightia, Dammara, and Libocedrus. The first of 
these occurs in both the north and south temperate regions, but 
our and the Australian species are all probably ot antarctic origin. 
The second genus has one New Caledonian representative, and 


the third is Australian, Malaysian, and Polynesian in its distri- 
bution, while Libocedms is found only in New Zealand and South 

While special adaptations for wind-distribution are apparently 
few in New Zealand plants (if we except the Composite), there are 
no doubt many seeds which are readily blown about by reason of 
their small size and lightness. I have no data to guide me here, 
but will instance the order Orchidece, all the species of which have 
minute light seeds, and all the genera of which are either 
Australian or from further north, or have an Australian facies. 

(2) The second mode of dispersal mentioned is by means of 
birds, and this is accomplished in three ways — "either by swal- 
lowing fruits and rejecting the seeds in a state fit for germination, 
or by the seeds becoming attached to the plumage of ground- 
nesting birds, or to the feet of aquatic birds embedded in small 
quantities of mud or earth." With regard to the first of these 
modes, it is probable that the bright colours of most succulent 
fruits serve to render them conspicuous and attractive to birds, 
which are thus led to swallow them. But most seeds, enclosed in 
fleshy pulp, are furnished with a hard shell or test, and most 
fruit-eating birds have a very soft gizzard, incapable of grinding 
up the food which they eat, and so it happens that these birds 
become the unconscious means of distributing plants producing such 
succulent fruits. I find that altogether some 59 genera of plants 
in New Zealand produce succulent fruits, mostly drupaceous — that 
is, having the inner layer of the pericarp hard or stony, so as to 
protect the seeds, — and of these no less than 41 genera are common 
to these islands and Australia, or the tropics of the Old World. 
Only 18 of these genera occur also in America, and their range is 
either very wide, as in the case of Myvtus, Eugenia, Solanum, 
Cassytha, and Astelia, or they are of antarctic distribution, and have 
in most cases invaded Australia and countries to the north, as 
well as New Zealand. Coriaria, Fuchsia, and Callixene are the only 
New Zealand genera with succulent fruits which occur in South 
America, but not in Australia, or any other land to the north of 
New Zealand. When it is remembered that most of our land 
birds are either characteristic of the Australian region, or are 
allied to Australian forms, a certain amount of light is thrown 
upon this subject. It must not however be supposed that the 
possession or the want of succulent fruit is a character of great 
importance or significance ; it is probably a very minor character, 
as even in the same species (e.g., Gaultheria antipoda) we may find 
great differences in the extent to which succulent tissue is 
developed in the pericarp of the fruit. Still it constitutes one of 
those minor coincidences, the sum of which, when taken together, 
throws considerable light on this and kindred questions. 

Besides swallowing the fruits of plants and rejecting the 
seeds, birds carry seeds attached to their plumage. A few grasses 
may be thus carried by means of their hispid awns, and the seeds 
of some Pittosporums may adhere by their glutinous surface, but 
with these exceptions I only know of two genera which owe their 
means of dispersal to any special contrivance which enables their 
seeds to adhere to passing objects — these are Accena and Uncinia. 
In the former genus, the four angles of the persistent calyx are 
produced into spines, which in the majority of the species bear 


small barbs at their apex, and the fruit thus adheres very readily ; 
the genus is confined to the Southern Hemisphere, except in 
America, where it has spread as far as Mexico and California, and 
in Polynesia as far as the Sandwich Islands. The occurrence ot 
the barb is a very peculiar feature in the New Zealand species. 
The common piri-pivi (A . sanguisorbce) is a native of Australia, 
Tasmania, and Tristan d'Acunha, as well as New Zealand, and 
the calyx-spines are always barbed. A . adscendens, another barbed 
species, occurs also in Fuegia and the Falkland Islands, while 
A. novae zealandive, 2, third barbed species, though endemic, is alto- 
gether too near A. sanguisorbce to rank as an exception. The other 
four species are also endemic, and of these A. depvessa bears barbs, 
while the other three, A. microphylla, buchanani, and inermis are 
almost entirely without them. The barbs, while no doubt of use 
in adhering to the feathers of birds, are best fitted to stick to the 
hair and skin of passing animals, and I think that in these smooth- 
spined Acanas we have a case of loss of an organ through disuse. 

The other specially furnished genus is Uncinia, sedges which 
occur chiefly in the Southern Hemisphere, but range as far north 
as the mountains of Abyssinia. The seed in every species is fur- 
nished with a long hooked bristle, which springs from the base of 
the nut, and projects out of the utricle or sac enclosing the fruit. 

Our species are mostly endemic, but one is almost identical 
with a Fuegian species, and one or two with Tasmanian forms. 
It appears to me probable that the singular Chatham Island lily 
(or forget-me-not), Myosotidium nobile, is derived from an originally 
barbed plant, and that by long isolation it has lost the barbed 
bristles on the nuts characteristic of the Australian genus Cyno- 
glossum, its nearest allies, just as it has lost the hispid character 
considered so distinctive of other Bovaginece. 

The last mode specified in which birds carry seeds is attached 
to the mud or earth which clings to their feet. This subject has 
already been so carefully and conclusively worked out, particularly 
by Mr. Darwin in " The Origin of Species," that I need not do 
more than refer to it. Sir J. D. Hooker, in the recently-published 
(1879) account of the botany of Kerguelen Island (Challenger 
Expedition Reports), considers that the few species of flowering 
plants of that island, presenting, as they do, a decided Fuegian 
fades, have been thus brought by land birds. These are very 
abundant on the Falkland Islands, where the vegetation is 
identical with that of colder South America, and favoured by the 
prevalent westerly gales, and the numerous stepping-stones, 
probably in the form of islands formerly existing, these land birds 
have probably found their way to Kerguelen Island. And he goes 
on to say that " the absence of such birds from the present avi- 
fauna of the island offers no obstacle to such a speculation, as 
such immigrants would on arrival speedily be destroyed by the 
predatory gulls and petrels of the island." It is probable that 
some of the antarctic and South American lorms occurring in New 
Zealand, and also in Tasmania and South-east Australia, have 
been thus introduced. And this probability is increased, it we 
assume, with Mr. Wallace, that changes similar to those which 
have occurred in arctic regions have also taken place in the 
antarctic — viz., that great alternations of climate have occurred in 
past ages, during some of which the now ice- clad antarctic conti- 


nent bore an abundant flora of south temperate forms, obtained 
probably from South America, the nearest continental area. 

(3) The third mode of plant-dispersion alluded to is by means 
of ocean currents. This subject has also been carefully examined 
by Mr. Darwin, and the results of his interesting experiments are 
detailed in " The Origin ot Species," and have been largely em- 
ployed by Wallace in accounting for the flora of oceanic islands, 
such as the Azores. I need not recapitulate these results here, 
but will merely point out that the length of time during which 
many seeds will float and retain their vitality, and also the proba- 
bilities of such seeds being carried to localities suitable for their 
germination, are probably much greater than popular idea would, 
assign to them. In former epochs, when there was a greater land 
extension, and perhaps a more temperate climate in the antarctic 
regions, this mode of distribution may have sufficed to introduce 
some species into New Zealand, but it appears somewhat im- 
probable that it still continues to act to any considerable extent. 
A correct knowledge of the oceanic currents which impinge on 
our coasts will alone enable us to torm an estimate of this means 
of plant immigration, and this inlormation I do not possess. 

Having considered very briefly these modes of plant dispersal, 
and roticed the geographical distribution and relationships of 
those genera which have been effected chiefly by their modifica- 
tions of form, I would take a brief glance at the endemic lorms 
which occur so abundantly in our islands. As these have probably 
all originated in or near the localities where they now exist, they 
can only aid us in the solution of the present question by their 

Many of these affinities are very difficult to establish, but in 
the majority of cases where the relationship of our endemic species 
to the flora ot other countries is evident, it is lound that Australian 
forms greatly predominate. Long isolation, together with complete 
change in their environment, has probably served to modify many 
of the immigrants, so that their affinities have become obscured, 
and this has acted in many cases so effectually as to mask them 
altogether. Usually variation first appears in the habit of the 
plant, and we see this in the form of the foliage, &c, of Ranunculus 
Lyallii, our coriaceous Veronicas, Olearias, Ligusticums, &c. The same 
change is seen in recently introduced plants, as in the common 
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale), which in New Zealand rivers 
shows a tendency to assume a very different habit from its European 
parent. Protection against some forms ot insect enemies, probably 
Orthopterous, appears also to have played an effectual part in 
modifying the epidermal structures of many of our species, and 
may partly account for the prevalence of coriaceous-leaved and 
woolly plants, among the alpine species in particular. But we have 
little data here to go upon, and before passing on to the last part of 
this address, I will just point out a few peculiarities ot structure in 
our plants which are of interest and full of suggestiveness. 

One of these is the scarcity of spiny or prickly plants. As the 
function of spines and prickles is probably that ot defence against 
mammalian enemies, we can readily understand the paucity of such 
contrivances in our plants. Even the apparent exceptions go to 
prove the rule in nearly every case. Where such defensive modi- 
fications do occur, we notice that the plants are usually to be found 


outside of New Zealand, and are most probably of foreign origin, 
their weapons of defence having been developed in countries 
where they were of service, and the New Zealand immigrants not 
having had sufficient time to lose them. Thus Discaria toumatou 
has its branches and branchlets reduced to spines, but the genus 
is wide-spread in the southern hemisphere, and our species is 
almost identical with an Australian one. So strong a case cannot 
be made out with regard to Aciphylla, or spear-grass, whose leaves 
and bracts are all spinous, and constitute a most powerful means 
of defence. The genus is certainly found in Australia, but the 
spines are not developed to any extent in the Australian species, 
while our bayonet-leaved species are endemic. Hymenanthem, with 
excessively rigid branches, and Erynguim with spinous leaves and 
bracts, are both genera which range into Australia ; in the latter 
case the species being identical. The same remark applies to 
many of our harsh cutting-grasses or sedges, belonging to the 
genera Cladium, Gahnia, Lepidosperma, Carex, &c, all being genera 
having wide distribution outside of New Zealand, and some 
having identical species in Australia. Again we have apparent 
anomalies in Dracophyllum, with its pungent-tipped leaves (a 
character common, however, to the Australian species), and in 
Desmoschcenus, the common, large, scabrid sedge of our sandhills. 
Very few species have the fruit protected against grazing animals. 
The only cases I know of are Sicyos angulatus, of which the nut is 
covered with barbed spines, but which is a species common to 
Australia and part of America, and Entelea arborescens, with a 
spinous capsule. This last plant is probably descended, after 
much modification, from a stray immigrant of a remote period, 
its nearest ally being Sparmannia, a Cape of Good Hope 

Even the following facts, slight and almost unappreciable as 
they are, tend to show that the absence of grazing animals tends 
to modify species to a considerable extent. We have in New 
Zealand two species of manuka (Leptospermum). Of these, L. sco- 
parmm, with pungent tips to its leaves, also occurs in Australia ; 
L. ericoides, which wants the prickly tip, is endemic. Similarly 
there are two species of Leucopogon, of which L. fmzevi, with a 
short spine or mucro at the apex of the leaf, occurs in Australia, 
and L. fasciculatus, with smooth leaves, is endemic. Lastly, there 
are five heaths of the genus Avchevia. Of these, two occur in New 
Zealand and one in Tasmania, all having obtuse leaves ; the 
other two occur in Australia, and have very acute, almost spinous, 

The next matter bearing on this subject to which I now 
request your attention is the relation of our flora to that of 
Australia, as pointed out by Mr. Wallace in his latest theory, 
which is, that New Zealand was at one time connected with the 
Asiatic region by way of tropical Australia, while the whole of 
Eastern Australia was an island separate from what is now 
Western Australia by a comparatively shallow sea. This, he 
affirms, is proven by the depth of the now intervening seas, by 
the geological formations of all the countries concerned, by the 
occurrence of so many New Zealand genera and species in 
Eastern Australia, and the absence from New Zealand of so many 
characteristic Australian orders and genera. It would be out of 


place here to go into these points minutely, because to do so 
would involve a mere recapitulation of Mr. Wallace's able and 
conclusive arguments, and I shall therefore only confine myself to 
a short examination of the relations of our flora to that of Eastern 
and Western Australia respectively. I have to apologise if I now 
descend into statistics, as the subject can hardly be treated in any 
other manner. 

New Zealand possesses altogether 310 genera of flowering 
plants (303 A.R.W.), of which 248 (251 A.R.W.) are found in 
Australia, and of this number 146 range into Western Australia. 
But of these no less than 114 genera are more or less widely 
distributed outside the Australasian region, leaving only 31 genera 
peculiar to New Zealand and Australia which range into Western 
Australia. I append the names of these genera, * but my 
knowledge of the Australian flora is much too limited to enable 
me to say how many of them have their headquarters in Eastern, 
or how many in Western Australia. In this connection greater 
interest attaches to those species which occur in both New 
Zealand and Western Australia. There are altogether 215 New 
Zealand species (belonging to 134 genera) found in Australia, 
many of them being Antarctic or South American forms which 
occur very sparingly on the mountains of Victoria and Tasmania. 
Of these 215 species, 106 (belonging to 79 genera) range into 
Western Australia ; but subtracting 68 species (52 genera) which 
have a very wide distribution, we find that we have still 38 species 
of limited dispersion to consider. Of these 24! belong to genera 
whose headquarters are outside of Australia, and their spread 
into Western Australia is probably more recent than into New 
Zealand ; 7 J belong to genera which are chiefly found in Eastern 
Australia, from whence the species in question have probably 
spread themselves east and west ; and 7§ more are of genera 
oi which I do not know the centre of dispersion. 

A close examination of the whole leads strongly to the con- 
clusions that the basis of the floras of Eastern Australia and 
New Zealand are somewhat identical ; that both have received 
immigrants independently after their separation, from north and 
south, Australia, by reason of its northern land connections with 

* New Zealand genera confined to New Zealand and Australia, which occur in 
Western Australia: — (1) Pittosporum, (2) Plagianthus, (3) Phebalium, (4) Stack- 
housia, (5) Pomaderris, (6) Discaria, (7) Swainsonia, (8) Leptospermum, (9) 
Actinotus, (10) Olearia, (11) Brachycome, (12) Craspedia, (13) Cassinia, ( 14) 
Qzothamnus, (15) Sca:vola, (16) Dracophyllum, (17) Logania, (18) Persoonia, (19) 
Pimelea, (20) Poranthera, (21) Prasophyllum, (22) Pterostylis, (23) Cyrtostylis, (24) 
Oaladenia, (25) Arthropodium, (26) Leptocarpus, (27) Calorophus, (28) Microlcena, 
(29) Deyeuxia, (30) Echinopogon, (31) Schcedonorus. 

t(i) Ranunculus lappaceus, (2) R. plebeius, (3) R. rivularis, (4) Claytonia 
australasica, (5) Linum marginale, (6) Pelargonium australe, (7) Tilloea purpurata, 
(8) iMyriophyllum variaefolium, (9) M. pedunculatum, (10) Epilobium glabellum, 
(II) Daucus brachiatus, (12) Senecio lautus, (13) Microseris Eorsteri, (14) Sebasa 
qvata, (15) Myosotis australis, (16) Mimulus repens, (17) Salicornia australis, (18) 
Carex inverBa, (19) Deyeuxia forsteri, (20) D. quadriseta, (21) Danthonia semi- 
annularis. (22) Schcedonorus littoralis, (23) Glyceria stricta, (24) Bromus arenarius. 

J (I) Vittadinia australis, (2) Erechtites prenanthoidcs, (3) Erecluites arguta, 
(4) Erechtites quadridentata, (5) Pterostylis squainata, (6) Microlcena stipoides, (7) 
Echinopogon ovatus. 

§ (1) Poranthera microphylla, (2) Thelymitra longifolia, (3) Schcenus axillaris, 
(4) Cladium glomeratum, (5) Gladium gunnii, (6) Dichelachne stipoides (Stipa tereti- 
folia), (7) Dichelachne crinita. 


New Guinea, receiving the greatest number of tropical species, 
and New Zealand, from its southern extension, the greatest 
number of Antarctic and American species ; that the West 
Australian flora proved more aggressive than the eastern, and 
thus overran the whole continental area, giving it its peculiarly 
characteristic facies ; and that of the Eastern species only those 
having considerable powers of dispersion have succeeded in 
spreading themselves westwards. 

In considering the geographical distribution oi a flora it is 
usual to bring under review only the phanerogamic or flowering 
plants, because the spores of cryptograms furnish them with a 
most remarkable power of dispersion by wind. Yet even the 
distribution of our ferns and other vascular cryptograms bears its 
testimony in support of the theory of the origin of the flora 
enunciated by Mr. Wallace. Excluding the endemic species, 
there are about 30 per cent, of remaining forms which are spread 
extensively over a great part of the globe, about 4 strictly American, 
another 30 of tropical, Asiatic, or Polynesian occurrence, and 
about 36 per cent, almost exclusively Australian. Of the 85 
species common to New Zealand and Australia, only 15 occur 
also in West Australia, and these are all species of very wide and 
general distribution. 

In bringing to a conclusion these somewhat disconnected 
remarks, I shall endeavour to show how they may be pieced 
together so as to give some idea of the present standing of the 
whole question. In examining such a matter, some starting point 
or line of demarcation must be taken, for were we to go far enough 
back we should have to account for the very existence of flowering 
plants themselves. There are those who believe that all our 
species have been produced by development from a few forms 
originally created in this region of the world, while others ignore 
the idea of development altogether. Wherever flowering plants 
did originate, it was most probably not in New Zealand ; and all 
the information we possess on the subject leads to the conclusion 
that the parent forms of our flora were introduced from other 
lands during a long succession of ages, and that the process is 
still going on. As has been already stated, there are about 1085 
species of flowering plants known to occur in these islands, and 
of this number about 800 are endemic — that is, confined to this 
region. The relative numbers given in Hooker's Fl. Nov. Zeal, 
are 730 and 507, but the additions during the last thirty years 
have chiefly been of endemic forms. These species have been 
developed by the peculiar conditions to which the parent forms 
have been subjected during long periods of isolation. What these 
conditions have actually been we do not know, but in the majority 
of cases the changes brought about have only been of specific 
value. Even where they amount to generic importance, the 
affinities can in nearly every case be traced, and we can form an 
approximately correct opinion as to the relationships indicated. 
The greater proportion of these endemic species is of distinctly 
Australian origin ; there are also a number showing Polynesian 
affinities, and many of Antarctic relationship. The remarks 
therefore which apply to the plants common to New Zealand and 
the regions specified will apply to the originals from whence our 
endemic species have sprung. In accounting now for the species 


which are common to New Zealand and other parts of the world, 
we may notice first that there is no absolute need on the part of 
the botanist, as there is on the part of the zoologist, to assume the 
existence in long past ages of former land connections with 
countries lying round about. But we have now reason to believe 
that there were former land extensions which served to widen the 
area of New Zealand as it existed in olden times, and to bring it 
into closer proximity with other countries. From the Antarctic 
circle a constant succession of south-westerly and southerly 
winds and currents may have served from time to time to convey 
seeds, and birds carrying seeds in their crops and attached to 
their feet, &c. ; while icebergs may have aided in carrying masses 
of earth, spores, and seeds of certain Antarctic species of plants. 
The Antarctic continent, of which the now existing portions are 
probably only fragments, had in all likelihood alternations of 
climate such as we know to have existed at its antipodes, and 
during some of its warmer epochs it would be invaded by plants 
from South America. These would thus become spread round 
the south pole, from thence to be distributed radially to the 
countries lying north, as the climate again altered. Not only 
would Antarctic forms thus find their way into New Zealand, but 
it is by this means that South American forms were likely intro- 
duced, and it is by this spreading north from a common centre 
that we must account for so many species which are found both 
here and in the Tasmanian and Australian Alps. Why some 
species should become modified, and others remain persistent, I 
do not know. Thus our fuchsias and pepper-trees are distinct 
from the species found in South America, though certainly derived 
from that region, while our tutu plants (Coriaria angusti folia and 
thymifolia) are identical with others found on the Andes. We 
cannot work out these problems with our present information, for 
the necessary factors are wanting. 

The northern extension of New Zealand, indicated by Mr. 
Wallace as existing formerly, would bring it into very close 
proximity to North-eastern Australia, which may then have been 
in form of a long, narrow island running nearly north and south, 
and also close to extensive sub-continental areas, of which only 
the remains are now left in the Polynesian Islands. And not 
only did those forms which are common to New Zealand and 
Australia, and New Zealand and Polynesia, find their way thus 
southwards, but it was probably by this chain that the plants of 
European and Asiatic affinity now found in our islands were 
introduced. But it was only at a much later period that an 
upheaval took place of the comparatively shallow seas separating 
the eastern and western portions of Australia, and that those 
forms now characteristic of Australia, and which had been long 
developing under the peculiar conditions of their isolation in the 
western portion, overran the whole continent and stamped their 
features so markedly on its flora. And it is to this explanation 
that we must look in accounting for the presence of so many 
plants in New Zealand and Eastern Australia which are not found 
at all in Western Australia. A few specially Australian plants 
may have at later periods found their way into this Colony, as the 
prevalent winds here are from the west ; and birds are still found 
which have apparently strayed across the intervening expanse of 


ocean, but their number must be almost inappreciable, and cannot 
affect the general result. 

While many of the immigrants thus introduced may have 
transmitted their characters almost unaltered through many suc- 
cessive 'generations, so that we still rank their descendants as 
belonging to species yet to be found outside New Zealand, others 
gave rise to variations and sports, and in course of time the 
accumulation of these variations has amounted to specific 
importance, and in some cases even to generic. 

I believe that some such explanation as that sought to be 
given here will account for the present geographical distribution 
of our flora, but it will be long before we can trace the parent 
forms of many of our plants, and detect the alterations and 
variations they have undergone. A knowledge of the tertiary and 
secondary floras of New Zealand and Australia will help much 
towards elucidating this problem, but the palaeo-botany of this 
part of the world is yet in its infancy, and very little is known on 
the subject. 

It may be considered that too much stress is laid in this 
explanation on the elevation and subsidence of great masses of 
land, but a little consideration will show that this is not the case. 
The deeply gouged-out character of our western lakes and sounds 
shows that they were cut out by ice, and to account for this we 
must either assume that the land stood very much higher than it 
does now, or the climate was very much more frigid. But even 
in the latter case, we must assume a considerable elevation, as 
glacial action would cease at, or very near, sea level, and our 
sounds are gouged down to great depths below present sea level. 
Further, most of the low-lying eastern portions of this island have 
been formed at comparatively recent times b} the denudation of 
our mountain chains, and most of this eastern coast is rapidly — 
one might almost say visibly — rising out of the sea. Again, the 
occurrence of fringing and barrier reefs in tropical seas is an 
almost certain mark of subsidence, as coral zoophytes cannot live 
at greater depths than about 120 feet, so that when we find these 
huge masses of rock surrounding islands, and standing out of an 
ocean in some cases 1000 fathoms or more in depth, we are bound 
down to the conclusion that the base on which the zoophytes 
commenced their labours was only a few fathoms from the surface, 
though now 6000 feet deep. 

In bringing these remarks to a close, I may just point out 
that a probably most important factor has been throughout left 
out of our calculations — viz., the physical changes which have 
affected the whole of our globe during comparatively recent 
geological epochs. Many theories have been advanced ot late 
years to account for the glaciation of parts of the northern hemis- 
phere, and the theorists have in some cases called in as auxiliaries 
all the powers of heaven and earth. But we may be sure that 
whatever causes could lead to results which are so apparent in one 
large portion of the world, must have at the same time caused 
great alteration in all other parts. But until we know with more 
certainty than we do at present what these great causes were, we 
cannot estimate what their effects on this portion of the world 
have been, 




Argyroplienga autipodum. — Egg whitish yellow, of a trun- 
cated barrel shape, and fluted ; attached by the end. Larva, on 
leaving the egg, whitish-yellow, tapering to its anal segment. 

Chrysophanus salustius. — About November, caught a female 
on the common dock {Rumex obtusifolius). She laid a single 
egg on a dock leaf. In January, last year, I found a female 
ovipositing on plants of sorrel (Rumex acetosella). The eggs 
were laid singly on the undersides of the leaves, during bright 
sunshine. Egg of a delicate light blue, hemispherical, pitted. 
The pits were hexagonal or pentagonal, and reticulated inside. 

Nyctemera annulata. — Eggs found in November and De- 
cember, sometimes on the underside of leaves, sometimes on 
wood or stones. Egg light yellow, shining, hemispherical. 
When magnified, slight rounded projections are seen on the 
surface. Laid side by side in groups, from twenty to seventy 
together. The caterpillar feeds commonly on the introduced 
groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), sometimes on a large Erechtites. 
Its original food may be Senecio lautus> for I have found many 
very fine specimens on it. 

Porina variolaris. — Eggs small, white, and spherical. 

Ipana leptomera. — Caterpillar large, cylindrical, looping in 
habit. Colour whitish-grey, similar to that of the moth. Found 
feeding on Rides sanguineus (common flowering currant). 
Chrysalis, reddish-brown, with a point at the tip of the abdomen, 
enclosed in an oval earthen cocoon. 

Agrotis sujfusa. — Eggs laid in January, side by side, in small 
groups. Egg small, whitish, hemispherical, and fluted. Cater- 
pillars feed on grass, and were full-grown about March or April. 
They were a little over an inch in length, of a dark earthy grey, 
with the dorsal area lighter ; a narrow light dorsal line edged 
with black ; on each side of this a line of black dots ; small 
black lateral tubercles ; spiracles dashed with whitish. Under- 
side of a bluish leaden colour ; hind margin of head sharply 
emarginate ; indications of chitinous plates on the second seg- 
ment. Chrysalis, very light brown, subterranean ; it was placed 
in an oval cavity, but I found no trace of a cocoon. 

Mecyna polygonalis. — Caterpillar feeds on SopJwra tetraptera. 
In December, I found both eggs and young larvae on the under- 
sides o( its leaflets. Eggs, overlapping scales, forming an 
unbroken whitish mass, Caterpillar, when full grown, about 
seven-eighths of an inch in length ; ground colour a curious 
olive green, showing as a broad dorsal stripe ; in each segment 
there are six subdorsal raised patches of a glossy black, three 
on each side ; in the third and fourth segments the two anterior 


patches are divided and touched with white ; in the succeeding 
segments the patches are further touched with white, and fre- 
quently ocellated with this colour ; below those groups of black 
are yellow streaks ; lateral stripe white ; a row of black tubercles, 
bearing hairs, runs along the edge of the underside ; underside 
greenish ; white hairs on the back ; head light brown, with a 
dark triangular patch, having a white mark at its base ; 
mandibles dark ; ten pro-legs ; cocoons formed at the top of 
their cage, of white silk ; chrysalis, light yellowish brown. 

Boarmia attracta. — A female caught about the end of March 
laid a number of eggs. Eggs oval, bluish-green, slightly de- 
pressed, with regular hexagonal reticulations. The larvae were 
brownish red, with a white lateral stripe. I could not find any 
plant they would eat. 

Cidaria similata. — In December a female laid about thirty 
eggs. Eggs oblong, smooth, green, scattered singly and gene- 
rally laid on their side. They turn red before hatching. 

Helastia Sp. — Caterpillar looping, green, about two-fifths of 
an inch long ; an indistinct dorsal and subdorsal stripe of darker 
green ; underside green, with a light ventral stripe ; head 
yellowish. Formed small rough earthen cocoons on the surface 
of the earth. The food plant is Myoporum laeticm. 


" A Great Mathematical Question." By T. Wakelin, B.A. 

In this little pamphlet there are about 1 5 pages of matter, 
and of these about seven consist of extracts from Whewell, 
Stewart, and others. We have read it through very carefully, 
and have to confess that we cannot see that the author has made 
any addition to our knowledge of kinetics. The tract appears 
to us to have grown out of a want of appreciation on the part 
of the author of the distinction between momentum, kinetic 
energy, and work done. Take the following passage as an 
example of the confusion of work done with energy of motion. 
Speaking of the work done by raising a ball a certain number of 
feet, Mr. Wakelin says : " If the ball weighed 10 pounds, and 
had risen to a height of 800 feet, 8000 foot-pounds of work 
would have been done in lifting the ball to the height stated. 
Now, it is found that, if the velocity of the ball had been 
doubled, it would have risen, not to double, but to four times 
the height ; and if the velocity had been trebled, it would have 
risen, not to treble, but to nine times the height, and so on. The 
work done then by the moving cannon ball will vary, not simply 
as the velocity, but as the square of the velocity." It is hardly 
necessary for us to say that the work done has nothing what- 
ever to do with the quickness with which it is done. Work done 
is simply mass multiplied with height, irrespective altogether of 


rate. Of course, the energy (i.e., the capacity to do work) of the 
cannon ball will vary as the square of the velocity. 

Further on the author appears to prove that the force of 
gravity does more work in one unit of time than in another, and 
then that it does not, and finally sums up thus : " It will be seen 
therefore that the distance through which a body falls during the 
time of falling is not a measure of the work of the force of 
gravity during that time." Of course not ; and we do not know 
that this is affirmed by anyone. During the third second, for 
example, a body falls through 80 feet, and of this only 16 feet is 
due to the force of gravity acting during that second — a fact 
well known to all physicists ; but how this can mean " that the 
ordinary measure of the kinetic energy of a mass in motion is 
erroneous," we cannot at all see. We presume the aptness of 
the title of the tract depends entirely upon this. 



(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — During a visit to Auckland last December, I took the 
opportunity, by leave of Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, of re-examining 
the specimen of Volnta kirki (mihi) in the Museum, and came 
to the conclusion that it was V. flavicans (Gmelin), which is 
found at New Caledonia, &c. The specimen has been a very 
long time in the Museum collection, and has seen many changes 
in curators ; no doubt it has got by accident among the New 
Zealand shells, and really came from some of the Pacific Islands. 
The same may, I think, be said with reference to Mitra obscura 
(mihi), Cypraza punctata, Marginella vittata (mihi), and Raeta 
perspicua (mihi) ,all of which are founded on one or two dead speci- 
mens in the Colonial Museum, from the Bay of Islands. Conns 
Zealandicns (mihi), in the same collection, and from the same 
locality, is undoubtedly C. aplnstre (Reeve), and I quite agree 
with Mr. Justice Gillies, that it cannot be considered as a New 
Zealand shell. I should put in the same category Adamsia 
typica, Fasciolaria trapezium, Risella melanostoma, Philippia 
lutea, and TJialotia conica. Great caution should be shown in 
admitting a species, common in other countries, into our list ; it 
should only be done when either living specimens have been 
obtained, or when dead shells have been found in such quanti- 
ties, and in such various places, as to exclude the possibility of 
their having been dropped. I myself, in company with Mr. C. 
Traile, once found on the beach at Maketu a specimen of Mitra 
episcopalis, but neither of us supposed that it was a New 
Zealand shell. — I am, &c, 


Christchurch, 16th February, 1882. 





Beck's Large Best Binocular Stand, with Concentric Rotating Stage, Iris 
Diaphragm, Graduated Draw Tube, Stage Forceps ; 4 Pairs Eye-pieces (viz. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and a single No. 4 and No. 5) ; 4 Objectives (viz. 2 in., | in., 
four-tenth in., and one-fifth in.) ; Achromatic Condenser, with Revolving 
Diaphragm, Stops, Aperture from 25° to 80°, etc. ; Opal, blue and dimmed 
Glasses for moderating the light ; Parabolic Illuminator ; Large Bull's-eye 
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piece ; Screw Compresscrium ; Glass Trough, with Wedge and Spring. 

The whole packed in two Handsome Mahogany Cases, 

Price - £65. 

(Cost here £80). 


With 3 Powers, rack adjustments, and accessory apparatus, 
in plain case. 

Price - £7. 

!0, Beck's Improved Dissecting Single Microscope, 

;e, with two single and two Coddington 
in Strong Mahogany Case. 

Price - £5 10s. 

Complete, with two single and two Coddington Lenses, 
in Strong Mahogany Case. 

Apply, A,B, 5 
Care Messrs. J. WILKIE and Co., 




\n\#&\$* and $totfoq*»* 



MAY, 1882.] 

[Vol. I., No. 3. 






Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut sifalsum est, adcingere contra. 



Biology in our Arts Curriculum. Prof. F. W. Hutton 97 

Recent Researches on the Cilio-Flagellata. Prof. T. J. Parker Ill 

Plurality of Cotyledons in the Genus Persoonia. Baron F. von Mueller, F.R.S. , etc. 1 1 5 

New Zealand Copepoda of the " Challenger " Expedition (Abstract) 117 

A Trip to Lake Hauroto. Mr Robert Paulin 119 

General Notes — . 127 

Adenochilus Gracilis — Euphrasia Repens— Change of Nomenclature of N.Z Beetles—Notes 
on N.Z, Ferns — Flowers and Folk-Lore — Publications received — Errata, 

Charles Darwin 133 

New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera (Abstract) 136 

New Zealand University Science Examinations , 139 

Correspondence — 142 

Some Fossil Plants — " A Great Mathematical Question "—New Zea'and Ferns, 

Meetings of Societies — 143 

Otago Institute and Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club— Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. 






Subscribers to the N. Z. Journal of Science are respect- 
fully requested to forward their Subscriptions for the current 
year to Messrs. J. Wilkie & Co. 


Vol. I., No. 3, MAY, 1882.] 



Undoubtedly we live in an age of educational unrest. From 
all sides we hear conflicting opinions as to how much, or how 
little, of the knowledge acquired during the last century should 
find a place in the general education of to-day, and as to how 
far a student's acquaintance with that knowledge can be ascer- 
tained and appraised by examination. I am very far indeed 
from thinking that this unrest is a misfortune ; on the contrary, 
I believe it to be a great benefit. Harmony, unfortunately, 
always implies stagnation, conflict is necessary for progress ; and 
I have no doubt but that in the struggle for existence between 
these conflicting opinions, those best adapted to the present 
circumstances will survive. 

In the discussion, the place of biology in education has 
received a considerable amount of attention from both the 
theoretical and practical sides. Its value as a mental discipline, 
when properly taught, was fully demonstrated by Professor 
Parker in his admirable address last year to the Otago Uni- 
versity, and the practical value of biology to agriculture and to 
medicine has been explained by Professor Huxley in lectures, 
and in his address to the International Medical Congress held 
in London last August. I cannot, of course, hope to add any- 
thing to your knowledge of the subject from these points of 
view, but there is another aspect of biology which, so far as I 
know, has not yet been brought into the discussion, and which, 
consequently, I have thought may interest you for an hour this 
evening — I allude to the practical value of biology in an Arts 
curriculum. I shall endeavour to explain to you the importance 
of this study in politics and in ethics ; and I shall do so by 
demonstrating the constant action in all human affairs of the 
principle of selection, which, as you know, is one of the leading 
principles of biology. 

The enunciation of the principle of selection is simple. It is 
that, among two or more competing individuals the worst 
adapted to the circumstances will be the first to succumb. This, 
you will say, sounds like a truism— and no doubt it is a truism, — 
but, combined with the laws of inheritance and variation, it 
brings about most important results. Now, it is necessary at the 

* The opening address for 1882 at the Canterbury College, University of New 


outset to get a clear idea of what selection can do, and what it 
cannot do ; for this is a point very commonly misunderstood, 
and incorrect ideas on the subject have made some people reject 
the principle altogether. 

If there are a number of competing individuals, differing 
slightly from each other, and 

No compound of this earthly ball 
Is like another all in all,* 

then the principle of selection will determine which of these 
individuals shall live to propagate its kind, and which shall die 
out. But selection has no power if the individuals are not com- 
peting, and it is in no way concerned with the origin of the 
differences ; the differences must be there before selection can 
act. Those individuals which are best adapted to the circum- 
stances will survive, and, by the law of inheritance, the 
chances are in favour of the offspring inheriting the difference 
that caused their parents to survive. If we take a sufficiently 
large number of cases, the probability of inheriting this differ- 
ence becomes a certainty. If now these offspring again differ 
among themselves in the same way that their parents differed, 
selection will again pick out those in which the difference — or 
variation, as it is usually called — is most favourable ; and these 
selected individuals will, in their turn, hand the variation down 
to their offspring in a better form than they originally received 
it. Selection, therefore, in combination with inheritance and 
variation, is cumulative in its action ; but it is important to 
notice that it is cumulative only by selecting the best varieties 
of each generation ; it is in no way a cause of the variations 

An illustration will perhaps make my meaning clearer. 
Take the evolution of the eye. Suppose that in a number of 
eyeless animals the nerve of some portion of the skin of one 
individual was slightly sensitive to light, and thus, being able to 
distinguish day from night, it had an advantage over other indi- 
viduals in escaping its enemies. This individual will be one of 
those that survive on the principle of selection, and in the next 
generation there will be, by the law of inheritance, several indi- 
viduals endowed with the same power of distinguishing day frcm 
night. These, in their turn, will survive, and at last all tic 
individuals of the species will have the same faculty. This will 
be the result of selection, but selection did not make the nerve 
of the first individual sensitive to light, and it is powerless to 
improve the nerves of the offspring ; what it can do is to bring 
all the individuals up to the level of the best. If, however, an 
improved variety appears, the improvement is at once made 
permanent, and diffused through the species by the action of 
selection ; but selection itself, I repeat, cannot originate nor 

How variations arise we are profoundly ignorant. To sup- 



pose, with the late G. H. Lewes and Dr. Roux, that there is an 
intercellular struggle going on in the tissues, and consequently 
an intercellular selection that causes variations in the organs, is 
merely to shift the difficulty one step backward, and by no 
means to explain the cause of the variations. To say, as some 
do, that variations arise by chance, is only another way of saying 
we cannot explain them. To say that no two individuals, or no 
two cells, are exposed to exactly the same conditions, and that, 
therefore, variations must arise — or, in other words, that all 
variations are caused directly by external conditions — is to draw 
an inference for which there is no proof, and one that is appa- 
rently contradicted by a large array of facts of different kinds. 
No doubt external agencies have some direct effect in producing 
individual variation, but it is doubtful whether these variations 
are ever transmitted, and in almost every case it is impossible to 
feel sure that a variation supposed to be due to direct external 
action is not in reality due to selection. It would be more than 
rash, it would be foolish, to assert that we can never know more 
than we do now on the subject, but we may safely say that at 
present we know next to nothing. When we try to investigate 
the cause, or causes, of variability, we are confronted with 
nothing but difficulties, and we have no firm ground from whence 
to meet them. But starting from the ascertained fact, that 
numberless variations are constantly arising, we can explain by 
the principle of selection how these variations accumulate in 
different directions, until in time the most diverse organisms are 

It is well known that in countries like Europe, long settled 
by civilised man, the total number of individual animals remains 
about the same, although many are born each year. Evidently 
this is due to the fact that the district is only capable of fur- 
nishing food for a certain number, and when that number is 
reached no further increase can take place. It follows frcm 
this, that in each year as many individuals must die as are born ; 
and as most animals and plants produce annually more than 
two young, it also follows that during each year the number of 
individuals that must perish is greater than the number that can 
survive. As therefore the supply of food is limited, there must 
always be, between all animals and plants, a severe competition 
for existence, a struggle to survive at the expense of neighbours. 
The individuals that die will usually be those that are least 
adapted for living — either for procuring food, or for escaping 
enemies. Useful variations will tend to increase, and succeeding 
generations will diverge more and more from the original stock. 
This is due to what is called natural selection. 

But there is another mode of selection which also causes each 
succeeding generation to diverge more and more from the 
original stock. This is best seen in the artificial selection by 
man of the plants and animals he has domesticated. Artificial 
selection may be either methodical, as when a man endeavours, 
by breeding from chosen individuals, to modify a breed 


according to some predetermined standard ; or it may be 
unconscious, as when the owner of a flock simply kills off the 
worst or wildest individuals without any thought of altering the 
breed. Unconscious artificial selection is not confined to human 
actions, but is also found among plants and animals. The 
difference between natural and artificial selection must be clearly 
comprehended, for, as we shall see, both are important factors in 
the study of politics. Natural selection is a selection taking 
place, as it were, by and among the individuals themselves ; it 
is an internal principle, and may be called intrinsic selection. 
Artificial selection, on the other hand, is an arbitrary selection 
from outside, and may be called extrinsic selection. The great 
variety we find among wild flowers is due to both forms of 
selection combined — the intrinsic selection among the plants 
themselves, and the unconscious extrinsic selection of the insects 
that fertilise them. In garden flowers we see the result of 
methodical extrinsic selection by man. 

Another point, very important for you to notice, is that the 
principle of selection does not necessarily lead to improvement. 
If we consider a limited district, such as an island, it is plain 
that in course of time, if the conditions of life remain constant, 
an almost exact equilibrium between the different plants and 
animals inhabiting it will be attained. The principle of natural 
selection, always acting in the direction of perfect mutual adap- 
tation, will in time bring it about ; and then, as no further 
modifications would be beneficial, none will be preserved — the 
organisms will remain stationary. But this stationary character, 
you must observe, only obtains while the conditions of life 
remain the same ; if any change takes place, the adaptations can 
no longer be perfect, and further modifications will be bene- 
ficial. If the change is such that the conditions of life become 
harder, then the organisms must become more specialised ; 
they must, as we call it, progress. But if, on the other hand, 
the change is such that the conditions of life become easier, the 
effect will be just the opposite — the organs will become more 
generalised, and the organisms will degenerate. I will illustrate 
this by an example. Suppose an island to be inhabited by 
hares, which are preyed upon by sheep-dogs, and that an equi- 
librium in speed has been arrived at by which both main- 
tain their relative numbers. If now greyhounds are introduced 
it is evident that the conditions of life with regard to the hares 
will be harder, and as only the fleetest will escape, all the hares 
on the island, in the course of some generations, will become 
fleeter — that is, more specialised. But suppose that, instead of 
greyhounds having been introduced, all the sheep-dogs were 
removed, so that there were no dogs at all on the island, it is 
evident that the conditions of life would now • be easier; the 
fleet would have no advantage over the slow, and the whole race 
would, to some extent, lose their special characteristic of swift- 
ness — they would degenerate. 

Under different circumstances, sometimes- physical structure, 


sometimes mental characteristics, may have the greater import- 
ance. Sometimes the cunning of the fox, sometimes the speed 
of the antelope may be more advantageous. Among animals 
physical structure is usually of more importance than superior 
mental powers, but in human societies mental capacity gets more 
and more powerful as civilisation advances ; and we must there- 
fore be prepared, when passing from the lower animals to man, 
to find the principle of selection considerably modified. The 
principle remains the same, and its action remains the same, but 
with man it acts chiefly in another sphere — the sphere of mind. 
An additional complication also arises. Among the lower ani- 
mals selection only acts through utility, that is through those 
conditions which tend to the physical well-being of the individual. 
But man is essentially gregarious, held together by the bond of 
sympathy ; sympathy is as necessary to him as utility, and con- 
sequently selection will act as powerfully through the one agent 
as through the other. By the action of selection through utility 
intelligence has been raised into intellect ; by the action of selec- 
tion through sympathy with our tellowmen, the moral sense 
has been developed, and ethical systems formed ; through our 
sympathy with nature imagination has given birth to art ; and 
our aesthetic faculties have been evolved by selection through the 
necessity for amusement, caused by the restless activity of the 
brain. Let me explain very briefly how the more important of 
these things have come about. 

Either from transmission, or from early association, every 
man has a number of opinions common to the nation and to the 
class in life to which he belongs, which he may call his inherited 
opinions ; but as his reasoning powers develop, these opinions 
are subject to variation. The variations may be owing to origi- 
nal ideas arising in his mind we know not how, like the varia- 
tions of structure in animals ;* or they may be due to education, 
that is, to coming into contact with other minds, either person- 
ally or through books ; and it must be noticed that, unlike struc- 
tural variations, these mental variations may be produced at any 
time in a man's life, and may or may not remain constant. 
Physical transmission is not necessary ; mental transmission 
from mind to mind diffuses a variation rapidly through all the 
individuals, and consequently it is not necessary for the action 
of selection that the originator of an improved mental variation 
should have any bodily offspring. 

When mental variations compete with one another selection 
constantly acts on them through the agency either of utility or 
of sympathy. When some member of a tribe, who was more in- 
genious than the rest, invented or improved a weapon or a snare, 
he would be imitated by the whole tribe. The tribe that con- 
tained the most ingenious men would have better means of 
obtaining food, and of defending itself ; it would therefore in- 

* The analogy between the origin of ideas and the origin of variations in struc- 
ture is remarkable, and well worth investigating. 


crease more rapidly than others, and the intellectual faculties of 
the dominant tribes would gradually improve by competition. 
The love of praise, and the dread of blame, would be developed 
by the power o{ sympathy. The members of a tribe would unite 
in praising conduct which seemed to be lucky or for the general 
good, and in blaming that which seemed to be unlucky or evil.* 
A man who sacrificed himself for the good of his tribe would 
excite by his example the wish for glory in others, and glory 
would in time ripen into the idea of duty. With expanding 
intellect, and greater experience, other and higher virtues, such 
as temperance and veracity, would become esteemed, and by the 
action of selection they would be more and more practised ; and 
so the moral faculties would also gradually improve. 

The principle of selection, we must remember, is everywhere 
present ; we cannot escape from its action. Just as each par- 
ticle of matter is constantly under the sway of gravitation, so 
each thought, as soon as it has left the brain of the thinker, comes 
under the sway of selection. Fortunately most thoughts are 
smothered at once ; but a few, which are adapted to the sur- 
roundings, spread far and wide, become dominant, and bend the 
variable minds of men to them. The opinions that spread must 
be adapted to the spirit of the times, but it does not follow that 
they are necessarily progressive ; it is unhappily true that retro- 
gressive opinions have frequently become dominant ; but in the 
long run, if competition continue and sufficient time be allowed, 
we may expect that progressive opinions will prevail. Carlyle 
truly remarks that " everything goes by wager of battle in this 
world ; strength, well understood, is the measure of all worth. 
Give a thing time ; if it can succeed it is a right thing." 

In politics we have the principle of selection personified in 
the government which selects one set of opinions and makes it 
rule over the others ; and this gives us the key of the science of 
history. I will explain. Montesquieu divides all governments 
into (i) Republics, in which the whole or a part of the people 
have the supreme power ; (2) Monarchies, in which a single 
person governs by fixed aad established laws ; and (3) 
Despotisms, in which a single person directs everything according 
to his own will and caprice. This classification is crude, but it 
will serve my present purpose. In a democratic republic, with a 
free press and universal sufferage, we have the type of govern- 
ment by intrinsic selection ; everyone may freely express his 
opinion, and that set of opinions which can secure the greatest 
number of adherents wins the day. In an hereditary despotism, 
where, owing to accident of birth, one individual has power to 
force his private opinions on the rest of the nation, we have the 
type of government by extrinsic selection. Between the two 
arc many intermediate forms — the aristocratic republic, the 
limited monarchy, the absolute monarchy, and the elective des- 
potism, in numberless variety. Now we learn from biology that 



two things are necessary for securing the continued existence of 
a group of animals ; one is strength to resist enemies, the other 
flexibility of organisation, the power of adaptation to changing 
circumstances. I use the word strength in a wide sense ; there 
is strength in isolation, as well as in combination, and there is 
strength in insignificance. If a tribe of lions were to invade a 
country the mice would not suffer much, but the deer and oxen 
might be exterminated. But strength alone is not sufficient, 
flexibility of organisation is perhaps even more important. If, 
when the conditions of existence are changing, a group of ani- 
mals has an organisation so inflexible as to be incapable of vari- 
ation — and animals are very differently constituted in this respect 
— it will necessarily be supplanted by some other group of a 
more yielding nature ; and the same holds true with nations, but 
here the changes in the conditions of existence are to a large 
extent mental. If mere strength were all that was required for 
the preservation of a nation, then autocratic government would 
be the best, for government by discussion is not favourable for 
conducting war ; but strength alone will not suffice, a flexible 
organisation, as Burke taught long ago, is equally necessary for 
duration of life. 

How then is a nation to secure a flexible constitution ? 
Evidently by adopting some form of government by intrinsic 
selection, which can respond readily to any change in national 
feeling. A despot, no matter how benevolent his intentions may 
be, has no sufficient means of finding out the wishes of the people 
over whom he rules, for how could he " expose himself to feel 
what wretches feel ? " * and if he could ascertain their wishes he 
would have great difficulty in carrying them into effect, as he 
must always rule through an army, which might not like the 
changes. Unless intrinsic selection is thoroughly carried out, 
there must always be the danger of the governing body mis- 
understanding the desires of the majority. In Sir G. C. Lewis' 
" Dialogue on the best form of government," Aristocraticus is 
made to say : " The Corn Laws were part of a policy which was 
established on patriotic grounds, and which was at one time 
sincerely believed, even by enlightened men, to be beneficial to 
the entire community." Democraticus ought to have answered : 
" In this case, as in many others, the ' ignorant many ' have proved 
wiser than the ' enlightened few. '*" Despotism may succeed 
very well for a time, and is indeed indispensable in the earlier 
and more warlike stages of human society ; but when the condi- 
tions of existence change, all despotisms, being unable to 
accommodate themselves to the changes, must sooner or later 
succumb, either to internal or external pressure : they will pass 
away, and will be known only as political fossils of strange and 
uncouth form. And what is true of nations is true of all human 
institutions and organisations — a flexible constitution is necessary 
for continued existence. 

* King Lear. 


Man must always have been a social animal, and his most 
powerful desires in early times would be the preservation of the 
common property of the tribe, and the spoliation of neighbouring- 
tribes. To accomplish this the members of a tribe must work 
together ; obedience is of the highest value, quarrelsome tribes 
could not cohere, every individual must work for the same end ; 
the tribe is an army, and a chief would be naturally selected by 
consent of the majority. No division of power could be allowed, 
the chief must not have one opinion, the priest another ; the 
priest and the chief must be one.* In time the desire for private 
property would arise ; this would produce custom within the 
tribe, custom would develop into law, and this again would give 
rise to the desire for individual liberty of action. But while it 
was war a Voutrance this desire must be suppressed on pain of 
extermination, for liberty of action is not compatible with 
military superiority. Under these circumstances a despotism is 
the best form of government ; variations in opinion are dangerous, 
and must be stamped out. The main virtues are courage, 
strength, and obedience ; but these would nourish the moral 
qualities of truthfulness, mercy, and self-denial. As the desire 
for accumulating wealth grew stronger the rising spirit of 
industry, and consequent increasing dislike to a military life, 
would favour the formation of a standing army for the main- 
tenance of the power of the despot, and the tribe, now swollen to 
a nation, would become locked in an inflexible rule. 

But in certain favoured places, where tribes are isolated, and 
consequently where protection against other tribes was not of 
such paramount importance, the desire for personal liberty would 
increase more rapidly, despotism would be more enfeebled, or 
perhaps would never arise, and the government would be carried 
on by discussion. These naturally protected districts might be 
backward in the art of war, but they would contain the germs of 
a principle destined to overthrow despotism, and ensure the 
progress of mankind. Nations inhabiting rich, warm countries, 
which produced abundance of food, would be envied by their 
neighbours, and consequently they could never afford to give up 
despotism ; for if they did so they would certainly be conquered 
by foreign nations whose customs they abhorred. But nations 
living in the bleak north, on land of which no one wished to 
deprive them, would develop government by discussion ; the 
struggle for life against unkindly nature would strengthen the 
body, and government by discussion would invigorate the 
intellect. In warmer climes man gets physically and mentally 
enervated, and living under a despotism he becomes intellectually 
listless. So the northern nations would be constantly breaking 
in upon the southern nations, sometimes even conquering them, 
changing perhaps under the new conditions to despotisms, and 
then themselves degenerating. On the other hand the better 
organisation for war given by despotism, and the greater popu- 

* Bagchot. 


lation of the rich countries, might sometimes enable the southern 
nations to over-run for a time the northern ones ; and so 
numerous complications would arise, not by chance, but by the 
operation of divine laws. 

It follows from these considerations that by the principle of 
selection an isolated nation will develop governmentby discussion ; 
but if, either by the approach of other nations, or by improve- 
ments in the means of communication, the isolation should cease, 
the nation will either become itself a despotism, or it will be 
conquered by a despotism. In all despotisms extrinsic selection 
will check or destroy variation ; and just as an animal with an 
unyielding organisation remains unprogressive, and always liable 
to extinction when the conditions of existence change, so a 
despotic state may advance to a certain point, and must then 
remain stationary ; while a nation with representative govern- 
ment will be highly variable, and will continue to progress if it 
remains unconquered. 

Such is an outline of the theory of history as deduced from 
the principle of selection. Turgot was, perhaps, the first to 
demonstrate that history is not a series of cycles, but a single 
continuous progression ; and if Hume had known the principle 
of selection he would, I think, have founded a science of politics ; 
history would have been clear to him instead of, to use his own 
expression, " an inscrutable enigma." But it is to the late Mr. 
Walter Bagehot that we owe the enunciation of the fertile 
principle, that discussion is to ideas what the struggle for existence 
is to corporeal entities, and that the best ideas are naturally 
selected under a government by discussion : you will find it ably 
developed in his " Physics and Politics."* It is not my place to 
apply this theory to the facts of history. I merely bring it 
forward to show you how politics and political history can be 
explained by the principle of selection. No doubt the evolution 
of society by means of this principle has always been going on, 
but it has been going on unconsciously ; we are now conscious of 
it, and hope, by the introduction of methodical intrinsic selection, 
hitherto unknown, to direct its movements. We stand at the 
turning point of a long series of ages ; for just as man is dis- 
tinguished from the lower animals by the possession of self- 
consciousness, so are the times before us to be distinguished from 
the times gone past. A new light has fallen upon us, and that 
light has come from the study of biology. " I question," says 
Professor Jevons, " whether any scientific works which have 
appeared since the ' Principia ' of Newton, are comparable in 
importance with those of Darwin and Spencer, revolutionising as 
they do all our views of the origin of bodily, mental, moral, and 
social phenomena."f And Mr. Leslie Stephens also says, " Mr. 
Darwin's observations upon breeds of pigeons have had a reaction 
upon the structure of European society ."j As the atomic theory 

* International Scientific Series, Vol. II. 

f " Principles of Science. " 

t " History of English thought in the Eighteenth Century." 


could never have been arrived at by a study of the complicated 
organic molecule, neither could a knowledge of the principle of 
selection have been arrived at by a study of the complicated 
phenomena of sociology ; it was in biology alone that it could be 
detected, and it is to biology that we must turn for the proofs of 
its power. 

But there is another theory of history which I must not pass 
over, as it also is supposed to be founded on biological data. 
The curious analogy that undoubtedly exists between a state, or 
social organism, as it has been called, and an animal, or indivi- 
dual organism, has been commented on by many writers ever 
since the days of Plato and Aristotle. The tissues of which an 
animal is built up are composed of cells, or units of organisation; 
and these units of organisation are supposed to represent the 
individuals which compose the state or nation. As the cells 
constantly die and are replaced, so do the individual human 
beings, while the nation lives on. A nation exhibits the pheno- 
mena of growth, structure, and function, like those of an individual 
body,* and in development both pass through changes which 
are not permanent. The governing or controlling power is 
supposed to represent the nervous system ; the trading or 
distributing body to represent the vascular system, and so on. 
On the strength of this analogy many inferences have been 
drawn. The heart has been likened to the metropolis, and an 
overgrown metropolis is therefore said to be a disease. Because 
all parts of the body obey the mandates of the brain, imperialism, 
or at any rate centralization, has been advocated as the best 
form of government. As individuals have a limited period of 
existence, so also must it be with nations. This is the leading 
idea of Vico's " Scienza Nuova," and we see it again in Lord 
Macaulay's celebrated New Zealander sitting on the ruins of 
London bridge. 

But the analogy is incomplete and misleading. Human 
beings are not so different from one another as are the various 
cells of which one of the higher animals is built up, and nothing 
can make them so different. In these animals each cell can only 
play its own part ; but we know from experience that in a state 
a man can pass from a working member to be a controlling 
member, and often acts as efficiently as if he had always been 
a controlling member. Sancho Panza truly says, " As to 
governing well, the main point, in my mind, is to make a good 
beginning ; and that being done, who knows but that by the 
time I have been fifteen days a governor, my fingers may get so 
nimble in the office that they will tickle it off better than the 
drudgery I was bred to in the field." Indeed, it would not 
be difficult to find in this analogy as many discrepancies as 
likenesses. What, for instance, in the organisation of an animal 
answers to the professions of theology, medicine, or law? What 
to prisons and reformatories ? How is it that in the individual, 

* Herbert Spencer. 


one cell does not try to usurp the functions of another cell ? How 
is it that one organ is never of opinion that another organ has 
too much power ? How is it that one cell does not loaf on the 
industry of others, but each does its own work honestly ? It is of 
no use to say that the social organism is young, and that all these 
things will disappear in time, because then we should have to 
compare the social organism of to-day with an individual lower 
in the scale than any now existing, and all the beautiful analogies 
of nerves and vessels would disappear. The fallacy of the 
analogy, as a guide to political science, is indeed so apparent 
when we compare a highly differentiated nation like India with 
the much less differentiated one of the United States of America, 
that I am surprised it should have been adopted by the writer 
of an article on the " Science of History " in the Westminster 
Review for January of last year. This writer proceeds to investi- 
gate what he calls the " physiology of history " under numerous 
heads, in which he thinks he has dissected and examined a 
" social organism " as a biologist would dissect and examine an 
animal ; but, in my opinion, he has only given new names to old 
things, and has not advanced science much. 

The term " social organism " is not, I think, a happy one, 
because it is misleading. What is meant to be understood by 
this term is not so much a single organism as a number of 
groups of organisms, each group occupying a separate locality, 
and differing from one of the organs that make up an individual, 
in that it is more or less self-supporting, and capable of forming 
a new " social organism." The social groups, or communities, as 
I should prefer to call them, more nearly resemble what we call 
species ; while the nation, which may consist of one or more 
communities, might represent the political genus, and might 
include extinct as well as existing communities. For example, 
the various communities of England in the fifteenth century may 
be said to be extinct, and to be represented by the communities 
of England, the United States, and the Colonies at the present 
day. It is the business of the science of history to explain why 
those communities became extinct, and how the present ones 
were developed ; and as a help towards a scientific solution of 
the problem, I may point out that the action of selection on each 
individual, through his external physical surroundings, is the 
chief determinant of the character of the community, whether, 
for instance, it shall be commercial, agricultural, pastoral, or 
manufacturing, as was dimly seen by Montesquieu and Buckle. 
The action of selection on society at large determines the course 
of politics and the spread of religious opinions. National 
character is due to -both, together with the inherited effects of 
selection on former generations. 

But you may say, some of the best historians have denied 
the possibility of a science of history. That is true, but those 
historians have not studied biology, and without a knowledge 
of biology it is impossible to construct a science of history. Let 
us examine these objections. Mr. Freeman says that there can 


be no science of history because we cannot be sure of our data. 
No doubt the evidence on which history rests is often confused 
and contradictory, and has sometimes been intentionally falsified, 
but the main facts arc certain enough. And are not the facts 
often confused and contradictory in natural science ? Have we 
not even falsifications in nature ? The resemblance of a whale 
to a fish deceived even the great Linnaeus, and the resemblance 
of the eye of the cuttle-fish to that of a vertebrate has misled 
later naturalists. The inversion of strata has often misled 
geologists, and all the phenomena of mimetic resemblances are 
in a sense falsifications. Intentional deception may be more 
difficult to detect, but if it had not been possible to detect forgeries 
we should not know that any had been committed. That the 
science of history is difficult will be allowed, but that does not 
make it impossible. 

Mr. Froude believes that there can be no science of history, 
because human beings have free-will. He says, "When natural 
causes are liable to be set aside and neutralised by what is called 
volition, the word science is out of place." But in all sciences 
one cause may be neutralised by another, and volition is, as we 
have seen, the cause of mental variations, without which selection 
could not act. A science of history can exist without a know- 
ledge of the origin of ideas, although, of course, without that 
knowledge it would be incomplete. This, indeed, was pointed 
out by Kant a hundred years ago, although he could not explain 
it. " Whatsoever difference," he says, " there may be in our 
notions of freedom of the will, metaphysically considered, it is 
evident that the manifestations of that will, viz., human actions, 
are as much under the control of universal laws of nature as any 
other physical phenomena."* We might as well say that there 
can be no science of biology, because structural variation obeys 
no known law. No doubt it makes prediction very difficult, or 
even impossible, except in a general way, but it does not follow 
that there is no science of biology. The idea that the power of 
prediction is essential to a science was originated by Compte, as 
a corollary from the Positive Philosophy, and it has been widely 
accepted by unscientific men without much consideration. But 
if this be taken as a test, science will be reduced to those por- 
tions of astronomy and physics which are capable of being 
treated deductively by mathematical analysis. The astronomer 
cannot predict the appearance of comets ; the physicist cannot 
predict the rate of expansion by heat of an untried substance ; 
the chemist cannot predict the properties of a new compound ; 
the geologist cannot predict the future physical geography of 
the earth ; but, as Mr. J. S. Mill says, " We must remember that 
a degree of knowledge far short of the power of prediction is 
often of much practical value. There may be great power of 
influencing phenomena with a very imperfect knowledge of the 
causes by which they are in any given instance determined. It 

* " Idea of Universal History," translated by De Quincey. 


is enough that we know that certain means have a tendency to 
produce a certain effect, and that others have a tendency to 
frustrate it."* If this is the amount of knowledge required to 
form a science, then certainly there is a science of history. 

Much as I admire Professor Jevons' " Principles of Science," 
I must object to this one sentence— " A science of history, in the 
true sense of the term, is an absurd notion." I object to it because 
by many people it will be taken to imply that a science of 
history is impossible. Such, however, is not, I think, the meaning 
of Professor Jevons, because he continues as follows : — " A nation 
is not a mere sum of individuals whom we can treat by the method 
of averages ; it is an organic whole, held together by ties of 
infinite complexity. Each individual acts and reacts upon his 
own smaller or greater circle of friends ; and those who acquire 
a public position exert an influence on much larger sections of 
the nation. There will always be a few great leaders of 
exceptional genius or opportunities, the unaccountable phases of 
whose opinions and inclinations sway the whole body, even when 
they are least aware of it. From time to time arise critical 
positions, battles, delicate negotiations, internal disturbances, in 
which the slightest incidents may profoundly change the course 
of history. A rainy day may hinder a forced march, and change 
the course of a campaign ; a few injudicious words in a dispatch 
may irritate the national pride ; the accidental discharge of a 
gun may precipitate a collision, the effects of which may last for 
centuries. It is said that the history of Europe at one moment 
depended upon the question whether the look-out man on 
Nelson's vessel would or would not descry a ship of Napoleon's 
expedition to Egypt which was passing not far off. In human 
affairs then, the smallest effects may produce the greatest results ; 
and in such circumstances the real application of scientific 
methods is out of the question." 

I have given this long quotation because I wish you to have 
the case fairly put before you. From it I gather that Professor 
Jevons' words are directed against the application to history of 
the doctrine of averages as advocated by Buckle, and he means, 
I think, that human affairs are too complicated to allow of 
results being often predicted ; but this, as I have already said, 
is very different fron denying the possibility of a science of 
history. If I throw a glass bottle on the ground, I can safely 
predict that it will be broken ; but, notwithstanding the perfec- 
tion of the science of mechanics, no man can predict into how 
many pieces it will be broken. And the same with history : we 
may safely predict that the Turk will not rule long in Europe, 
although it is impossible to predict in detail the events which 
will turn him out. As a case of a verified prediction in history, 
I may remind you that at the commencement of the campaign 
of 1806 between France and Prussia, Jomini predicted that a 
decisive battle would be fought in the neighbourhood of Jena, 

* "System of Logic." 


and he was right. No biologist would deny that great results 
may proceed from small causes ; but all would certainly object 
to the deduction that therefore " a science of biology in the 
true sense of the term is an absurd notion." This discussion is, 
I hope, sufficient to show that although the science of history is 
exceedingly difficult and complicated, it differs only in degree, 
not in kind, from the other inductive sciences. 

You ask why I am so interested in a science of history ? 
What have I to do with it ? I answer : History is a part of 
sociology, and sociology is but a branch of biology. It is the 
natural history of man, and must be approached through the 
study of biology. That sociology is dependent on biology was 
first definitely suggested by Auguste Compte, but he wrote before 
the principal laws of biology had been discovered ; he thought 
that the idea of continuous progress was peculiar to sociology, 
and consequently he failed to see the true connection between 
the two. It is to Mr Herbert Spencer that we are indebted for 
making this connection clear. He has shown that a preliminary 
study of biology is essential to the student of sociology, " partly 
as familiarizing the mind with the cardinal ideas of continuity, 
complexity, and contingency of causation in clearer and more 
various ways than do other concrete sciences, and partly as 
familiarising the mind with the cardinal idea of fructifying causa- 
tion (i.e., cumulative action), which the other concrete sciences 
do not present at all,"* but which is common to biology and 
sociology. He points out that " the human being is at once the 
terminal problem of biology and the initial factor of sociology." 
As man is modifiable by surrounding conditions, it is necessary 
that the sociologist should acquaint himself with the laws of 
modification to which organised beings in general conform ; and 
he concludes by saying that " the effect to be looked for from 
the study of biology is that of giving strength and clearness to 
convictions otherwise feeble and vague." 

It might be thought that a knowledge of the principles of 
biology, unaccompanied by a knowledge of the facts upon 
which these principles rest, is sufficient for the student of 
sociology ; but this would be a great error. The principle of 
selection, although capable of being very simply stated, is in its 
action extremely complicated ; yet a thorough knowledge of it 
is essential to the historian as a guide to the kind of facts which 
arc to be looked for, and as a means of estimating the relative 
importance of each. Without a firm conviction of the truth of 
the principle you are applying you will hardly surmount the 
difficulties that lie in your way, and you will perhaps abandon 
your problem in despair, doubting the possibility of a solution. 
This knowledge can only be got in one way — that is, by going 
through a practical course of biology. If you trust to book 
knowledge alone you will falter at every step. You must ob- 
serve for yourself in order to understand the difficulty of ob- 

* "Study of Sociology," International Scientific Series, Vol. V. 

Researches on the cilio-flAgellata. i i i 

serving accurately, and the still greater difficulty of interpreting 
correctly your observations when made. You may depend 
upon it, that, without a personal knowledge at first hand of 
facts, you can never weigh the value of evidence ; you can never 
tell whether a statement may be relied on, or whether it is 
founded on doubtful or insufficient observations ; you can never 
feel sure that the argument for or against a theory is not special 
pleading — that is, whether adverse evidence has not been sup- 
pressed. But if you begin by obtaining a broad basis of facts 
from personal observation, you will readily acquire a complete 
grasp of principles, and you will then be able to take them out 
of their own immediate subject and apply them with success to 
the higher study of sociology. So sure am I of this that I feel 
confident the day is not far distant when a knowledge of the 
principle of selection will be considered indispensable for the 
historian, the statesman, the theologian, and the journalist — for 
all indeed who aspire to guide their fellow men ; and biology 
will then take its place as a necessary part in every curriculum 
of Arts. 



This interesting group of Infusoria has lately received the 
attention of a Danish zoologist, Mr. R. S. Bergh, who publishes 
an elaborate monograph on the subject in the last number of 
Gegenbaur's " Morphologisches Jahrbuch."* 

The Cilio-flagellata are intermediate in characters between 
the flagellate and the ciliate Infusoria. Like the Flagellata, they 
possess, as their chief organ of locomotion, a long whip-lash- 
like cilium or flagellum, in addition to which they are provided, 
like the Ciliata, with ordinary small vibratile cilia, usually 
restricted to an incomplete annular band round the body. 

The form of the body is always bilaterally asymmetrical ; 
that is, there is a clear distinction between dorsal and ventral 
aspects, anterior and posterior ends, and right and left sides ; 
but the two latter never resemble one another perfectly, the body 
being divisible into two unequal and dissimilar portions by a 
median vertical plane. The variations in the form of the body 
are very great ; it may be compressed from before backwards, or 
from above downwards, or from side to side, and may be pro- 

*R. S. Bergh, "Der Organismus der Cililoflagellaten, eine phylogenstiche 
Studie." Morph. Jahrb., Bd. VII., 2 Heft, pp. 177-288, pi. xii-xvi. 


duccd into remarkable horn-like processes, which are charac- 
teristic of particular genera. 

Except in three genera, the body is provided with an 
cxoskcleton, in the form of a membrane, which may be either 
structureless or variously ornamented. On the ventral aspect 
there is, in such genera, either a large aperture or a longitudinal 
slit in the membrane, through which the protoplasm comes 
into direct contact with the exterior. There is also usually a 
transverse groove through apertures in which the cilia are 

But the point of chief interest in the skeleton is its chemical 
composition. Bergh has succeeded in proving, by numerous 
chemical tests applied to a large number of species, that the 
membrane consists of cellulose, or at any rate of some very 
similar carbo-hydrate. This, I believe, is the first time that 
cellulose has been actually demonstrated in the cell-wall of the 
Protozoa ; the only case in which that substance has hitherto 
been known in the animal kingdom being that of the Tunicata. 

Equally important are the results of the investigation of the 
contained protoplasm of these organisms. It is usually divided 
into ectoplasm and entoplasm, the latter of which is found to con- 
tain chlorophyll, diatomin (the yellowish-brown colouring matter of 
diatoms), and starch. Chenophyll is already known to occur in 
many animals of widely-separated groups, starch has hitherto 
been proved to exist only in the green Turbellarians, and 
diatomin has never before been known out of the vegetable 

Professor Huxley says, speaking of the differences between 
animals and plants,* " The most characteristic morphological 
peculiarity of the plant is the investment of each of its com- 
ponent cells by a sac, the walls of which contain cellulose or 
some closely analogous compound ; and the most characteristic 
physiological peculiarity of the plant is its power of manufac- 
turing protein from chemical compounds of a less complex 
nature. The most characteristic morphological peculiarity of 
the animal is the absence of any such cellulose investment. The 
most characteristic physiological peculiarity of the animal is its 
want of power to manufacture protein out of simpler com- 

It will be seen that both these distinctions break down in the 
case of the cilio-flagellata ; their cell-wall is proved — as Huxley 
suggested might be the case, in a note to the passage just 
quoted — to be practically identical with that of plants, and the 
presence of starch proves clearly that the chlorophyll has the 
same function as that of plants, the decomposition of the car- 
bonic acid in the surrounding medium. Bergh, indeed, believes 
that in many genera the nutrition is entirely like that of a 
plant, and that no solid nutriment is ever taken up ; and great 
weight must be attached to an opinion founded on so many 

* " Anatomy of Invert. Animals," p. 45. 


careful observations, though I must confess that the ventral 
aperture in the test becomes somewhat inexplicable if it is not 
to be looked upon as an ingestive area. Still, there can be no 
doubt that if the cilio-flagellata were an isolated group, Bergh's 
researches would oblige us to consider many of them as 
indubitable plants, and it is only comparative morphology which 
forbids this view of their affinities. They are so closely allied, on 
the one hand, to the Flagellata, many of which possess the most 
undoubted animal characteristics, and on the other, to the 
Ciliata, which no one would dream of considering as plants, that 
their systematic position must remain unaltered, and they 
must simply be taken as another and very striking instance of 
the impossibility of drawing anything like a hard and fast line 
between the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

As to the systematic arrangement of the group, Bergh 
divides it into two families, one of which — the Adinida — contains a 
single new genus and species, Prorocentrum micans ; while the 
other — the Dinifera — contains three sub-families and eleven 

Prorocentrum, discovered by Bergh, is interesting as forming 
the nearest ally of the group to the flagellata. It has an oval 
compressed body, with both flagellum and cilia at the anterior 
end, and possesses neither transverse nor longitudinal grooves. 
Its membrane consists of two valve-like moieties. 

Among the Dinifera, the first sub-family, DinopJiyida 
approaches most nearly to Adinida, having the transverse groove 
near the anterior end. The second sub-family, Peridinida, 
contains the typical genera, Peridinium, Gleuodinium, Ceratiuin, 
&c, and is distinguished by having the transverse groove about 
the middle of the body. The third and last sub-family, 
Gymnodinida, contains three genera, distinguished by the 
entire absence of a membrane. 

It is these naked genera which approach, in a remarkable 
way, to the ciliata. One species of Gymnodinium, for instance, 
exhibits in the ectoplasm the curious muscle-like myophan- 
strise so characteristic of Paramoeciinn, Spirostomum, and other 
ciliate forms. The curious Polykrikos was considered by Ul- 
janin as a turbellarian larva, and by Butschli was placed among 
the Ciliata, in spite of its long flagellum. Bergh considers it 
as a true cilio-flagellate, distinguished by having several, 
instead of one, transverse ciliated grooves. It is also re- 
markable for possessing trichocysts, which, as figured by 
Bergh, have the closest resemblance to the thread-cells of 

I cannot but think it a matter for regret that Bergh should 
be so permeated with " Haeckelismus " as to adopt the custom 
of calling his classification a phylogeny. The method of 
showing affinities by genealogical trees or other diagrams is a 
convenient and commendable one, but to call a natural arrange- 
ment of a group, based upon the study of recent forms only, a 
phylogeny, is a misuse of language, and gives a fallacious, 

ii4 Journal or science. 

appearance of certainty to what is, at the best, only well-founded 

One point of great interest in regard to several of the 
genera is their excessive variability. Bergh's object having 
been to make a thorough investigation of the group, and not 
merely to discover new species, he has paid great attention to the 
varieties of each species, and has succeeded in showing, as Car- 
penter, W. K. Parker, and Rupert Jones, did for the foraminifera, 
and Haeckel for sponges, that each species consists of a " form- 
cycle" of individuals, differing so much that the extremes of the 
series would be ranked, without hesitation, as distinct species, if 
the intermediate steps were unknown. 

It is from some such form as Gymnodinium that Bergh con- 
siders the Ciliata to have been derived, the PeritricJia ( Vorticella, 
&c.) being, according to him, the oldest and least modified sub- 
division of the group. The interesting genus Mesodinium is in 
many ways intermediate between the cilio-flagellata and the 
peritricha. It has an equatorial band of cilia situated in a 
transverse furrow, but it is devoid of a flagellum, and possesses 
a mouth and temporary anus. From the position of the mouth, 
Bergh considers that the anterior pole of a ciliate answers 
to the posterior pole of a cilio-flagellate, or flagellate 

One theory of more general interest is advanced, namely, 
that the flagellata are the most primitive of Protozoa, and " form a 
starting point from which the Noctilucae, the Rhizopoda, the 
Cilio-flagellata, and through these the Peritricha, have developed." 
The main argument for this view is that so many of the Rhizo- 
poda begin life as mastigopods or flagellate forms. One cannot 
but think, however, that this is making too much of embryo- 
logical evidence. A priori, it entirely seems more likely that a 
flagellum should have arisen as a differentiated pseudopod, than 
that a pseudopod should have arisen as a degenerated flagellum ; 
but the evidence is altogether too scanty for any very consistent 
theory to be built upon it. At present, it seems to me to be 
impossible to say whether the myxopod or the mastigopod 
should be considered as phylogenetically the older ; and I think, 
therefore, that the following scheme, devised for my last year's 
lectures, expresses the relationships of the groups of Protozoa as 
correctly as the evidence now at our disposal will enable us 
to do : — 



(Arcella, &c.) Actinomonas 


Lieberktihnia cilio-flagellata 


protoplasta — Mastigamoeba — flagellata ' 
(Amoeba, Sec.) 



The monera of Haeckel are not included in this scheme, but 
as these can hardly be considered, without further investigation, 
to form a natural assemblage, since they are united upon a 
single negative character, I think it best to leave them out of 
consideration for the present. 



The foundation to comparative carpology as a branch of 
botanic science was laid by Dr. Joseph Gaertner in his ever- 
memorable work, " De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum," 1788- 
179 1. In continuing these important literary labours of his 
illustrious parent, Dr. Carl Gaertner gave in his " Supplementum 
Carpologiae, Centuria Secunda," anno 1807, at pages 219 and 
220, and on plate 220, the description of a new genus, which, on 
account of an embryo with five cotyledons, he named Penta- 
dactylon ; but Mr. Bentham was able, through comparison with 
the collections of Sir Joseph Banks, from whom the younger 
Gaertner had his material, to identify the Pentadactylon angusti- 
folium with Persoonia linearis, of Andrews. Independently, long 
since I had established for another species of Persoonia — namely, 
P. Chamaepeuce, an embryo with six cotyledonar segments 
(Plants of Victoria, plate LXIX., then considered identical with 
P. Caleyi). But although already R. Brown, in 1809 (Transac- 
tions of the Linn. Soc, X., 160), indicated for the genus " cotyle- 
dons saepius plures" (reiterated by Baillon " Histoire des Plantes," 
Proteacees 396) ; and although Meissner, when describing all species 
known in 1856 (Decandolle, prodr. XIV., 329-343), took notice 
in the generic character also of the frequent occurrence of 
3-5 cotyledons, yet the extent of this kind of aberration has never 
yet been traced through the very many specific forms of the 
genus. This investigation, long ago intended by me, but post- 
poned for want of sufficient material, has been carried out to 
some extent now. It possesses particular interest, not only for 
specific diagnosis, but also for its general application to morpho- 
logy, in as much as a pleio-cotyledonar embryo is known only 
in very few genera beyond those of the Coniferae. Thus in Pinus 
the embryo segments number from 3-15 ; in Callitris, Biotia and 
Juniperus, 2-3 ; in Cupressus, 2-4 ; in Taxodium, 4-9 {vide 
Parlatore in D.C., prodr. XVI., part II., anno 1864). The Lor- 
anthaceae, so closely allied to the Proteacese — if we assume the 
floral envelope of the latter, as also in Santalacese, to be petaloid, 


and the calyx reduced (as in the Rutaceous genera Diplolacna 
and Asterolasia) to exiguity — yield 2-4 cotyledons in Loranthus 
and Nuytsia, a fact, as regards the latter genus, first noticed by 
Mr. James Drummond (in Hooker's Journal II., 346). In these 
cases, as in that of Persoonia, the plurality of cotyledons is 
normal, not as in Phascolus, Primus, Ouercus, and some other 
genera, merely abnormal {vide Bot. Zeitung, 1869, p. 875 ; Sachs, 
Lehrbuch der Botanik, 4 Aufl. 608). 

In the species of Persoonia with more than two cotyledons, 
the segments of the embryo cannot be traced into two sets ; 
contrarily as in many Coniferse, so also in Persoonia, the 
cotyledons, as regards size and also shape, are quite or nearly 
alike to each other, and not rarely odd in number ; whereas in 
merely lobed cotyledons, such as Schizopetalon, Howittia, 
Amsinckia, and many other genera, and even some species of 
Eucalyptus produce, the lobes are always traceable to two 
cotyledonar elements. Again, as in Coniferae so also in Persoonia, 
the number of embryo segments ranges only within specific 
definite limits. The fruits of various Persoonias exhibit in 
reference to size, shape, outward colour, thickness of the puta- 
men, and consistence of pulp, some peculiarities available in 
various instances for diagnosis. Several species ripen two seeds. 
A thin stratum of peripheric albumen is in some species more 
or less developed and separable from the endopleura. The 
hypogynous glands of P. diadeua (F. von Mueller, " Fragm., 
Phytogr., Austral. X., 46) are reduced to two ; the putamen is 
grossly resinous-porous in P. revoluta. But on this occasion I 
intend to deal with the embryo merely. This organ is obovate 
or ellipsoid, with always conical base, the radicle is exceedingly 
short, and the cotyledons, when more than two, ' show a width 
regulated by their number and space afforded them in the 
embryonic body. 

While addressing New Zealand naturalists in the first instance, 
I may remark, that the only species there — namely, Persoonia 
Toro — presents mostly 3, rarely 2 or 4, cotyledons, so far as 
I have ascertained from dissecting a considerable number of 
fruits, kindly procured for me by Mr. Cheeseman, of Auckland. 
As the fruit of this outlying species seems not described, I subjoin 
notes thereon. 

Persoonia Toro. — Drupe — 7-9 lines long; ellipsoid-ovate — 
very rarely globular, seemingly in age becoming blackish outside ; 
pulp (to be re-examined in a fresh state) not so remarkably tena- 
cious as in many other species ; putamen — thick, bony, bilocular, 
and not rarely maturing two seeds ; embryo — 2-3 lines long, 
about 1 line broad. 

The following are the results obtained for other species from 
more or less extensive dissections of embryos, so far as fruits 
were accessible to me, those of many species being entirely 
unknown, or were not available in full ripeness : — 

Cotyledons in Species of Persoonia. — P. fcrruginea, 2 ; P. con- 
ferti flora, 2 ; P. elliptica, 2 ; P. longifolia, 2 ; P. Toro, 3, rarely 2 


or 4 ; P. arborea, 3 ; P. dillwynoides, 3-4 ; P. nutans, 3-5 ; P. 
gunnii, 4 ; P. media, 4 ; P. lanceolata, 4-5 ; P. juniperina, 4-6, 
rarely 3 ; P. linearis, 4-6 ; P. myrtilloides, 4-6 ; P. rigida, 5 ; P. 
pinifolia, 5-6 ; P. falcata, 5-7 ; P. hirsuta, 5-8 ; P. Chamaepeuce, 
6 ; P. tenuifolia, 7 ; P. brachystylis, 7 ; P. quinquenervis, 7-8 ; 
P. teretifolia, 7-8. Of the 61 well marked species of this genus 
hitherto on record, I was thus able to examine 23 as regards 
embryonic structure ; but of P. brachystylis, P. elliptica, P. media, 
P. gunnii, P. rigida, and P. tenuifolia, only single fruits were 
accessible to me. As out of the above mentioned 23 species only 
four proved dicotyledonar, it may be fairly assumed that in the 
genus as a whole the pluricotyledonar embryo by far prepon- 
derates. In P. ferruginea, P. confertiflora, P. elliptica, and P 
longifolia, the number of cotyledons seems never to exceed two ;* 
but of P. longifolia I had only two ripe fruits, both of these 
moreover showing the embryo arcuate-curved ; whether this 
curious deviation from the normal type is to be regarded as the 
normal state, or an accidental deformity, must be decided by 
future enquiries. For a large portion of the material from New 
South Wales, utilized for this essay, I am indebted to Ch. Moore, 
Esq., and the Rev. Dr. Woolls. 

Melbourne, February, 1882. 


Extracted from G. S. Brady's Monograph of this group. 

Family II. — Cytherid^e (Continued). 

Genus Sclerochilus (G. O. Sars). 

Valves elongated, very hard, especially towards the margins ; 
surface smooth and shining, ornamented with minute scattered 
papillae. Hinge -joint formed by a projecting median crest of 
the left valve. Muscle-spots linear, sub-parallel, arranged in an 
oblique oval patch below the centre of the valve. Antennae 
robust ; the anterior bearing on each side of its second joint a 
single seta, its last 5 joints successively smaller, and bear- 
ing numerous long setae ; posterior antennae larger than the 
anterior, 5 -jointed, flagellum very long and slender. Poison-glands 
very large, and divided into several lobes. Mouth produced, 
conical ; labrum strongly toothed. Mandibles small, teeth 
numerous and sharp ; palp narrow, indistinctly 3-jointed, and 
having a distinct branchial appendage. Terminal lobes of the 

* Continued from page 12. 


first pair of jaws partly wanting; branchial plate narrow, almost 
lanceolate, and beset with numerous setae on the outer and 
inner margins. Feet short and robust, second and third joints 
bearing in front a sharp seta ; first pair armed with a single 
strong spine at the apex of the basal joint. Post-abdominal 
lobes larger than usual, forming 2 broad 2-lobed laminae, each 
bearing 5 setae. Eye single. 

1. Sclerochilus contortus, Norman. — Carapace, as seen from 
the side, elongated, bean-shaped, higher behind than in front, 
height equal to about half the length ; extremities well-rounded, 
dorsal margin boldly arched, inferior deeply sinuated in front 
of the middle ; seen from above, compressed, ovate, extremities 
acutely pointed, width scarcely equal to one-third of the length ; 
end view ovate, rounded above, pointed below. Shell perfectly 
smooth, Length, i-33rd inch. 

Also found off Kerguelen Island in 20-50 fathoms ; off 
Heard Island in 75 fathoms. Common on the Atlantic shores 
of Europe, and north to Spitzbergen ; also in the post-tertiary 
beds of Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and North America. 


Family III. — Cytherellid/e (G. O. Sars.) 

Valves unequal, very thick and calcareous, not notched in 
front. Antennae very large, the anterior many-jointed and 
gcniculated at the base ; posterior broad and flattened, 
2-branched like the feet of the Copepoda. Mandibles very 
small, with a large pectinato-setose palp. Three pairs of hinder 
limbs, scarcely pediform ; 2 anterior pairs branchial, the others 
rudimentary. Abdomen terminating in 2 very small, narrow, 
and spiniferous laminae. Ova and embryos borne beneath the 
shell of the female. 

Genus Cytherella (Jones). 

Valves elongated, flattened, thick and hard, very unequal 5 
the right much larger than the left, overlapping throughout the 
whole circumference, and presenting round the entire inner 
margin a distinct groove, into which the valve of the opposite 
side is received. Muscle-spots arranged in a curved pinnate 
series on an oblong, obliquely-placed depression near the centre 
of the shell, the depression appearing internally as an elevation. 
Spots 12-16 in number, linear-oblong in shape, and increasing 
in size toward the ventral margin. Anterior antennae very 
large, shortly setose or spiniferous, 7-jointed, the first 2 joints 
larger than the rest, and forming between them a distinct 
gcniculation ; posterior antennae composed of a large, broad, 
2-articulate, and geniculate basal portion, from which arise 2 
flattened unequal branches, one 2-articulate, the other 3-articu- 
late, both beset with very numerous long setae. Labrum large, 
subglobose, giving out in front a short subtriangular process. 
Mandibles very weak, strongly inflcxed at the lower extremity, 


which is obliquely truncate, and set in a pectinate manner with 
slender teeth ; palp large and elongated, almost straight, bearing 
on its inner side very numerous long, pectinately-arranged setae, 
which stretch backwards as in the feet of the Sididae. First 
pair of jaws bearing at the base a very large branchial plate, 
which is beset with numerous ciliated marginal setae, incisive 
portion divided into 3 setiferous lobes ; palp very large, scarcely 
articulated ; the posterior margin slightly lobated, inner margin 
pectinately setose, like the mandibular palp, but smaller. 
Second pair of jaws membranaceous, bearing, like the preceding 
pair, a branchial plate, but smaller and narrower ; distal portion 
subovate, beset with a few ciliated setae, and in the male 
furnished with a very large and strongly hatchet-shaped 
appendage adapted for prehension. Third pair of jaws, in the 
female, rudimentary, forming a simple setiferous lobe ; in the 
male, strong, distinctly jointed, and subcheliform. Abdomen 
beset behind with several bundles of long setae for supporting 
the ova. Postabdominal laminae narrow, slightly dilated at the 
apex, and armed before and behind with several marginal setae 
or spines. Copulative organs of the male very large and 

1. Cytherella polita, G. S. Brady. — Shell of the female, as 
seen from the side, subelliptical, height equal to about y 3 of the 
length ; extremities nearly equal and well-rounded, dorsal 
margin forming a regular flattened arch, ventral nearly straight ; 
seen from above, the outline is ovate-cuneate, widest near the 
hinder extremity, obtusely pointed in front, broadly rounded 
behind, width equal to half the length ; end view broadly oval. 
Surface of the shell perfectly smooth and polished. Length 1-31 

(Also found in West Indies and mouthof Rio de la Plata, in 
13 fathoms.) 

All the species described in this paper were obtained during 
the stay of the " Challenger " in Wellington Harbour. 


(Illustrated by accompanying sketch-map). 


Very few residents in, or visitors to New Zealand, have heard 
of the lake described in this paper ; and yet most of those who 
are acquainted with the map of the South Island know that in 
its south-west corner is a sort of terra incognita, containing 
among other problematical places a lake, usually named Howloko. 


The latter name is evidently incorrect, there being no " 1 " in the 
Maori language ; while the right name, " Hauroto," is very 
expressive in its meaning. It is derived from two Maori words 
"hau" windy, and "roto" a lake or shut-in place ; and has been 
very appropriately named. The Maories, as a rule, have pithy 
and expressive denominations for localities. 

There are many corners of New Zealand as yet unvisited by 
the surveyor, the sportsman, the follower of science, or the 
tourist. What treasures nature may have hidden in these locali- 
ties are quite unknown. Huge mountain peaks, some of them 
covered with perpetual snows, have been viewed from a distance; 
but the lakes and valleys their ranges may enclose, the mineral 
veins which may permeate their rugged masses, the treasures of 
animal and vegetable life to be found on their lonely heights and 
bush-covered valleys, have yet to be ascertained by the perse- 
verance of the explorer. 

Any man who could settle in a new land in sight of unex- 
plored mountain ranges, by the banks perhaps of a river fed from 
their ever-melting, but never melted snows, and never experience 
a longing to visit them, must be sadly in want of a doctor or 
a schoolmaster. The wish to know all about the land we live in 
ought to be strong in the hearts of all colonists. Unfortunately, 
as a matter of fact, the majority of people, even in this land of 
travelled men and women, could not describe from personal 
observation the whole features of the country within a radius of 
ten miles from their own homes. 

There are, however, many of the vigorous youth and manhood 
of New Zealand who every year could get away for a few weeks' 
exploration ; and it might be well if such would form an 
Explorers' Association. They might elect a president in each 
centre of population, whose duty it would be to suggest certain 
localities for exploration, and to indicate the nature of the search, 
scientific or otherwise, which it would be desirable to undertake. 
Such an Association, by systematic working under able direction, 
might every year gather a lot of useful information. 

The central country of the North Island, lying to the south 
of Lake Taupo, and the south-west corner of the South Island, 
are about the two least known portions of New Zealand. Not 
only was this fact a potent reason in inducing us to take a trip 
to Hauroto ; but there were numerous collateral temptations 
which helped to lure us from the comforts of civilisation to rough 
it for a little in the bush. There was just a possibility of coming 
across a Notornis ; kakapos and kiwis were known to occur ; 
there was a geographical question to settle as to the size, shape, 
and lie of this lake, and the probable occurrence of sheep-country 
was hinted at by enquiring friends ; there might be an available 
through route to the West Coast Sounds; quartz reefs and 
mineral veins were dreamed of ; and, to sum up, there were sure 
to be new finds for the botanical and zoological collector. Who 
that had a fortnight's holiday looming ahead could devise a more 
suitable way of occupying it than in taking a trip to such a spot, 


where it was to be hoped few or no human beings had been 
before us ? 

Our party was three in number ; one of whom was to be res- 
ponsible for the geographical and geological observations, while 
the other two represented botany and zoology respectively. All 
the necessary paraphernalia for scientific work was provided, 
and great results were anticipated. The large share of bad 
weather met with, marred these results however, to a great extent. 

Hauroto is about eighty-six miles from Invercargill by the 
only available route, and about thirty from Clifden Station, on 
the Waiau. The latter place is an easy day's journey from 
Invercargill, as the rail to Otautau leaves only about twenty- 
four miles of good road to be traversed. 

Clifden Station stands on the terraced west bank of the 
Waiau, which, from being confined here within a rocky channel 
only about a hundred yards wide, runs with a swift current 
(apparently about eight miles an hour), and is very deep. What 
an enormous amount of power nature has here at present 
unutilised by man ! The time will no doubt come when inven- 
tion will turn to account the immense force available in New 
Zealand's many and rapid rivers, when numerous industries 
will spring up along their — -at present — uninhabited banks. 

The large isolated masses of limestone rock, which stand 
like islands on the level river terraces in the vicinity of the 
station, constitute a peculiar landscape feature. They are appa- 
rently portions of the adjacent and underlying limestone 
formation, from which perhaps they have been isolated by past 
action of the river. The garden at Clifden Station, placed 
under the shelter of one of these island cliffs, testifies to the 
wonderful richness and warmth of the soil — fruit of all ordinary 
kinds come to the greatest perfection, including standard 
peaches, mulberries, &c. 

Our trip really commenced at Clifden Station, and here we 
had been led to expect we could engage a couple of experienced 
bush hands to relieve us of the labour of pitching tent, cooking, 
and carrying swags. Unfortunately for us, none were to be had, 
which meant also the want of dogs, as none of the dogs on the 
station would have followed perfect strangers. For bush 
travelling dogs are almost a necessity, as, without them, neither 
kiwis nor kakapos can be had, and the traveller is frequently 
dependent on these nocturnal birds for food. As one result of 
our having no dogs, we got none of these birds, and perhaps 
failed to get our Notornis for the same reason, though this latter 
is an open question. We got a considerable amount of assist- 
ance at the outset of the trip, by engaging a man and pack- 
horse to take us as far as the lake, but the want of working 
hands afterwards seriously affected the results of our expedition, 
as it takes a great deal of time even to do the minimum of 
cooking, baking, and swagging incidental to moving about. A 
flower must needs be very rare or beautiful before one will stop 
to pick it up with a ^olb. swag on his unaccustomed shoulders, 


and a landscape must be beautiful indeed before the " poor, 
wandering one," so burdened, will deign to look up at it. 

Our first day's journey was a pleasant ramble up the valley 
of the Lill-burn. The track was good, over open and level 
country, and the weather fine, and we camped for the night by a 
hut about sixteen miles from the station, named by the 
shepherds, as an inscription informed us, " The Palace of 
Misery." On the present occasion we could not see the force of 
the name ; but on the return journey, having occasion to occupy 
the same comfortable quarters on a night when the south- 
westerly gales suggested " dissolved icebergs " to the geographical 
(and poetical) member of the party, we realised the satire of its 

Next day the difficulties of the way commenced, as the first 
two miles took us over rather swampy ground, obstructed by an 
almost impenetrable scrub of bog pine, after which the track 
led through the bush for twelve or thirteen miles. 

Some two years ago the enterprising proprietors of Clifden 
Station tried the experiment of occupying some of the Princess 
country to the west of Hauroto with sheep, and to aid in the 
work of supervision this track was cut, and a boat taken 
through to the lake. This latter work alone was accomplished 
by the aid of a bullock team and sledge, in 1 1 days. At the 
time of our trip (January of this year) the track was in tolerable 
order, though rather soft, but the bridges had disappeared from 
nearly all the creeks, and had to be replaced. The road was 
certainly not one for horses, and though the plucky little animal 
which carried our pack got through and gained the honour of 
being the first equine quadruped which had ever reached the 
lake, still the experiment was too dangerous a one to be 
repeated. If the pack was taken off once it was taken off a 
score of times, in order to enable its carrier to get over " soft " 
places, besides which it "came off" itself, without requiring to 
be taken, several times in the course of the journey, owing to 
the struggles of the horse in unexpectedly soft spots. It was 
with a feeling of relief, therefore, that we found ourselves at 
nightfall on the shore of the lake, after more than eleven hours 
of steady travelling. The track passes at one part over a saddle 
of Goldie's Hill, at an elevation of about uoo feet (taken by 
barometer) above sea-level, while we computed the lake to lie at 
an elevation of about 750 feet. 

The bush through which we had travelled consisted almost 
exclusively of Birch (Fagus menrjiesii and F. solaudri), with a 
very sparse sprinkling of Rimu and Totara. On the Lill-burn 
side there was a considerable undergrowth, including large 
patches of GleicJienia cnnningJiamii, but in the denser forest the 
ground was carpeted chiefly with Hymenophyllum multifidum 
and bivalve, together with numerous mosses and Hepaticae, 
while the pretty little orchids, Caladenia minor and Adenochilus 
gracilis peeped from out the green moss, and were interspersed 
with lovely tufts of little white violets (V. filicaulis). Overhead 


the trees were loaded with great bunches of scarlet-flowered 
mistletoe {Loranthus colensoi), which was replaced on the shores 
of the lake by the yellow-flowered L.flavidns. 

Our long day's journey enabled us to enjoy the night's rest, 
though serenaded by a few more-porks and kiwis. The cry of 
the latter is an " eerie " sound when first heard, though not 
nearly so alarming as the ghostly cry of the kakapo. 

The portion of the lake reached by this track is a beautiful 
little bay, nearly semi-circular in form, and fringed with beaches 
of white sand, and this opens out to an almost circular larger 
bay, about two miles in diameter. The view from the boat hut 
is more beautiful than grand, the surrounding hills being of 
moderate height and of soft, rounded outlines, while the rugged 
mountain masses to the westward are toned down by distance, 
and the gentle undulations of their foreground. Altogether it is 
a charming spot, sheltered from the gales which almost daily 
lash the main lake into foam, and will most probably be the site 
of a prettily situated village or town, when population becomes 
denser. The water is comparatively shallow, and apparently 
well fitted to support trout or salmon in large numbers. We 
might have enjoyed the beauties of this spot had all our aesthetic 
faculties not been utterly blinded by sand-flies. We were all 
experienced — or thought we were — in the ways of these little 
demons ; but their numbers, the virulence of their bites, and 
their unceasing devotion to us, made life almost unbearable. 
What do sand-flies and mosquitoes live on when they have no 
unfortunate people to bite ? And how do they know to attack 
the " human form divine "? The latter question is worth the 
consideration of the evolutionist. 

Our first work on reaching the lake was the getting of the 
boat into something like condition to carry us. 

This took us nearly two days, as every rivet had to be ham- 
mered up, and all the seams caulked, before she would float. 
This accomplished, we started early on the fifth morning of our 
trip, and pulled out of the bay into the main lake. This bay is 
almost shut off from the rest of the lake by an island, which so 
nearly approaches the main shore on its northern side, as to 
leave a narrow passage not more than 20 yards wide. On pass- 
ing through this, a wild and beautiful bit of lake scenery bursts 
on the view. Along the margin of the lake the mountains rise 
precipitously to between 4000 and 5000 feet, and so scaured and 
steep are their sides, that one wonders how the bush manages to 
exist. There are no gentle slopes, nor shelving bays ; no rivers ; 
but for more than two thousand feet above the water, only dark 
bush, with an occasional rocky face protruding. Above the 
sombre green, a perfect chaos of rocky peaks, some of them bare, 
some flecked with snow, rise in every direction, and numerous 
streams, fed from their lonely heights, plunge down their sides, 
forming cascades which fall thundering down into the deep 
waters below. The whole upper arm of the lake is of this wildly 
picturesque character, and, like the West Coast fiords, seems 


to have been once the bed of a mighty glacier ; the southern arm 
seems to tone down to a somewhat softer outline, and probably 
is marked by an old moraine, through which the waters of the 
lake have cut a channel for themselves. 

\Yc had not long emerged on the main lake when the wind, 
which daily troubles its surface, began to freshen, and compelled 
us to take shelter in the only sort of bay visible, where a con- 
siderable stretch of level land had been formed by the debris of 
a large creek. Here we pitched camp and were compelled to 
stay for a clay and a half, as the wind raised so high a sea that 
progress was impossible. Traces of rabbits were so abundant 
that we named the stream Rabbit Creek, and it is a tribute to 
the marvellous powers of spreading possessed by these animals, 
that they were the only introduced things visible, all the vegeta- 
tion even being apparently indigenous. 

The sand and rocks here, as at every point touched at along 
the lake, appear to be composed of syenite or syenitic gneiss, but 
we failed to find signs of any distinct quartz reefs, though quartz 
pebbles were abundant. 

As soon as the weather calmed we made a start again — our 
seventh day out — and took the precaution of being away by 
daylight, when several hours of quiet may be usually depended 
upon. A few hours pulling brought us to the head of the lake. 
A small stream flows in here, which has its source about six 
miles from its outlet, at the junction of the Princess and Billow 
Mountains. The upper part of the lake for a few miles is very 
narrow, barely a mile wide, and serpentine in form, a gloomy 
sheet of water, saddened on every side by a three thousand feet 
rocky wall, draped with its sombre mantle of green. The water, 
too, is dark as Erebus, and altogether it is an ugly spot to get 
caught in in a squall, as frequently for stretches of more than a 
mile there is not a gap in the unbroken wall into which one 
might thrust the nose of a boat. 

Pulling round the head, we landed at a very little bay on its 
S.W. side, close by a cascade, and at the foot of the only spur 
of the Princess Mountains which seemed at all surmountable. 
Being rather tired we contented ourselves with a sort of recon- 
naissance survey of the ground, climbing about a thousand feet 
through the bush, and we repented afterwards we had not per- 
severed, as the fine weather only lasted one day. 

Next morning broke wet and windy, but our time and supply 
of provisions being limited, it became a question of " now or 
never," so we started for the mountain tops. Not only was the 
ground obstructed with thick bush, but it was excessively steep 
and razor-ridged; not a difficult track to follow when ascending, 
but positively dangerous to come down, owing to the precipices 
on either side. Everything was dripping, and when we emerged 
from the bush at an elevation of about 3200 feet above the sea 
level we were in a "pulpy " condition, feeling rather washed out. 
The rest of the way was comparatively easy, but for the fierce 
wind and torrents of rain and sleet, which chilled us to the mar- 


row. At an elevation of 3800 feet we came on the first snow- 
beds, and we continued on to the top of the ridge, here some 
4400 feet high. At this point we seemed to be on the edge of 
a rocky plateau, which rose to the westward about 800 feet 
higher, and was broken with wild, deep hollows filled with tarns 
and boulders. The driving mist, however, rendered further pro- 
gress dangerous, and prevented our making out the very features 
to see which we had come this length. Two shepherds on the 
Waiau runs explored this country from the southern end of the 
lake some two years ago, and from one of them we learned that 
the heads of Lakes Hauroto and Potiritiri were only about five 
miles apart. This may be accepted as a full measurement, as 
shepherds' distances are usually much over the mark, as we 
found out. But the weather was too thick for our making out 
anything, and this was all the more disheartening, as we had 
hoped to see the head of Preservation Inlet, or at least the lie 
of the country towards it, as we were probably only about twelve 
miles from it. 

- Our return journey was an unpleasant one. The stormy nature 
of the weather showing signs of increasing rather than abating, 
we resolved to make a run for our boat harbour if possible, and 
soaking as we were, struck camp as soon as we got to the foot 
of the mountains, and started down the lake an hour before sun- 
set. Meanwhile the rain increased, and as the darkness came on 
a very angry sea came tumbling along after us, and threatened 
to swamp our crazy boat. So the first little stretch of land was 
run for, and here, on a sloping bank barely big enough to hold 
us and our boat, and under old flood-marks, with an inaccessible 
background of precipice, we spent a thoroughly uncomfortable 
night, and waited for daylight. As soon as possible next day we 
launched again, and pulling with a will, partly to keep ourselves 
from being cramped, but chiefly to get out of the angry waste of 
waters, got through the narrow passage which led to our haven 
of rest, just as a furious gale burst on us. Had we been half an 
hour later we should have been collared. We were fortunate in 
getting back when we did, as the stormy weather continued for 
three days, and the mountains were covered with snow down to 
the bush-line. 

The rest of this day was spent at the boat hut recovering from 
our drenching, and preparing for our return tramp ; and two 
more days saw us back to Clifden, fully prepared to appreciate 
the blessings of civilization. 

The trip took exactly ten days ; but had we known more of 
the geography of the lake before starting, we might, with fine 
weather, have done all we did in seven. 

And now as to results, the standard by which everything new 
is measured in this utilitarian age. Botanically we did very 
little. We found some plants at the head of the lake not hitherto 
considered very common, but made no new discoveries. In the 
bush the most of the vegetation was similar to that found on the 
West Coast Sounds, Panax liueare being the only plant new to us,- 


There was also a good deal of a health-like plant, but not in 
flower, which was probably Archeria traversii ; but this is a 
doubtful identification. On some of the more open faces and 
landslips at the head of the lake, there grew a PJiormium, very 
different in appearance from the ordinary P. tenax, but shewing 
neither flowers nor fruit. Out on the open ground at 3500 to 
4500 feet elevation, a considerable quantity of Ranunculus lyallii 
displayed its masses of magnificent snow-white blossoms, rivalled, 
however, by numerous other beautiful white flowered plants. Of 
Celmisias six species were collected, viz., — C. discolor, verbascifolia, 
longifoliciy laricifolia, sessiliflova, and the rare C. ramulosa. Ouvisia 
ccespitosa and glandulosa were common ; and two or three specimens 
of the very handsome 0. macvocavpa were obtained. Apparently 
also we got Euphrasia revoluta ; but this also was a doubtful iden- 
tification. Donatio, novcc-zealandicc and Helophyllum clavigerum were 
common. These were about the only plants gathered. 

One result of our trip is that we now know pretty well the 
geography of this lake and the surrounding country, as far as it 
can be laid down by the prismatic compass without the aid of 
strict measurements. The lake at its widest part is about three 
miles across, and taking its north-west arm as twelve miles long, 
is probably a little over twenty miles in extreme length. 

In most maps of New Zealand, a dotted line is usually to be 
found connectingthe Patupo, or Big River, on the South Coast, with 
the probable outlet of Hauroto ; but according to the reports of 
those shepherds and prospectors who have traversed the district, 
the Patupo river is only a narrow arm of the sea which runs 
inland, fiord-like, for six or seven miles (probably about three, 
true measurement), and comes to an abrupt termination in the 
mountains, while the rivers which flow out of Hauroto and Poti- 
ritiri enter the sea between the Patupo and the Waiau. There 
is absolutely no country for settlement to the west of Hauroto 
until Preservation Inlet is reached. The bush is unbroken up to 
3500 feet, or nearly so, and above that the land is not even good 
summer country. It might support red deer ; but not sheep. 

One thing that struck us all on our trip was the extraordinary 
scarcity of animal life. A few kakas and pigeons were seen, the 
latter only where the Kowai trees (Sophora tetvaptera) grew. Of 
other birds the only species not found about the east of Otago 
were the crows (Glaucopsis cinevea) and crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus). 
Even ducks were scarce, and as has been said already, we got 
neither kiwis nor kakapos for want of a dog to hunt them. 

Hauroto may become populated at no distant date, for were a 
passable road made to it and a little clearing done round its 
eastern bay, it would offer one of the most charming retreats 
which New Zealand's many lakes can offer. But its sandflies 
must be reduced in numbers first. Though the track to the 
lake from the Waiau goes over rather broken and high ground, 
there is no need for a road to follow this. By keeping up the 
Lill-burn to its source, the crossing of an almost imperceptible 
saddle would bring one out at the north-cast corner of the little 


bay. The present track to the lake is only a portion of a longer 
one which leads over the Hump to the south end of Hauroto. 
When the attempt was made some two or three years ago to 
take up the Princess country as a sheep-run, the sheep were 
driven round by the mouth of the Waiau, along the shore of 
Tc-wae-wae Bay, and up by a ridge passing to the south end 
of the Hump to the foot of the lake, where a species of bridge 
had been erected. Except at the extreme ends of the lake, there 
is not a single accessible ridge by which the Princess Mountains 
may be climbed ; their sides are in most places as steep as the 
roof of a house. 

This lake offers one of the shortest routes to the West 
Coast Sounds, as a passable road could probably be made to its 
head from the head of Preservation Inlet. We could not judge 
this for ourselves, but the two shepherds who had preceded us 
appeared to think a trudge through to the Inlet as quite a 
feasible undertaking. 

Along the west bank of the Waiau there is a considerable 
amount of good country for settlement, and the valley of the 
Lill-burn itself could support a large agricultural population, as 
the land is tolerably level and backed by low hills. The bush 
also, though not very heavy, would yield abundance of valuable 
timber. But unfortunately, from the eastern end of Hauroto, 
where any road from the Waiau would terminate, to the head of 
the lake, there is not an acre of level ground, so that boats or 
steamers could alone make the connection. 

We hope to see Hauroto again on some future occasion, but 
trust that when the time comes we may be able to do the trip in 
a less primitive but more comfortable manner. 


Adenochilus Gracilis, Hook,f. — The occurrence of this 
plant in the south-west corner of the South Island was noted in 
the last issue of the journal. Mr. T. F. Cheeseman informs us 
that he found it growing plentifully in the Buller Valley, Nel- 
son, also in several localities about Wangapeka and Mount 
Owen, but that it is rare and local in Auckland Province. 

EUPHRASIA REPENS, Hook,f. — This rare plant was obtained 
about three years ago in a peat bog on the top of Maungatua 
(22 miles from Dunedin), by Mr. Geo. M. Thomson, but though 
the locality has been often searched since, it could not be again 
found. It has recently, however, been met with near the same 
spot by Mr. S. W. Fulton. It differs in several important 


respects from alpine forms of E. antarctica, which were found 
growing near it. These differences are shown conspicuously in 
the following tabular form : — 

E. repens. E. antmctica. 

Leaves Quite flat With recurved margins 

Flowers... ... Very distinctly proterogynous; Proterandrous 

style long, stigmatiferous 

towards its apex, withering 

when the anther-cells are 


Calyx .. ... Nearly glabrous Covered with glandular hairs 

Corolla Tube long, purplish brown Tube rather short, whitish, with 

without, with prominent faint yellowish lower lip 

yellow lines within 

Capsule (unripe) Oval, very hairy, remaining Broadly obovoid, notched at the 

enclosed in the base of the apex, glabrous, protruded out 

calyx, which elongates as of the very short persistent 

it ripens. calyx tube. 

Change of Nomenclature of N. Z. Beetles. — Capt. 
Broun reports the following alterations in the above : — The 
generic names, CyclomorpJia, Xeuocera, GeopJiilus, PacJiyodou, 
PacJiypeza, Steuopus, and Pachycephala, published in Parts I. and 
II. of the Manual of New Zealand Coleoptera, having been 
used previously by naturalists in other parts of the world, or 
being too near other genera, the following are substituted ; the 
insects, therefore, will now bear the names applied below : — 

No. 1 1 65 — Melanochroa politula No. 785 — Geochus insequalis 

,, 1205 — Xenogonus pullus ,, 1239 — ,, politus 

,, 1240 — Phorostichus linearis 
,, 1295— Dermothrius sanguineus 
, , n 73 — Udorus piceus 
,, 13 1 2 — Inosomus rufopiceus 
,, 1 1 66 — Priatelus optandus, instead of 

The specific name " piincticollis" belongs to an American insect, 
Colaspis puncticollis. No. 1092 will therefore become Colaspis 










1209 — 



620 — 

) > 








Notes on New Zealand Ferns. — The following notes are 
compiled from information received from Mr. H. C. Field, of 
Wanganui, who has for many years studied the ferns of this 
country : — 

Polypodium novcB-zcelandiw (Baker). — This fern was originally 
found by Mr. H. A. Field in March, 1876, in the forest-country 
west of Ruapehu, and specimens were sent home shortly after to 
the Royal Herbarium at Kew. It was not, however, till the fol- 
lowing year that receipt of them was acknowledged, and in the 
meantime Mr. Cheeseman had also found the same species on 
Pirongia, and sent specimens to Kew. But it was from Mr. 
Field's specimens, which were first received by Mr. Baker, that 
the original description was drawn up. This fern seems to be 
confined to the forest country lying to the west'of Ruapehu, 
Tongariro, and Taupo Lake, its northern limit being apparently 


at or near Pirongia and Karioi ; while its southern one is the 
Waitieka stream, a tributary of the Wangaehu, flowing into that 
river from its western side, about twenty miles south-west of 
the summit of Ruapehu. In fact, it appears to grow only in the 
birch forest of which that stream forms the southern boundary. 
In the same way, in travelling westwards from Murimotu to the 
Wanganui river, it abounds in the birch forest, but disappears 
directly one crosses the Waione stream, which separates the 
birch forest from the ordinary New Zealand bush. It is not 
invariably found only on rotten logs, but also grows on the 
trunks of birch and other trees, and among the moss and dead 
leaves on the ground ; it appears always to require thick moss 
as a protection to its roots. 

Dicksonia lanata and Lomaria vulcanica appear in the same way 
in the birch forest only, while Todea superba, Polypodium australe, 
and Hymenophyllum pulchevrimum and bivalve become suddenly 

In regard to the vertical distribution of ferns in the same 
district, Mr. Field also communicates the following remarks. 
The maximum elevations at which certain ferns occur are as 
follow: — Adiantum diaphanum, 3 -400ft. ; A. fulvum, 1000ft. ; A. 
affine, 2000ft. ; Lindsaya viridis, 500ft. ; Pteris macilenta, 1000ft. ; 
P. scaberula, 1500ft. Again Lomaria alpina, Lindsaya linearis, and 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, which, near the coast, are only found 
sparingly in moist and thoroughly sheltered spots among tall 
manuka scrub, grow abundantly, though in stunted form, among 
the grass on the sandy soil of the Murimotu Plains, where they 
are exposed to fierce solar heat and violent winds ; but plants 
brought from Murimotu will not bear exposure near the coast. 
Nephrodium thelypteris occurs in Sphagnum swamps all along the 
north side of Cook Straits, though rarely; but has not been 
found in similar swamps at any altitude greater than about 
300ft., though Gleichenia circinata and dicarpa, which generally 
accompany it, are found certainly up to 3000ft. above sea level. 
Of local forms, Adiantum fovmosum abounds all around Palmerston 
north, in the valleys of the Manawatu, Oroua, and Pohangina. 
The sandy alluvium on the banks of the Manawatu suits it so 
well that fronds five feet high, with 50 to 60 branches, and over 
1000 pinnules are common. Hypolepis millefolium, an alpine form, 
is reported to occur at Moutoa, near Foxton, at only a few feet 
above sea level ; while Lygodium articulatum, a northern form, has 
been found at Rangitikei. 

Flowers and Folk- Lore. — At the distribution of prizes to 
the succesful candidates in the botanical examinations held 
recently in Sydney by Mr. C. Moore, F.L.S., Dr. Geo. Bennet, 
F.L.S., delivered an interesting address to the students, from 
which we make the following extracts : — " With regard to the 
intelligence and observation of the aborigines of Australia with 
regard to flowers, the Australian blacks on the coast are expert 
fishermen, and are aware of the season of particular kinds of fish 


by the blooming of certain plants; for instance, when the brilliant 
How ers of the waratah, or native tulip, appear, it is an indication 
to them that the sole is to be found on the sandbanks about 
Botany Bay and Cook's River. According, also, to the flowcring 
of other trees and shrubs, the time is known to them for the 
advent of the mullet, king- fish, schr.apper, gurnet, &c, and that 
the)- will be found in the bays and harbours of the coast. In 
civilised England they also consider certain periodical occurrences 
of nature in flowersasguidestoanglingand other rural occupations. 
When the alder buds are developed the fishermen consider the 
eels leave their winter haunts. When the wheat blossoms, the 
angler considers the perch will bite readily. The flowering of 
certain plants in England is also associated with particulars days 
and festivals. For instance, St. George's Day is associated with 
the bluebell ; the guelder rose, or snowball tree (Viburnum), with 
Whitsuntide ; and the flow r ering of the elder (Sambucus nigra), 
with sheep shearing. The mulberry (Morus nigra), both in 
England and New South Wales, is a very shy tree, and when its 
foliage is fully developed we may regard the summer season as 
established ; then the gardener in England considers he may 
safely place his exotics in the open air, without sustaining any 
injury from cold. The sunflower (Helianthus) is becoming, from 
its utility, much cultivated in New r South W r ales. The large 
species was brought by the Spaniards from Peru, where it was 
consecrated to the sun worship ; and the virgins of the sun, when 
officiating in the temple, were crowned with the flowers, wearing- 
some on their breasts and holding others in their hands, which 
was described as a spectacle of imposing grandeur. I mention 
the sunflower to relate that, from all the beautiful flowering 
plants introduced and naturalised in New South Wales, the sun- 
flowcr is the only one selected by the aborigines for cultivation, 
probably from its rapid growth, the little care it requires, or more 
likely from the large size and splendid appearance of the flower. 
At Moruya and other districts in New South Wales, it is 
highly prized by the aborigines. They procure the seeds and 
plant them when located for some time near their gunyahs 
or huts, and are delighted, with true aesthetic taste, to behold 
the development of the splendid flowers. The aborigines 
carefully preserve the seeds, but they make no further use of 
them than to grow their favourite flowers the next year. I 
will detain you a little longer to direct your attention to a 
very interesting subject, that of folk lore of trees and flowers, 
with a brief account of three which came under my immediate 
observation, and of which specimens are before you. The first 
is the Samphire (Chrithmum), which is confined to the rocky 
sea shore. The etymology of this plant is somewhat curious. It 
was formerly written sampier, a corruption of St. Pierre, and by 
the Italians, herba di San Pietro. Thus a plant properly called 
rock cress, from its growing in the crevices of rocks, came to be 
known as Peter's cress (the name Peter meaning a rock). The 
change to St. Peter's herb was an easy one, the prefix being 


dropped, San Pietro became sampler, and from that samphire. 
The next to engage your attention is the Iron Wood tree {Mesua 
f erred), one of the most beautiful trees in Ceylon, whether 
adorned by its splendid masses of young foliage, at first of a 
delicate pink hue, changing to a deep blood colour, or covered 
with its blosoms like white roses, with ivory white petals, and deep 
golden coloured stamens, which possess a delicious perfume, and 
have been placed by the Hindus in the quiver of Camadeva, the 
Indian Cupid. In the Sanscrit poem called Naishadba, there is 
a wild but elegant couplet, where the poem compares the white 
corolla of the Mesua, from which the bees were scattering the 
pollen of the numerous gold-coloured anthers to an alabaster 
wheel, on which Camadeva was whetting his arrows, while sparks 
of fire were dispersed in every direction, These flowers are pre- 
sented as New Year's gifts by the Burmese, accompanied with 
wishes for " a happy new year." And the tree itself is much 
venerated by them, as it is recorded in the Buddhist scriptures 
that Aramaitriya, the coming Buddh, and the fifth and last of 
the present dispensation, will enter upon divine life while musing 
beneath its hallowed shade. In Ceylon the tree is planted by 
the priests near every Buddhist temple, and it is said to be for 
for the sake of its flowers, with which they decorate the images 
of Buddha. The flowers present a singular contrast with the 
deep crimson of the young foliage and the dark green above and 
silvery colour underneath of the old leaves. The seeds of the 
Mesua ferrea are like chestnuts in size, form, and colour, and 
also in character, so that they are eaten as a dessert fruit. 
This is mimicry, as the tree belongs to the same family as the 
gamboge and mangosteen, while the true chestnut is classed 
with the oaks. The last I shall have to notice is the Bo Tree 
{Fiats religiosd) under whose shade Gautama attained perfect 
knowledge ; it is dedicated to him, and every preceding Buddha 
had also an appropriate tree. The next and last Buddha will 
attain supreme intelligence under the Mesua ferrea, the beautiful 
Iron Wood tree. A cutting of the original Bo tree is said to 
have been taken from Burmah to Ceylon 245 years before Christ 
and planted at Anuradhapura. The cutting was brought by the 
daughter of King Asoka, who followed her brother to Ceylon, 
where he had preceded her a few years as the first Buddhist 
missionary to that island. The tree which sprang from this cut- 
ting still exists at the place where it was planted, and is the 
oldest known tree in the world, its age being now 2123 years. 
Its age is not like other ancient trees — a matter of conjecture, 
but a subject of record ; its conservancy has been an object of 
solicitude to successive dynasties, and the story of its vicissitudes 
has been preserved in a series of continuous chronicles, amongst 
the most authentic that have been handed down by mankind. 
Its green old age would almost seem to verify the prophecy pro- 
nounced when it was planted, that ' it would flourish and be 
green for ever.' Gautama's Bo tree is said to have sprung 
miraculously from the earth at the moment of his birth, and is 


supposed to have stood in the centre of the world. The word 
Bo, or bodi as it is called by the Burmese, means wisdom, 
knowledge, and Bishop Bigaudet thinks ' It may not be out of 
the limits of possibility to suppose that it is a remnant of the 
tradition of the tree of knowledge that occupied the centre 
of the Garden of Eden.' Sir Emerson Tennent says, 
4 When the King of Magadha, in compliance with the 
request of the sovereign of Ceylon, was willing to 
send him a portion of that sanctified tree to be planted 
at Anuradhapura, he was deterred by the reflection 
that " it cannot be meet to lop it with any weapon ;" but, 
under the instruction of the high priest, using vermilion in a gold 
pencil, he made a streak on the branch, which, " severing itself, 
hovered over the mouth of a vase filled with scented oil," into 
which it struck its roots and descended. Taking the legend as 
a sacred law, the Budhist priests to the present day religiously 
object to " lop it with any weapon," and are contented to collect 
any leaves which, severing themselves, may chance to fall to the 
ground. These are regarded as treasures by the pilgrims, who 
carry them away to the remotest parts of the island.' The other 
Bo trees which are found in the vicinity of every temple in 
Ceylon, are said to be all derived from the parent tree at Anu- 
radhapura ; but they have been propagated by seeds, the priests 
adhering in this respect to the precedent recorded in the Maha- 
wanso when Mihindso himself, 'taking up a fruit as it fell, gave 
it to the king to plant.' During a visit to the large temple of 
Killarni, near Colombo, Ceylon, I observed in the enclosure 
near the Dagoba a very magnificent Bo tree. It is said to be a 
scion from the very ancient tree at Anuradhapura, and is cal- 
culated to be 500 years old. It is held in high veneration, and 
the lower branches were covered with votive offerings of old rags, 
but in the space round the tree the offerings were of fresh and 
charming flowers. I was very desirous of procuring some of the 
leaves of this tree, but I saw an evident disinclination of the 
priests to gratify my wish, although they were very attentive, 
giving us the milk of the king cocoanut to drink, and would 
accept of no gratuity ; but, after some hesitation and delay, the 
high priest gave me a few, but they were evidently fallen leaves, 
and I do not consider I should have obtained these had not an 
influential resident in Colombo been with me. I have often 
watched the tremulous motion of the leaves of the Bo tree when 
there was no wind stirring, as if some invisible agency was at 
work. It is similar to that of the aspen tree (Populus tremula), 
the trembling poplar. The Buddhists say that out of respect to 
their great Sage, the leaves of the Bo tree have always an apparent 
movement, whether there is any wind stirring or not ; and the 
Syrians say that the Saviour's cross was made of aspen, and the 
leaves have trembled ever since in commemoration of the event. 
But, unfortunately for this tradition, the aspen is a native 
of Britain, and there the wood is only used for making 


The Editor has to acknowledge receipt of the following 
publications : — 

Catalogue of the Library of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 

Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum for 1881-1882. 

Papers and Proceedings, and Report of the Royal Society of Tasmania for 1880. 

Catalogue of the Australian Stalk and Sessile-eyed Ciustacea, by Wm, A. 

Haswell, M.A., B. Sc. (from the author). 
Transactions and Proceedings, and Report of the Royal Society of South 

Australia (Vol. IV.) tor 1880-81. 
Journal of the Microscopical Society of Victoria, Vol. I, No. 4, Vol. II, No. r. 

Errata. — In Dr. Roseby's paper, at p. 68, substitute " Car- 
lyle " for " Carty," at line 36. In note on " Adenochilus gracilis," 
at p. 71, ninth line from the bottom of the page, "south- 
eastern " should read " south-western." 


[Born, February, 1809; Died, April, 1882.] 

The home telegrams of this morning inform us in New 
Zealand that the greatest naturalist of the present century has 
just passed away. A pre-eminently busy and useful life has just 
come to its close in a ripe old age. For more than half-a-cen- 
tury Charles Darwin has devoted all his great energies to the 
search for scientific truth, and up to within a short period of his 
death was still working with unwearied assiduity at his self- 
imposed labours. Gifted with great natural powers, which 
received the best direction and cultivation that skilful training 
could give, and furnished with that large provision of the things 
of this life which completely placed him beyond the harassing 
and engrossing cares of having to provide for the daily wants of 
himself and his family, he was yet troubled continually with a 
" thorn in the flesh," which must often have rendered all work 
extremely painful and irksome. Though he lived far beyond 
the average span of human existence, he was for the greater 
part of his life far from being a strong man, and his compara- 
tively feeble health, and constantly-recurring illnesses, must have 
been a hindrance to all kinds of work, such as, in men of less 
determination and method, would have proved almost in- 

Darwin has achieved what few men have done before him — 
he has revolutionised much of our knowledge and modes of 
thought, and has given an enormous impetus to every branch of 
science. Did his reputation rest on his earlier works alone, it 
would have been placed on a high and firm foundation. To 
take one example only : — his two monographs on the recent 
and fossil Cirripedia alone are such masterly essays in practical 


zoology and palaeontology that it seems almost as if he had left 
nothing for his successors to do, as far as these groups arc 
concerned. But his later works have so completely eclipsed his 
earlier, that many perhaps who have read some of the former 
are ignorant of the fact that Darwin had a world-wide scientific 
reputation before he brought out his great philosophical works. 
His greatest work, the " Origin of Species," published when he 
was just 50 years old, has proved, to use the words of Prof. 
Allmann, " a key to the order and hidden forces of the world of 
life." More than twenty years of almost continuous work and 
thought were devoted to the elaboration of the theory contained 
in it ; and, fearful lest his tenure of life would prove insufficient 
for the completion of his task, he published his treatise in 1859, 
modestly terming it " this abstract." The gist of the theory, 
with which his name will always remain associated, is contained 
in these concluding words of the introductory chapter : — 

" Although much remains obscure, and will long remain 
obscure, I can entertain no doubt, after the most deliberate 
study and dispassionate judgment of which I am capable, that 
the view which most naturalists until recently entertained, and 
which I formerly entertained — namely, that each species has 
been independently created — is erroneous. I am fully convinced 
that species are not immutable ; but that those belonging to 
what are called the same genera are lineal descendants of some 
other and generally extinct species, in the same manner as the 
acknowledged varieties of any one species are the descendants 
of that species. Furthermore, I am convinced that Natural 
Selection has been the most important, but not the exclusive, 
means of modification." 

Darwin claimed no new discovery ; he elaborated, and pre- 
sented in a lucid, concise, and convincing manner the theories 
already shadowed forth by his predecessors. His own grand- 
father (Erasmus Darwin), Lamarck, the anonymous author of 
the "Vestiges of Creation," Owen, A. R. Wallace, I. Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire, and Herbert Spencer, had all advanced similar 
hypotheses, and paved the way by their researches. But all 
were before their time. Public opinion " cared for none of these 
things," and their theories appeared to have been thrown into 
the limbo of forgetful ness, when, at the touch of the magician's 
wand, they were vivified again. It is marvellous what great 
insight Darwin brought to bear in his researches. Problems 
which seemed inscrutable were explained in the simplest con- 
ceivable manner, and people wondered how they could have 
failed to find them out for themselves. Matters which appeared 
most irrelevant to the subjects under discussion were shown to 
have a close connection with them, and the applications of the 
theory were made to every branch of science. There was no 
fear ever shown by the author as to how far his theory would 
extend, and where it would land him. He was prepared to take 
the inevitable consequences, believing that, as far as it would 
explain that " mystery of mysteries," the origin of species, it 


would be safe to follow it. What was true in it he knew would 
stand, and could not be shaken, and what was false no one 
would more readily thfow over than he would himself. 

There was no lack of opponents to the new theory. Con- 
temporary criticisms show that while many were convinced at 
once of its satisfactory nature, som? were dubious, and many at 
once opposed themselves. Every form of argument, and even 
abuse and vituperation, were hurled at it ; but it has stood, not 
greatly altered from its original form, and is at the present day 
accepted as a doctrine of science by nearly all biologists. In the 
concluding chapter of the " Origin of Species," Darwin used the 
following memorable words : — 

" Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views 
given in this volume under the form of an abstract, I by no 
means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds 
are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long 
course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. 
. . . Anyone whose disposition leads him to attach more 
weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a 
certain number of facts, will certainly reject the theory. A few 
naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have 
already begun to doubt the immutability of species, may be 
influenced by this volume ; but I look with confidence to the 
future, — to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view 
both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to 
believe that species are mutable, will do good service by con- 
scientiously expressing his conviction ; for thus only can the 
load of prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be 

His predictions have been more than realised. In England 
and America, in Germany more than anywhere else, throughout 
all communities where scientific men are to be found, his views 
have in the main been adopted. France, strange to say, showed 
the most determined resistance to the new doctrine, for there 
fand particularly in Paris) the influence of the Cuvierian school 
has acted like a wet blanket, stifling all free inquiry that was not 
in accordance with the teachings of the Institute, and France, as 
a consequence, has contributed very little to biological science 
during the last twenty years. 

All Darwin's later works — and they are many in number and 
monumental in character — bear more or less directly on the 
elucidation of the theory promulgated in the " Origin of Species." 
Every circumstance, howeves trivial, furnished matter to this 
end, every detail was studied, and the keenest power of observa- 
tion — a hereditary trait strongly developed in the Darwin family 
— was brought to bear on the subject. The marvellous industry 
which accumulated, sorted, and used this material to such excel- 
lent purpose has been the wonder of all who have studied his 
works. The feature, however, which impresses itself most 
strongly on his readers is his singular candour, and his zealous 
search after the true explanation of every question which presented 


itself to his mind. His hypotheses and theories were never obtruded 
in a crude undigested form, nor did he ever show strong - partisan- 
ship. In advancing an opinion every argument was adduced in 
support of it, but at the same time the weak places were pointed 
out, and all the objections to be urged against it were considered. 
There is a total absence of dogmatic assertion in all his state- 

Darwin seemed to be little troubled by all the savage attacks 
which were made against him and his theories. He was con- 
scious in himself of a sincere longing after truth, and had the 
satisfaction of feeling that his work was bearing fruit a hundred- 
fold. His view of life and of the Creator of life was a far grander 
one than any which it subverted, and he has been one of the 
greatest contributors to that freedom of thought which now 
characterizes true men of science. 

In the " Principia " of Isaac Newton, and the " Origin of 
Species " of Charles Darwin, England has had the honour of 
leading and revolutionising the whole scientific world. 

Geo. M. Thomson. 
April 22nd, 1882. 



The following species of Micro-lcpidoptera from New Zealand 
are described by Mr. E. Meyrick in the " Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society of New South Wales," vols. 5 and 6 : — 

Genus Simaethis, Leach. 

Head smooth, with ocelli ; tongue strong. Antennae about 
half as long as fore-wings, filiform, ciliated in male. No 
maxillary palpi. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, second 
joint beneath, with rough scales, often forming a small apical 
projection ; terminal joint compressed, rather shorter than 
second, blunt. Fore-wings broadly-triangular, apex somewhat 
produced, hind-margin slightly oblique. Hind-wings broader 
than fore-wings, triangular, cilia short. Abdomen short, stout. 
Legs short, broadly compressed, tibiae densely scaled. Fore 
wings with 12 veins; no secondary cell; 1 furcate at base. 
Hind-wings with 8 veins; 7 and 8 remote, 3 and 4 sometimes 
stalked or coincident. 

Larva 16-legged, active, living in a web within a drawn- 

* Continued from page 35. 


together leaf; pupa in a firm white cocoon. In repose, the 
imago rests with the fore-wings slightly raised and partially 
expanded, so as not to entirely conceal the hind-wings. 

1. >S. combinatana, Walker (Brit. Mus. Cat., 456 ; I.e. vol. 5, 
p. 213). — Head and thorax deep ochreous-brown, with a few 
white scales. Palpi white at base, second joint clothed with four 
whorls of black white-tipped scales, terminal joint black with 
three slender white rings. Antennae black, annulated with 
white, with long ciliations in male. Abdomen blackish, with a 
few whitish scales. Legs dark fuscous, thickly irrorated with 
whitish, tarsi with indistinct whitish rings, posterior tibiae clothed 
with dense hair-scales. Fore-wings slightly dilated, hind-margin 
distinctly waved ; blackish-fuscous, tinged with reddish-brown 
on costa beyond middle, and within each pair of transverse 
lines ; some purple-whitish scales irregularly arranged trans- 
versely near base ; four transverse cloudy lines of purple-whitish 
scales arranged in pairs, and starting from small white costal 
spots ; first pair from % of costa to ^ of inner margin, rather 
curved outwards, irregularly toothed ; second pair from % of 
costa to just before anal angle, angulated outwards beneath 
costa, but indistinct and irregular; a streak of purple-whitish 
scales from apex, very near, but not on hind-margin, reaching to 
middle, a second similar streak from middle of hind-margin, imme- 
diately beyond end of first, continued along hind-margin, not 
extending to anal angle ; cilia dark fuscous, containing a cloudy 
white basal spot above and another below middle of hind-margin. 
Hind-wings rather narrow, hind-margin strongly sinuate below 
middle, anal angle prominent ; dark fuscous, broadly blackish 
along hind-margin, with two rather short cloudy parallel streaks 
of blue-whitish scales, one nearly along hind-margin at anal 
angle, the other immediately above it ; cilia white on the hind- 
marginal sinuation, becoming gradually smoky-fuscous towards 
apex, and on anal angle, black at base throughout. Male, 
length 6j^ lines. 

Two males taken among forest growth at Wellington, flying 
towards sunset, in January. 

Genus Choreutis, Hb. 

Head smooth ; with ocelli ; tongue strong. Antennae about 
half as long as fore-wings, filiform, ciliated in male. No maxil- 
lary palpi. Labial palpi moderately long, recurved, second joint 
beneath with long dense projecting bristles ; terminal joint slen- 
der, pointed. Fore-wings broadly triangular, hind-margin 
straight. Hind-wings broader than fore-wings, triangular, cilia 
very short. Abdomen short, stout. Legs short, broadly com- 
pressed, posterior tibiae densely scaled. Fore-wings with 12 
veins ; no secondary cell ; 1 furcate at base. Hind-wings with 8 
veins ; 7 and 8 remote ; 3 and 4 sometimes stalked or coinci- 

In habits the species resemble Simaethis, and the imago holds 
the fore-wings slightly raised in the same manner. 


Larva [6-legged, living in a web between drawn together 
leaves. Pupa in a firm cocoon. 

1. C. bjerkandrclla, Thub, I.e. vol. 5, p. 215. Head grey, face 
tinged with yellow. Palpi white, second joint grey on side with 
two black rings before apex, beneath with long blackish and 
white diverging bristles, terminal joint blackish. Antennae 
black, annulated with white, with moderate ciliations in the male. 
Thorax yellowish-ferruginous, with five longitudinal metallic 
grey-silvery lines. Abdomen black, with silvery-white rings. 
Legs white, tibiae with central and apical black bands, tarsi 
with four black bands. Fore-wings moderately dilated, apex and 
hind-margin rounded ; dark fuscous, basal third yellowish-ferru- 
ginous, except on margins and a central longitudinal streak ; 
two short metallic-silvery streaks from base along the costal 
margin and central streak ; two cloudy whitish transverse bands, 
first from ^ of costa to % of inner-margin, rather curved out- 
wards, furcate on inner-margin ; second from ^3 of costa to 
before anal angulated outwards above middle ; the space between 
these is irregularly sprinkled with whitish scales ; two round 
black blotches immediately preceding second band, one on inner 
margin, the other below middle, each containing an elongate 
metallic purple-silvery mark, that in the upper one being 3- 
pointed ; several other metallic purple-silvery markings, consist- 
ing of an elongate mark on inner margin of second band above 
middle, a small costal spot between the two bands, an elongate 
mark on hind-margin below middle, preceded by an elongate 
black blotch, a spot on costa immediately beyond second band, 
and an elongate mark round apex ; cilia dark grey, with a pale 
line in middle and another before tips, tips white round apex. 
Hind wings dark fuscous, blackish towards apex, with a white 
elongate spot on disc beyond middle, parallel to hind margin, 
and sometimes another less distinct white spot above it on costa: 
cilia blackish, with two white lines. Male and female, length 4-5 

The species occur in Europe, S. Africa, S. America, and 
Australia. In New Zealand I met with it on the swampy thistle- 
grown plains at Hamilton, on the Waikato, in immense profusion, 
swarming on the thistle blossoms in the sunshine, in January. 

In Europe the larva feeds on Inula ; probably in other parts 
of the world it is not restricted from other Composites ; in New 
Zealand at least it must certainly feed on thistle. 

(To be continued.) 



[As the University authorities do not publish the science papers 
set for B. A. Matriculation and Senior and Junior Scholarship examin- 
ations, it has been decided to reproduce them in this Journal, as it 
is believed they will prove of use to teachers and students alike. 



Examiner: Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D. 

1. Indicate the chief methods in which animals become " com- 
pound," and define the terms " zooid " and " individual." 

2. Give the general characters of the Tape-worms (T&niada or 
Cestoidea), and indicate the principal forms which infest man either 
in their adult or their immature condition. 

3. Describe the structure of an Amceba, and indicate . the 
methods in which locomotion, the taking in of food, and reproduc- 
tion are effected. 

4. Give the general characters of the Apteryx, mentioning the 
group of birds to which it belongs, and enumerating the other 
living types of the same order. Mention any extinct allies of the 
Apteryx which may be known to you. 

5. Describe the dental apparatus of a Viperine Snake. 

6. What are the principal characters of the Perissodact}le 
Ungulates ? Mention the existing genera of Perissodactyles. 

7. To what order of the Mammalia would you reler the 
Kangaroo (Macropiis) ? Mention some of its more striking anat- 
omical peculiarities. 

8. Refer to its proper class and sub-kingdom an animal with 
the following characters : — Body segmented, nerve system in the 
form of a double ventral gangliated chain ; heart a dorsal tube ; 
breathing organs in the form of tracheae ; no wings ; one pair of 
antennae ; -thorax and abdomen not distinct from one another ; 
each segment behind the head carrying one pair of jointed 

Examiner : Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D. 
i. What are " stomata," and in what parts of a plant are they 
ordinarily developed ? Describe their general structure, and point 
out what function they discharge. 

2. Describe the general structure and mode of growth of an 
endogenous stem. 

3. Describe the characters respectively of " punctated " or 
" discigerous " tissue, of "pitted" tissue, and of " scalariform " 
tissue ; and indicate the special groups of plants in which the first 
and last ot these are characteristically developed. 


4. Distinguish between an "epiphyte" and a " parasite," giving 
examples ot each. 

5. Distinguish between " simple " and " compound " leaves ; 
and explain what is meant by " perfoliate," " connate," and 
" peltate" leaves. 

6. Give briefly the general characters of the Ferns (Filices), 
mentioning characteristic examples ot the order which occur in 
New Zealand. 

7. Explain how pollen is formed, and give a short account of 
the general structure of pollen grains, and ot the part which they 
play in the process of reproduction. 

8. What do you understand by a " cone," and what is its 
structure ? Mention some trees kuown to you which produce 

Examiner: Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D. 

1. What is the chemical composition of quartz, and what are 
its principal crystalline forms ? Mention some of its more striking 

2. What do you understand by "chemically formed," and 
what by " organically formed " rocks ? Mention some of the 
more important rocks included under these heads. 

3. What is an "amygdaloid"? Explain clearly its mode of 

4. Give a brief account of the distribution of areas of active 
volcanic energy at the present day, and state what you consider 
should be regarded as the exciting causes of volcanic eruptions. 

5. Explain the terms " dip," " strike," " hade." 

6. What are the principal subdivisions of the Carboniferous 
rocks, and what is the general lithological character of the Car- 
boniferous series ? Mention the chief coal-producing ccuntries. 

7. Explain how rock-salt comes to be accumulated in quantity 
in the crust of the earth, and mention the chief geological horizons 
at which extensivt deposits ot salt are found. 

8. Give the geological range of the following fossils : — Tri- 
lobites, Graptolites, Ammonites, Sigillaria, Cephalaspis, and 

Examiner; Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D. 

1. Describe the stomach of Man or of any Mammal, giving an 
account of its different coats, and of the special digestive glands 
with which it is provided. 

2. Briefly describe the minute structure, chemical composition, 
and vital properties of voluntary muscle. 

3. Explain the general phenomena of the assimilation of new 
matter by the animal organism, and the simultaneous retrograde 
metamorphosis and destruction of previously existing tissue. 
Indicate an essential difference between the assimilative powers of 
animals and plants. 

4. What do you understand by a " proximate principle " ? 
Enumerate the chief proximate principles of the animal body. 

* No candidates presented themselves. 


5. Describe the structure of nerve-cells and nerve-fibres, state 
what is meant by a motor, and what by a sensitive nerve, and 
distinguish between sensation and perception. 

6. Define reflex action, and give examples of actions of this 

7. Describe the minute structure of cartilage, and give a 
general account of the way in which cartilage is converted into 

8. What is the pulse, and how is it produced ? 



(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — Allow me to call the attention of geologists and others 
to a locality very rich in fossil plants, but as yet visited by compa- 
ratively few persons. The place was pointed out to me by Professor 
Black, who has known of it for some time, and with the kind help 
of Mr. Gardiner, of Pukerau, I was able to visit it, and get a good 
many specimens. The fossils occur in a bed of quartzite about 
five miles from the Pukerau railway station. A large landslip has 
laid bare the side of a hill for about a mile. The fossiliferous bed 
is very thin, perhaps only four feet in thickness where it is cut 
across by the slip, and is quite on the surtace of the ground. 
Beneath it there is a thick layer of brown sand, hardly firm enough 
to be called stone, and, as tar as I could see, destitute of fossils. 
Towards the east end of the landslip the stone is rich in fossil 
wood, and here there are very few prints of leaves ; but the 
quantity of wood is astonishing. After the stone has hardened 
round the wood, the latter appears in many cases to have weathered 
out, leaving cavities in the stone. The large mass of stone lying 
on the face of the hill has, from this cause, the appearance of a huge 
sponge, so full is it of cavities. Towards the centre of the slip the 
stone is comparatively free from wood, and is very rich in leaves, 
and fruits, and small twigs. It would hence appear that the light 
leaves and twigs have been in some way sorted out from the 
heavier wood. The leaves and pieces of wood lie at all angles in 
the stone, and it seems likely that they were deposited under water 
and covered with sand. As no shells have yet been found in the 
stone, it is probable that deposition took place under fresh water. 
Decomposition of so much organic matter must have produced a 
great quantity of carbonic acid ; and it is known that carbonic 
acid can decompose silicates. It is probable that the hardening 
of the sand into stone is due to soluble silica produced in this way. 
To the same cause may be ascribed the whiteness of the quartzite 
and its very high percentage ol silica. 

In less than two hours Mr. Gardiner and I obtained a sackful 
of specimens. The vegetation must have consisted mostly of 


dicgtvledonous plants ; but I obtained several specimens of 
monocotyledonous plants belonging to, perhaps, two species. 
I got some eight different sorts of leaves. One of these 
leaves appears to be identical with that of the Broadleaf 
(Griselinia lucida). Two or three species of pine were also probably 
present. One specimen I obtained had a leaf very like that of the 
Yellow Pine. I was successful in obtaining several specimens of 
fruits of three or four different kinds. 

Any geologist visiting this place will find it necessary to pro- 
vide himself with a heavy sledge hammer, as the stone is exceed- 
ingly hard, and the blocks are large. Hoping that some geologist 
will make a study of this locality. — I am, &c, 

A. Montgomery. 

(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — I beg to thank you sincerely for your review of my 
pamphlet. That I should be accused of not understanding what 
" energy " is considered to be is the last thing that I should have 
thought anyone could bring against me after reading my pamphlet. 
The approval of a journal like what I hope the New Zealand 
Journal of Science will be is what I earnestly desire. Will you 
kindly allow me a brief notice of your review, that I may set 
myself right with your readers and with the writer of the review, 
whose good opinion I value. 

On the first page, first line, I say, " There are two measures 
of force" (if "energy" can be called "force"), and on the next 
page I state as follows : — " Taking the very same ball, it is asserted 
that (a) the momentum varies simply as the velocity varies, while (b) 
the kinetic energy of the same moving ball varies as the square of the 
velocity." I do not think it can be said, therefore, that I have 
" confused " momentum with energy. 

I think the reviewer did not gather in the full meaning of 
Professor Stewart's remarks, which will be found much amplified 
in his work on the " Conservation of Energy." I however lay 
great stress on the explicit statement of Professor Garnett (page 
8 of pamphlet) in his article on " Energy " in the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," ninth edition: — "Energy may be defined as the 
power of doing work." The unit of work is a pound weight raised 
to the height of a foot. It is asserted that the time may be 
neglected (pages n and 12 of the pamphlet). If a pound mass be 
projected so as to rise to a certain height against the force of 
gravity, it is asserted that the energy of the mass, moving with the 
initial velocity it had, ib measured by the height to which it rose — the 
amount of work done, — just as if the force of gravity were so many 
feet thick. If the same mass be lifted, no matter how slowly, to 
the same height, it is asserted that no more work is done against 
the force of gravity, though the force of gravity acted for a much 
longer time on the mass in the second case than in the first. If a 
steam engine acted for any time, at any rate, the work done would 
be proportional to the time, the rate being uniform. 

Let the pound mass have an initial velocity of 128 feet per 
second. To what height would it have risen in a second if the 


force of gravity had not acted ? The first law of motion says 128 
feet. The force of gravity, however, does act. How high, then, 
does the mass rise? 112 test. What, then, was the " work " of 
the force of gravity ? It stopped the mass from rising the 16 
feet additional ; it would have risen if gravity had not acted. This 
then is all the work the force of gravity does in the first second, 
and not 112 foot pounds as the text-books assert it does in 
work. — I am, &c, 

T. Wakelin, B.A. 
Greytown, March 31, 1882. 


(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — In my work on " Ferns and Fern Allies of New Zea- 
land," I have unaccountably fallen into the error (at p. 31) of 
making Mr. Kirk state that Dicksonia fibrosa, Col en so, is a variety 
of D. squavrosa, Swartz, and I quote his remark on the subject 
(N. Z. Inst. Trans., vol. X., app. p. 43). A reference to Mr. Kirk's 
paper will show that he places it under D. antarctica, Lab. I do 
not know how I can have made such a slip. I have to apologise 
to Mr. Kirk for the mis-statement. — I am, &c, 

Geo. M. Thomson. 



28th March. — The session was opened by a conversational 
meeting, at which numerous interesting exhibits were shown. 
Geo. M. Thomson, Esq., Vice-President, was in the chair. 

New Members. — Messrs. Robt. Jones, James Henry, and 
Wm. A. Dickson. 

Besides a considerable number of microscopes, including 
several dissecting instruments, the following objects were ex- 
hibited, amongst others : — 

(1) A fine collection, most beautifully preserved, of marine 
Invertebrates, prepared at the Zoological Station, Naples. 

(2) A large and valuable collection of Foraminifera, received 
from Prof. W. K. Parker, F.R.S., Royal College of Surgeons, 

(3) Casts of Plesiosaurus, Ichthyosaurus, Pterodactyl, 
Iguanodon, Labyrinthodon, Machairodus, .Hipparion, and Engis 
and Neanderthal skulls ; together with a number of new speci- 
mens from the Otago Museum. All the above were shown by 
Prof. Parker. 


Prof. Scott exhibited a number of anatomical preparations 
and apparatus. 

Mr. F. R. Chapman showed Graptolites from the Victorian 
primary rocks. 

Mr. A. Montgomery exhibited fossil plants in chert from 

Collections of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, made in the 
neighbourhood of Dunedin, were exhibited by Messrs. S. W. 
Fulton and P. Fulton respectively. 

There was a large attendance of members and their friends. 


6th April. — The second ordinary meeting was held, the Presi- 
dent, Prof, von Haast in the chair. 
New member. — Mr. E. Meyrick. 

Papers. — (i) "Notes on a skeleton of the hump-backed 
whale, Megaptem lalandii (Novce Zcelandiw), Gray," by Prof. J. von 
Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. The author describes in this paper the 
complete skeleton of the New Zealand Humpback Whale, of which 
hitherto portions were only known. It was named by the late 
Dr. Gray irom an earbone alone. Although small differences 
appear in the osteology of the New Zealand specimen when com- 
pared with drawings and descriptions of M. Lalandii (the Hump- 
back Whale ot the Cape of Good Hope), described and figured by 
Van Benedei: and Gervais in their Osteographie des Cetacees, 
there is, according to the author, no doubt that the New Zealand 
specimen is identical with the former, and that thus Megaptera 
Novce-Zcelandice has to be abolished. Drawings of the sternum 
and scapula are added in illustrations. 

2. " On the Silt Deposit at Lyttelton," by Professor Hutton. 
This paper drew attention to a section made by cutting back the 
hill to form a site for the Lyttelton Dock, which showed that the 
silt deposit was here distinctly stratified, and dipped I5deg. N.E. 
The author was of opinion that this stratification could not be 
explained on the theory of the sub-aerial origin of the deposit, as 
advocated by Dr. von Haast. The stratification can be seen from 
the steamer pier in Lyttelton Harbour. 

3. " Additions to the Isopodan Fauna of New Zealand," by 
Charles Chilton, B.A. In this paper two species were added to 
the New Zealand Isopoda : — (1) Apseudes timaruvia, sp. nov., from 
Timaru This species was described at some length, and nume- 
rous figures were given of its different parts. It has an appendage 
to the second maxilla somewhat like that of Tanais, which may 
perform the same function, for the pleopoda are small, and do not 
look like respiratory organs. (2) Philougrea rosea, Koch. — A Euro- 
pean species, specimens of which were found at Christchurch, 
and also at Eyreton. Perhaps introduced from England. 




By various Makers, 

J. WILKIB <* CO., 


J\ WILKIE <8s OO., 



JUNE, 1882.] 

[No. 4, Vol. I. 




Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si f ahum est, adcingere contra. 



A New Zealand Association of Science. A. K. Newman, Esq., M.B., M.R.C.P. 145 

Remarks on the Histeridae of New Zealand. > Capt. T. Broun, M.E.S 150 

On the use of Lignite or Brown Coal in the Blast Furnace. Prof, von Iunner 154 

New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 159 

A Few Remarks on Mr. W. M. Maskell's Paper, intituled " A Visit to Weka 

Pass Rock-paintings." Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 165 

Descriptions of some Mollusks omitted from Prof. Hutton's " Manual of the New 

Zealand Mollusca. 1880." 169 

New Zealand Pycnogonida of the "Challenger" Expedition ..„ 170 

Notes on the Fertilisation of Knightia. T. F. Cheeseman, Esq 173 

General Notes — ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 176 

Earthquake Disturbances in North Canterbury — The Use of Lignite in the Blast Furnace — 
Ferns — University Honours in Science— New Zealand Systematists— Naultinus Sylvestris — 
" Transactions of the New Zealand Institute " — Fragmenta Phytographiae Australia? — 
Microscopical Society of Victoria — Caprcllina Novae-Zealandice. 

Review — "Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile-Eyed Crustacea (by 

William A Haswell, M.A., B.Sc.)" 180 

Correspondence ... .. .. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 181 

On the Ske'eton of Notornis — Occurrence of Celmisia Ramulosa — On some Botanical Criticisms 
by Mr Kirk in the " Trans N.Z. Institute." 

Meetings of Societies — ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 185 

Otago Institute— Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute — 
Southland Institute — Royal Society of New South Wales — Auckland Institute. 






Vol. I., No. 4, JUNE, 1882.] 


BY A. K. NEWMAN, ESQ., M.B., M.R.C.P. 

The marked success achieved by the British Association of 
Science has led to the successful foundation of kindred insti- 
tutions among most civilised nations. In the United States, 
France, Germany, and Scandinavia, they flourish. This process 
of aggregation has indeed gone still further, for these national 
meetings have been followed by international gatherings. There 
have been meetings, such as the International Geographical 
meetings, where representatives from the most distant countries 
assembled, each bringing his special knowledge to be assimilated 
with the common stock. This was followed by a great Inter- 
national Medical Congress, which met in London, and was a 
brilliant achievement. Everywhere in the scientific world are 
evidences abundant as to the value of such associations and 
such gatherings, and nowhere is there trace of harm. In the 
body political a like result obtains. In New Zealand, our 
bankrupt isolated provinces have been abolished and replaced 
by a flourishing united form of government. Our philosophical 
societies, each struggling hard, each doing good work, would do 
still better work if united ; and such an association would fairly 
hold its own against like associations, and would make a 
respectable appearance in the scientific world. Until recently 
the existence of such a body was quite impossible in this 
colony, but now that rail and steam have made means of com- 
munication frequent and easy, the welding process is simple — it 
merely needs a beginning. If the effort were made, success 
would certainly follow. All that is required is the willing 
co-operation of the various societies. When the British Associ- 
ation first met it was ridiculed by all the newspapers, now it is a 
mighty help in the advancement of science. There are now so 
many workers in the colony that, if a fair percentage assembled, 
it would suffice to ensure success. I believe that a sufficient 
number would attend. A carefully-selected committee of 
management, consisting of one representative from each Philo- 
sophical Society, could draw up rules and a plan of manage- 
ment, which could not fail to be successful. As a model, they 
might choose the British Association. The New Zealand 
Association should be peripatetic, holding its meetings in the 
chief towns. Any member of any Philosophical Society should 
be a member of the Association. It should be governed by a 
president, vice-presidents, and a committee elected by the mem- 
bers. A week would be long enough for the sittings of this 
scientific parliament. Its meetings should be held in spring, 


summer, or autumn, and might be simultaneous with those of 
the University Senate, and held in the same town. Perhaps, 
however, it would be better to hold it at a time when the 
University professors and all other teachers would be at liberty 
to attend. 

The advantages of such an association would be very many 
and very great. It would bring together the many scientific 
workers in the colony ; it would make them friendly ; would 
elicit many discussions ; would teach each man his position. 
It would let the workers know their position better, would teach 
them often what had been done, what was being done, and what 
was left for the future. These annual meetings would also do 
vast good by removing some of the narrow-mindedness and 
priggishness inseparable from all isolated workers. The reading 
of papers : the results of the work of a few would stimulate 
many to hard work. There would arise that best of stimulants 
— a keen competition ; and progress would follow. Not only 
would scientific students profit, but also the general public. 

The curse of our present system is that in each society there 
are only some half-dozen active workers who read many papers 
and take an active part in the discussions. The public grow 
weary of attending the meeting where, year after year, they 
listen to the same speakers ; and there arises the feeling in 
their minds which led, ages ago, to the statement that a prophet 
is not without honour save in his own country, and among his 
own kin. One obvious benefit of these meetings would be a 
renewed interest in science by the public. A Dunedin public, 
wearied a little perchance of their own scientists, would willingly 
go to hear new voices from Wellington and Auckland and else- 
where, and certainly these other people would crowd to listen to 
a strange preacher. The annual address by the president, and 
the meeting of the Association, would attract the attention of 
the papers, and thereby be brought more closely home to the 

Medical men in the colony might form an Association, which 
should be a branch of the larger one — a section, such as the 
Geological or Botanical. This section would certainly give 
strength and size to the Association. Many medical men would 
take an interest in it, and would attend the meetings of the 
Association, who otherwise would not go for a mere love of 
general science. The Association might further strengthen 
itself by a Social Science section, thereby attracting another 
class of workers. To be a success, the Association would have 
to open wide its doors to all classes of thinkers and workers. 
The engineers and surveyors would have a section to themselves. 
In social science, there might be an educational subsection. 

The Association might, I think, do more than this. It might 
found a kind of order of merit, like the F.R.S. at Home. To 
make it a real honour, the number to be distributed yearly 
should be limited to 1 or 3. The keen desire to obtain the 
right to use the magic letters F.R.S. at Home is productive of a 


very large amount of good work. Original research might fur- 
ther be encouraged by the giving of a yearly medal, like the 
Copley, Royal, or Rumford. All such honours should be given 
sparingly, and with most jealous care, in order to maintain their 
high, prestige. Such prizes would stimulate a large number of 
workers, both young and old. Not a few scientific workers are 
apt to despise all such aids to science, but every man of the 
world will agree as to their utility. 

For centuries all scientific workers were believed to practice 
the black art, to have sold themselves to the Devil ; and, though 
this feeling has almost entirely died out, it still lingers in a 
modified form in the belief so common among the multitude 
that science is something very mysterious, very weird, and always 
incomprehensible. Unfortunately this feeling was largely 
fostered by a class of men who delight to maintain this incom- 
prehensibility, by the use of an extravagantly technical phrase- 
ology. Sometimes this was pure matter of habit, but very often 
it was the child of pure affectation and conceit. Men who had 
little to say liked to make that little seem much by clothing it in 
the longest, most uncouth terms they could find, so that the 
public became thoroughly averse to reading any scientific work. 
It is only recently that efforts have been successfully made to 
popularise science, and chief among these is the greatest of all 
modern scientific workers. In his "Voyage of the 'Beagle,'" 
" Origin of Species," " Descent of Man," and in all his works 
down to his latest on earthworms, Mr. Darwin has clothed the 
highest generalisations and the purest science in words and 
phrases so simple that the most unlearned can easily understand 
and take pleasure therein. He has been followed by Huxley, with 
his humourous, clear, incisive writing ; by Tyndall in a masterly 
prose, and by Proctor in the freest and easiest manner. These 
men and many others have done a vast amount of good, alto- 
gether outside the actual scientific contents of their books, by 
teaching the people that science is not an incomprehensible 
mystery, but is really very simple and very easily understood. 
Unfortunately this old spirit of eclecticism still lives in the 
breasts of many scientific workers ; they hate all attempts at 
" popularising " science, and deem all such efforts as degrading, 
as ruinous to science, and altogether worthy of contempt. These 
men like to think that their work is special, select, and cavaire 
to the general. They have a feeling akin to that which ruled the 
old Egyptian priests, who had a special high-class religion, with 
carefully guarded rites, for themselves, whilst they had another 
religion and other ceremonials for the common herd. I feel 
sure there is very little danger to fear from popularising science, 
which after all only means that we put thoughts into language 
which every one who runs may read. 

I think this absurd dread of " popularising " science has done 
and is still doing a great deal of harm. I am a constant attend- 
ant at the meetings of the Wellington Philosophical Society, and 
I have read many accounts of the meetings of its kindred 


societies, and everywhere I find the same thing — dreary papers, 
thoughts clothed in most scientific technical phraseology,a scanty 
audience which soon looks weary and grows restless and inatten- 
tive; the result being that the public in each town care little or no- 
thing for science. When in England I have frequently attended 
lectures at the Royal, the London, and other institutions, and there 
I saw quite a different plan adopted. For instance, suppose that 
Prof. Huxley is the lecturer, the theatre is crowded with an 
audience very little better scientifically educated than those 
at our Philosophical meetings ; yet instead of seeing weary, list- 
less faces and yawning featurss, with the clearest signs of 
blankest bewilderment written on their faces, we there see an 
audience listening eagerly, and evidently deeply interested from to finish. The cause of the difference is simple. The Pro- 
fessor's plan is easy and successful. He works for months or 
years before making some discovery. The result achieved, he 
writes a most learned monograph, couched in the most sesqui- 
pedalian words, and the most technical of technical phraseology 
to ensure scientific exactness ; and this monograph, incomprehen- 
sible everywhere except to similar skilled workers, is printed in 
the Transactions of the Royal Society for future reference and 
guidance. It is acceptable to all specialists, and there fulfils one 
of its missions. When, however, the Professor lectures to a mixed 
audience, he prepares very different material. He drapes his 
discovery in plain yet eloquent words, he leaves out all the 
dreary details, and all the unintelligible phraseology ; he lightens 
his subject by various pleasant methods, and at the end of his 
lecture the audience understands a vast deal more than it would 
have done had he read through every word of his lengthy essay. 
All the people go away pleased, they feel they have learnt some- 
thing, they think and talk over the subject, they tell the dis- 
coveries to their friends, and they go to the next lecture. Many 
workers in this colony seem to despise this plan, and sneeringly 
suggest that it is merely a phase of hinting, and fiercely maintain 
that it is contemptible and calculated to ruin science. The 
public hate to sit listening to a prosy stammering man, who 
reads in dullest tones a paper couched in such terms that they 
really do not understand three consecutive sentences. People 
loathe these dull unintelligible monographs, but very many 
thoroughly enjoy hearing " the fairy tales of science and the 
long results of time." In a New Zealand audience the number 
of people who know anything of a special science is very limited, 
yet in one evening they hear a paper on the " Fossils of the 
Amuri," on the " Botany of Ruapehu," on the " Simplest Con- 
tinuous Manifoldness of Finite Space of Two Dimensions," and 
an article on the " Hydration of Silicates." All this hotch-potch 
is served up to them in the rawest terms ; it is not cooked to 
make it easy for their digestion, and the result is disgust and 

[f the Association is to be a success it must be managed on 
broad grounds. It must be governed by a committee of workers, 


and not of great names. Every man on the committee should 
be chosen because of his known capacity as an organiser and 
worker, and no man should be on it merely because he is a " Sir " 
or an M.L.C. or M.H.R., or a luminary of the Church guileless 
of all scientific work. The Association should be very broad in 
its aims, embracing all workers, and shutting out no one. The 
Council should be elected by ballot. The meetings of the Asso- 
ciation should be so governed as to be of interest to all. Very 
much benefit would often follow if it were agreed, as is often 
done in the medical societies in London, that some expert should 
read a paper on a topic of great general interest at the time, and 
be followed by a list of speakers, all bringing their special 
knowledge to bear on the subject. Take for instance such sub- 
jects as " The Whence of the Maori," read by its author and dis- 
cussed in turn by such men as Colenso, Fenton, Manning, Locke, 
John White, Haast, Hector, Stack, and others ; or, " The 
Resources of the Colony," by Dr. Hector, and its discussion by 
other leading experts. In the special discussions at the Patho- 
logical and Clinical Societies in London, this plan is frequently 
productive. of good, and leads to a real advance in our knowledge. 
It shows each worker on what varied lines others are working, 
and the bringing together of these varied plans corrects many 
errors, and leads to the breaking of fresh ground. 

Another way in which such an Association might do good 
would be the publication of a journal, which should be the special 
organ of all scientific workers. The British Medical Journal 
some years since began as a small weekly sheet, the mouth-piece 
of the small Medical Association. It owed something as the 
years rolled on to the help of the Association, but this it has 
fully repaid in every sense. It now is the accredited organ of 
an Association numbering many thousands, and has been of 
much service to the profession. Such a paper would be of ser- 
vice to a large class of people who have little bits of special 
knowledge and make little discoveries of interest, yet not suffi- 
ciently large, perhaps, to form a monograph for publication in 
the over-crowded " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute." 
As the " Transactions " appear only once a year there is a long 
interregum, and some monthly journal is needed to fill the blank. 

In conclusion, after looking at the subject in all its lights, I 
see nothing impracticable, or any actually serious difficulties in the 
way of forming such an association. If, during this winter, the 
various Philosophical Societies would discuss the matter, and 
would send their written opinions to each other, and if they 
would unite, I feel sure that a meeting early next year would 
crown their efforts with success. In starting anything of this 
kind it is very easy to conjure up a host of difficulties, and there 
are those who delight in so doing ; but if members resolve to 
overlook difficulties, they would soon vanish. Perhaps the best 
way after all will be for someone to take the initiative step, and as 
" everyone's business is no one's business," I will test the feeling 
of the Wellington Society directly after the publication of this 


article ; and then if each of the other societies will discuss the 
matter and send their answers to our secretary, a conclusive 
reply could easily be obtained to the question whether the 
societies think the time has come when a New Zealand Associa- 
tion of Science should be formed. 



As the exponents of this coleopterous family display habits 
somewhat at variance with preconceived notions, I have thought 
that a brief record of such observations as I have been able to 
make may prove interesting to naturalists, who, perhaps, are apt 
to infer the mode of life of a New Zealand insect from what is 
known regarding similar or nearly related species found else- 

Our species vary in size from quarter of an inch to two- 
thirds of a line. They are of different forms, one or two being 
almost quadrate, whilst others are nearly hemispherical. All are 
hard polished insects which, when disturbed, contract the limbs 
so as to simulate death. The greater number are almost wholly 
black ; two only form exceptions to the rule. 

Before proceeding further, it may be as well to state that the 
European members of the group generally affect the excrement 
of cattle, their decomposing remains, or such like pabulum. 

The species at the head of our list, Platysoma cognatum, was 
discovered by Mr. T. Lawson and me, amongst decaying vege- 
table matter in the Domain at Auckland, and has not, I believe, 
been found elsewhere. 

The habits of Hister cinnamoneus must remain in obscurity 
for the present, because no one, so far as I know, has been 
fortunate enough to find even a solitary example of it since the 
time of its description, many years ago. 

Epienis sylvanus and E. purns occur in the forests adjacent 
to Whangarei Harbour, generally remote from human habita- 
tions, and invariably on logs or amongst decaying leaves, woody 
fibre, etc. 

Stemaula zealandicus, the largest species we have, and 
moreover belonging to a genus peculiar to Madagascar, was first 
met with by me at Tairua some years ago, or, more correctly, 
one visited me, sedately marching into my house with the appa- 
rent intention of enriching my collection — at all events, such 
was the result. On one occasion, many months afterwards, 
whilst out in the woods, I came across a huge prostrate tree, 
dry, but quite rotten, which had obviously been tenanted by 
hundreds of this beetle, which, it was evident, had passed 


through all its metamorphoses in the wood; nevertheless my 
inquisitive friend remained my only capture, all I then saw being 
mere fragments of the once perfect insects. In the course of a 
couple of years I had removed to Whangarei Heads, and having 
chosen a suitable ravine for future research, proceeded to cut 
down an Areca sapida^ for the express purpose of examining its 
inhabitants. I need not advert to the success met with as 
regards Cossonido}, etc., as these have nothing to do with the 
subject of this memoir ; but I must mention that the whole of 
the tree was carefully utilised as traps for coleoptera. The bole 
was cut into short lengths for convenience in turning over, and 
the pieces rolled into shady spots, whilst the leaves were 
systematically placed in layers just beyond the sun's rays. In a 
few days afterwards I returned to the place, and on that, as on 
almost every other visit, I found one or more of this species, 
which, it must be apparent, had been attracted by the exudations, 
or had actually been living on the plant itself. I have not heard 
of its being found under other circumstances ; but I make a 
practice of felling one of these palms in different localities, and 
having allowed a few days to elapse, never look in vain for this 

Abrceus vividulus, a rather brightly coloured little beetle, has 
been seen at one place only, a flat alluvial delta at Tairua, 
occasionally flooded, and at such times thinly covered with 
sandy soil and debris. I caught about a dozen individuals at 
various times, but although the dung of cattle was abundant, 
and the remains of a pig hard by, not one approached either. 

Another representative of this genus, A. Brouni, so named 
by Mr. G. Lewis, is the smallest of our Histeridse, and seems to 
be excessively rare, as I have been unable to detect more than 
two or three specimens. These were taken off a moss-covered 
log in the neighbourhood of Whangarei Harbour. 

A number of specimens in my cabinet, derived from various 
sources, remain nondescript ; all that can be asserted concerning 
them just now is that none can be termed carrion-feeders. 

We now arrive at the genus whose members exhibit modes 
of existence demanding close investigation — at any rate, with 
the exception of Saprinus pnnctulipeiniis, and perhaps S. latipes. 
The former was found in the forest at Tairua, the latter at 
Wellington, both phytophagous. 

I shall give an account of £. lepididus first, reserving the 
most important species to conclude with. Mr. P. Stewart- 
Sandager sent me a specimen he had found at Lyall Bay, 
Wellington. I needed no information as to its habitat, as, when 
describing it, I detected minute pieces of shell-sand on the 
underside of its body. It is, structurally, closely allied to the 
following species. 

Saprinus pedator, an extraordinary little creature, so far as 
structure is concerned, particularly on account of its retractile 
ventral segments and coarsely sculptured, strongly developed, 
hind legs, more nearly resembling those of a Pericoptus or 


Brullea than any other insect, was discovered on the sea beach 
at Tairua. My first specimen was captured on the wing in the 
act of trying to effect its escape from some Algae I had 
turned over in December, 1875. On the 9th of the following 
month I took four more from a decaying fish that had been cast 
ashore, and then lay embedded amongst sea-weeds. I was at a 
loss to determine whether these four had congregated to feast 
on the fish, or had been the original occupants of the heap, so I 
resolved on a thorough search. I travelled over miles of the 
shore at different times, carefully examined every stranded fish 
and dead bird, everything in short in the shape of carrion, but 
in vain, not a single individual could be found. I did, however, 
secure another specimen amongst Algae. The result would 
seem to indicate a purely littoral habit, with Algae as the 
natural food ; and, if corroborative evidence were necessary, it 
would be found in the fact of the capture of several individuals 
near Cape Saunders by T. Chalmers, Esq., of Dunedin. 

Our last species, Saprinus pseudocyaneus, occurs, I think, 
throughout New Zealand ; but, notwithstanding that, I have 
seen very few specimens. I may here intimate that, as a rule, 
truly indigenous coleoptera are rather scarce individually, and, 
in many cases, appear to decrease in number ; whilst, on the 
other hand, imported insects thrive exceedingly well when 
suitable food happens to be available. Saprinus rotundatus, 
which I found in an Auckland bone-mill, is one instance ; and, if 
we desire more, we need only examine grain, the droppings of 
cattle, and hawthorn hedges. 

I daresay most people will give me credit for " keeping my 
eyes open " during my exploration in the bush, so when I state 
that, during the comparatively long period of ten years, I failed 
to find a single example of Saprinus pseudocyaneus in the 
forests, or amongst vegetable matter of any kind, it 
may be taken for granted that the species never lived there. I 
obtained my first two or three specimens on a dead animal at 
Tairua, and all those subsequently taken were found under 
precisely similar conditions, though in widely separated localities, 
but in no instance near the forests. I afterwards received two 
or three from Wellington, where they had been regaling them- 
selves on carrion ; and more recently I asked Mr. S. W. Fulton, 
of Outram, to be kind enough to send me such beetles as he 
could find on the carcasses of sheep on his run. This gentle- 
man, ever ready to assist me, soon forwarded a miscellaneous 
collection, including, as I expected, cither one or two of >S\ 
i>seudocyaneus. These facts seem to prove conclusively that this 
b ctlc could not exist without animal matter. 

If we now pause to think, several problems will present 
themselves for solution. First of all the question arises, " Did 
Saprinus pseudocyaneus in past ages live in the primeval forests, 
and afterwards desert them on the advent of the Maories or 
the introduction of quadrupeds ?" If we answer in the 
affirmative, we must admit that the total change of life thus 


implied on the part of an animal actuated solely by instinct is 
most extraordinary, if not quite without precedent. I appre- 
hend no such reply from naturalists, though others may venture 
even further. It may be suggested that the Dinornis provided 
subsistence for it, possibly, but it must have been a very pre- 
carious means of livelihood. I consider it extremely doubtful, 
if not altogether inadmissible. Had such been the case, we may 
feel sure that one or more of the skilful investigators — men accus- 
tomed to deal with scientific difficult problems, who carefully 
examined the remains of the moa in different localities — would 
not have overlooked the presence of the hard and glossy shells 
of this beetle. I think we are justified in assuming that it had 
nothing to do with the moa. Perhaps we may be reminded of 
the much-talked-of New Zealand rat ! Well, I can have no 
objection to that, but I scarcely think anyone will seriously credit 
our only known quadruped with the preservation of our Saprhms 
from the fate which has overtaken the moa and rat alike. It 
has not to my knowledge been found upon stranded fish, nor on 
birds, either native or foreign. Here established data come to 
an end, so we are compelled to substitute what may be con- 
sidered little better than mere conjecture in order to arrive at 
some definite conclusion. 

My theory may be thus expressed : — The insect did not 
originally inhabit our forests, and consequently did not abruptly 
abandon its normal state of existence for another and altogether 
different one, neither has it been miraculously spared from 
extinction. The beetle, in my humble opinion, accompanied the 
Maories in their migrations to these islands, and may therefore 
be looked upon as an importation from abroad. Now, if this 
point be conceded, we may await with confidence the ultimate 
decision as to which of the many surmises regarding the 
original habitat of the Maori is the true one. We know very 
well that many of the islands lying between Asia and Australia 
have been but little frequented by Europeans, more rarely have 
they been explored by experienced naturalists, and it cannot be 
asserted that their entomological faunae have been at all 
exhaustively studied ; so we need not be surprised at the absence 
of any record of the presence of Saprinus pseudocyaneus in such 
an extensive area. This, however, seems certain, if the beetle in 
question be found to exist on any of these islands, we, or our 
posterity, will be enabled to indicate the exact spot or spots from 
whence the Maoris migrated with as much certainty as if there 
had been living eye-witnesses, or indisputable written evidence, 
to testify to the embarkation. 

Lake Takapuna, Auckland, 5th May, 1882. 




(Read before the [ron and Steel Institute at its Autumn Meeting, October, 1881.) 

In undertaking, by request, to write a paper for the next 
meeting of the Institute upon the experiments that have been 
carried out in Austria for the production of pig iron with lignite 
or brown coal, I will, at the outset, for the purpose of showing 
what had formerly been done to solve this problem, take the 
liberty of calling attention to an article of my own contained in 
the twenty-first volume of the " Mining and Metallurgical Year- 
Book for 1873," pages 52-66. As a supplement to that article 
I have remarked in a small brochure* that probably from one- 
fourth to one-third of the coke made could be supplied by the 
newer brown coal dried in a kiln, or by the older brown coal 
in its raw state, whereby 100 parts of coke would need to be 
supplied by 160 parts of brown coal. 

As appears in the article above mentioned, the application of 
the newer brown coal, uncoked, for the production of pig-iron 
was under consideration as far back as the year 1 806 in Styria ; 
but not until forty years afterwards was attention to the subject 
revived, and it was then approached in several directions. The 
Imperial Ministry at Vienna had specially taken the matter up, 
as is expressly shown by concessions to several leaseholders and 
companies, on the 3rd January, 1871, No. 3365. The earlier 
existing Metallurgical Association for Upper Styria determined 
to undertake experiments on a large scale, because all the experi- 
ments previously made, separately and on a small scale, had led 
to no decisive result. But all the efforts for bringing together 
the means necessary for these experiments were in vain, which 
is all the more easily accounted for because no fixed programme 
was drawn up as to how, when, and under whose management 
the experiments were to be conducted. Different works in the 
meantime continued to carry out isolated experiments, partly 
with the newer brown coal coked under pressure and with steam 
(in blast furnace No. 2, at Vordernberg, at Koflach, etc.) and 
partly with brown coal of better quality (at Zeltweg, Pravali, 
and Kalan), and, simultaneously, with the application of charcoal 
or the coke of good black coal, and they attained therewith more 
or less favourable results. But none of these results were satis- 
factory to the " Mining and Metallurgical Association of Styria 
and Carinthia," which therefore on the 6th of June, 1880, passed 
a fresh resolution resolving to take up the subject once more, 
and appointing for that purpose a committee, which, among 

* " The Future of the Austrian Iron Trade, especially the production of Pig Iron. " 
Vienna, 1869, page 10. 


others, included the Professor of Metallurgy in the School of 
Mines, Herr Franz Kupelwieser. 

From this committee, up to the present time, only one state- 
ment has emanated, that being an article from Professer Kupel- 
wieser, entitled " Studies on the Application of Brown Coal to 
the Production of Pig Iron," which is contained in the last num- 
ber of the " Journal of the Mining and Metallurgical Association 
of Styria and Carinthia," pages 260-271.* The author himself 

* In this paper Professor Kupelwieser, after reviewing the various experiments 
made to utilise brown coal in the blast furnace, remarks that it appears to him to be 
necessary in order to the production of pig iron with brown coal, to consider care- 
fully the effect of temperature on that description of fuel in the blast furnace. Brown 
coal and lignite contain so much water and so many elements which escape in gase- 
ous form, that the quantity of heat remaining is thereby substantially diminished. 
The single particles of this diminished volume not being adequate, explosions 
{sprunge) occur, which cause the larger pieces to disintegrate. When the brown 
coal is dense and of conchoidal fracture, it generally remains in pieces of a parallelo- 
piped form, sharp-edged and hard, the external appearance being very similar to 
anthracite. These pieces, generally but a few cubic centimetres in size (I cubic 
centimetre = 0*061 English cubic inch) are hard, solid, and somewhat friable. For 
successful working, such pieces should be kept somewhat larger, whereby a great 
advantage would be gained. Lignite, which shows a woody texture, separates in 
blisters in consequence of the heat, and then gives off thin, hard and dense slices, 
which are also much smaller in size. This tendency to split into bits is less apparent 
in knotty pieces, because in them the fibres are so folded together that when they 
explode the component parts mechanically hold themselves better together. 

On a closer consideration of their action in the blast furnace it appears doubtful, 
according to Professor Kupelwieser, whether the smelting column becomes so much 
the more dense as the materials of the charge are more finely granulated. If a given 
furnace is worked with coked fuel, the height of the furnace and the pressure of blast 
continuing the same, the size of the grain of the material of the charge becomes 
gradually smaller, and the expansion of the gases in the furnace in a similiar ratio 
becomes greater and greater. But if the other conditions remain the same, with the 
rising of the expanding gases, the quantity of blast carried into the furnace would 
continually become smaller, and the production would go down till it reached the 
limit at which the burning of the fuel would altogether cease, and would appear to 
be completely stopped. 

This phenomenon will always appear as soon as the size of the grain of the fuel, 
the ore, and the slag is so small that the blast appears unable to effect a uniform 
distribution through the smelting column. In these conditions it appears to be a 
matter of indifference whether charcoal, coke, or coked brown coal in small pieces 
be applied as fuel to powder-like ore and slags. 

The difficulty in working a blast furnace with brown coal consists, therefore, in 
the right selection of the coal to be used ; the difficulty is not in respect of the 
change in the condition of the fuel brought about by the chemical composition of 
the charge, but is to be sought in the size of the grain and in the density produced 
in the strata of the smelting column. 

It thus appears very clearly that the working of the blast furnace with brown coal 
alone, or with coke produced from brown coal, would be found practicable if by 
some means the smelting column could be kept sufficiently loose, if the dense com- 
pression ot the smelting column could be prevented ; or if in the coking of brown 
coal means were found of producing pieces of cohesive coke of larger size, or of 
making the small pieces of coked brown coal into briquettes, in such a way that the 
briquettes would not split into pieces in the heat. 

As means which appear under these conditions calculated to give the greatest 
possible production of pig iron with brown coal as fuel, or the coke produced from 
it, the Professor specifies the following as prominent : — 

1st. In order to keep the smelting column less dense, a stronger pressure of 
blast should be applied. There would be of course, under circumstances in other 
respects alike, an increased expansion along with the pressure of the blast, whereby 
a part of the smelting c©lumn would be supported, and be consequently loosened. 

2nd. Another way of lessening the density of the smelting column might be 
sought by changing, in part at least, the size of the grain of the material charged. 

3rd. The formation of the blast furnace would have a great influence on the 
possibility of using much brown coal. 


remarks, however, that he could scarcely, under the circum- 
stances, describe himself as bringing forward anything absolutely 
new, or indeed any immediately practicable proposal to be 
directly carried out ; and therefore he merely states, and in part 
endeavours to answer, the two following questions : — 

1st. Is the production of pig iron with brown coal (lignite), 
from a theoretic point of view, possible or not ? 

2nd. Is the production of pig iron with brown coal practically 
workable or not ? 

To the first of these questions the answer returned was that 
the application of raw as well as of coked brown coal to blast 
furnace working was by no means impossible, and there 
remained therefore nothing more to be added on that point. 

As regards the second question, it was perfectly eviden-t that 
the difficulty of working the blast furnace with brown coal, so 
far as the selection of coal to be used was concerned, was to be 
found in the largeness of the grain and the consequent density 
of the burden of the smelting column ; and in considering this 
difficulty the Professor thought his attention should be confined 
to ascertaining what method appeared most likely to supply a 
great part of the production of pig iron with brown coal used 
as fuel, or the coke extracted from the brown coal. The Pro- 
fessor accordingly confined himself to the application of brown 
coal to the production of pig iron ; that is, to the composition 
of a mixed charge (one-fourth to three-fourths brown coal, with 
three-fourths to one-fourth coke), whereby notable results have 
been already obtained in Austro-Hungary, and he remarked 
very truly that a still higher degree of success should have been 
obtained if the price of brown coal there were not so high as to 
be a drawback. 

To the record of the proceedings, proposals, and experi- 
ments hitherto made in Austro-Hungary relative to the applica- 
tion of brown coal to the production of pig iron, and the results 
thereby obtained, as published by Herr Kupelwieser, I desire to 
add the following facts : — 

With the exception of Kalan, nowhere hitherto has the blast 
furnace been worked with brown coal exclusively ; and even in 
Kalan, under the management of a gentleman well known in 
metallurgical circles (Herr Massenez, the general manager at 
Horde), it answered only for a short time, and not without all 
sorts of interruptions in the working. Moreover, in every in- 
stance these experiments had hitherto been made in the old 
standing blast furnaces, which were constructed for working 
with charcoal or coke, and without any regard to the special 
qualities of the brown coal so used. With the mixed charge, 
also, very good results have sometimes been obtained when 
using the old blast furnaces ; and some of the results might 
have been still better, if only a stronger blast had been at com- 
mand, such as would be necessary to succeed in the working of 
a furnace charged with anthracite, for the anthracite likewise 
has, more or less, the undesirable property of bursting in pieces 


when heated. Not only, however, is the mixed charge in itself 
merely a makeshift, but the results obtained by it have been 
very varied. 

The reasons why the results until now obtained by the 
mixed charge, in the different places named, and with different 
varieties of brown coal, were so unequal, lay not so much in 
the more or less adequate character of the furnace and blast, 
as in the quality of the brown coal brought for this purpose 
to the places in question. There existed, in fact, a great dis- 
similarity in the composition and properties of the brown coal 
employed. Although, obviously, brown coal, very rich in 
sulphu-r and ash, should nowhere be used for this purpose, yet 
there is to be found in grades of inferior quality, by heating, and 
partly even by drying, a great difference in the tendency to 
burst. It is known that the property of containing more or less 
water is decisive (not indeed altogether, as anthracite shows, but 
still to a large extent) for the bursting in brown coal ; in some 
lignites it is, in fact, 30 per cent, as compared with less than 10 
per cent, water in the better kinds of brown coal. Moreover, some 
brown coals, even some lignites, are saturated by resin or bitu- 
men to such an extent that if not purposely dried (backen) it 
oozes out more or less. There is in this respect an essential 
difference not only in the geological formation of the brown coal, 
but in different seams of one and the same formation ; and even 
in different strips (streifen) of the same seams, this great differ- 
ence is to be found. Before brown coal, therefore, is tried for 
blast furnace purposes, there should be a close examination of 
its composition and qualities. 

With the 9 to 10 per cent, of water contained in the coal of 
Fohnsdorf and Leoben, the mixed charge with only one-third of 
brown coal could have been continued till now without any 
serious interruption, whereby pieces of coal not less in size than 
one's hand were selected, and, of course, the iron ore, mostly of 
a smaller size of grain, made no obstruction. In Kalan, on the 
other hand, where the brown coal was worked to the extent of 
60 or 70 per cent., and, as already observed, was worked under 
Mr. Massenez' management for a short time exclusively, these 
good results could only have been obtained in this way : the 
coal, although occurring in a formation there termed Tertiary, is 
yet less liable to burst in that part of the seam, and had first 
been partly coked (half carbonised), the small thereby formed 
being afterwards separated. With a careful examination and 
selection of the coal at his command, the present general mana- 
ger at Kalan, Herr Em. Heyrowsky, hoped to succeed in work- 
ing the blast furnace by the exclusive use of the coal found there, 
and thus to obtain much more favourable results than had been 
accomplished in the experiments at Zeltweg, likewise under the 
same gentleman's superintendence. 

It would scarcely be necessary, then, to have shown that with 
fuel which for the working of the blast furnace should be good, 
the working of a cupola furnace must be much more easily 


accomplished, as in the latter the process of reduction altogether 
ceases, and there is but little slag to deal with. I here repeat 
what I have previously said, that the first practical experiments 
should have been made with coal, and in a cupola instead of a 
blast furnace, because the interruptions occurring in the working 
of cupola furnaces are under control, and are incomparably 
shorter and less costly than those of the blast furnace. Never- 
theless, such coal should not be used in the cupola furnace for 
the production of pig iron, but only when pig iron is re-melted, 
and not till this more simple operation is successful, and experi- 
ence has been gained of the action of the coal, should it be 
extended to the complicated operations of the blast furnace. 

Although the coking of the raw brown coal (lignite) under 
high pressure, with or without superheated steam, prevents to 
some extent the bursting of the single pieces of crushed coal, 
yet it appears that the greater cost of this application is not 
covered by the better yield thereby obtained from the larger 
pieces of coal ; therefore this method, which was tried in Juden- 
burg, Koflach, and Verdernberg, has been given up. The state- 
ment that useful coke is obtained by the mixture of very poor 
with richer coals has been proved at Creuzot in France, where 
about equal parts of the two sorts of coal were mixed in the 
coke oven. It is for that reason generally held that the small 
of the brown coking coal, mixed with good coking coal, should 
furnish good coke for the blast furnace, while the somewhat 
larger pieces of the brown coking coal might be used direct ; but 
if this method is to be attended with economical results, the 
account must show the prices according to the local circum- 

In the foregoing I have remarked that in the experiments 
hitherto carried on, the special properties of brown coal were 
not taken into account, while everywhere the construction of the 
furnace used has been intended for the consumption of charcoal 
or coke. As worthy of special notice for experimenting with 
the use of brown coal, the construction of the furnace at Queny- 
veans was pointed out by me in the above-mentioned volume of 
the " Mining and Metallurgical Year-Book" for 1873, at pages 
56-58, and the manipulation to be followed was also described. 
In the construction of the blast furnace, the stalk above the 
boshes, instead of rising directly upwards, as usually is the case 
appeared to be divided vertically into two equal parts, which 
turned to the right and to the left. One of these halves (which 
stands not quite horizontal but obliquely, and is provided with 
peculiar shafts at the top) is for the coking and preparation of 
brown coal, and the other for the wersting and preparation of 
the iron ore and the requisite flux. The burden of the red hot 
coke of brown coal and the red hot ore consequently first meet 
at the level of the boshes, i.e. y nearly at the end of the first third 
of the stack of a furnace of the height elsewhere used. By this 
means important advantages in favour of the possibility of 
working with raw brown coal should be obtained, among which 


the smaller pressure on the light, friable brown coal coked, the 
lighter rising of the gases in the dense but low smelting column, 
and the possibility of more readily overcoming occasional inter- 
ruption, ought to be especially pointed out. Whilst I must 
refer you for the details of the matter to the book already men- 
tioned, I must leave it to the future, and to greater experience 
in the working of the blast, to determine whether this suggestion 
should come into everyday use.* . 

* Professer Kupelwieser remarks that the practicability of the reduction of iron 
ore by brown coal has been shown by the experiments of Chenot and Blair. The 
difficulty arises in continuing the operation when sponge iron is produced ; and the 
question then obtrudes itself whether this part of the work would not be suitably 
carried on in a small furnace with coked fuel, such as in a Siemens furnace as Blair 
tried to do it. In conclusion he thinks it best, under the present conditions, to urge 
not so much the application of brown coal alone, as the possibility of the combined 
use of brown coal in working the blast fnrnace, as he previously suggested in the 
year 1876 (vol. xxi. p. 253 of the ''Austrian Journal"), and the combined use of the 
blast furnace process with the Bessemer process, in certain cases in combination with 
the Martin process (vol. xxviii. No. I of 1880) in order by this combination to unite 
the shortest and most economical way for the production of wrought iron. 



Genus Glyphipteryx, Hb. 

Head smooth, with ocelli ; tongue moderate. Antennse 
much shorter than fore-wings, slender, filiform, pubescent, or 
very shortly ciliated in males. No maxillary palpi. Labial 
palpi rather short, thick, arched ; second joint laterally com- 
pressed, often roughly scaled beneath ; terminal joint as long as 
second, pointed. Fore wings elongate, variable in breadth, hind- 
margin often indented, oblique, apex rounded, often produced. 
Hind wings varying from ovate to lanceolate, narrower than 
fore wings, cilia rather narrower or broader. Abdomen rather 
elongate. Legs rather short, smoothly scaled. Fore wings with 
12 veins ; secondary cell indicated ; 7 and 8 separate ; 1 simple, 
or more or less furcate at base. Hind wings with 8 veins ; 
3 and 4 from posterior angle of cell, sometimes short- 

The genus may always be recognised by the short palpi 
clothed with whorls of scales, and metallic transverse markings. 
All the species have the same habit of alternately raising and 
depressing their wings when at rest, as though fanning them- 
selves. They are sun-loving insects, and fly especially in the 
afternoon towards sunset, in grassy places. 

The larvae are 16-legged, rather stout, and feed principally 
on the seeds of grasses and allied plants, except one European 
species on Sedum. I have not yet succeeded in finding the 

* Continued from page 138. 


larva: of any Australian species, but from the habits of the 
imago, I have little doubt that all will be found to feed in the 
seed-heads of different species of grass and sedge. 

i. G. triselena, Meyrick, I.e. vol. 5, p. 234. — Head and thorax 
dark fuscous. Palpi white at base, second joint with two flat- 
tened whorls of black white-tipped scales, terminal joint black 
with two white rings. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen very 
long, whitish-ochreous. Legs whitish-ochreous, anterior tarsi 
with obsolete fuscous bands at the base of joints. Fore-wings 
elongate, narrowed posteriorly, hind-margin slightly indented 
below apex ; pale golden-bronze ; an obscure transverse whitish 
spot on inner margin near base ; three silvery-white, obscurely 
dark-margined transverse fasciae ; first from ]^ of costa obliquely 
outwards, angulated in middle, to inner margin before middle ; 
second and third straight, parallel, nearly perpendicular to costa, 
before and beyond middle ; from third below middle proceeds a 
rather narrow longitudinal black band, bent downwards to anal 
angle, thence continued along lower half of hind-margin, contain- 
ing 4 golden metallic spots in a row ; the space between this 
and costa is filled by 6 longitudinal ochreous-whitish lines, 
partially confluent or separated by narrow black interspaces ; 2 
oblique nearly parallel silvery-white sub-apical streaks from 
costa immediately before apex to hind margin above middle, 
becoming white in the grey costal cilia ; some dark, metallic-grey 
scales at apex ; cilia whitish, basal third within a fuscous line 
closed with pale golden-bronze scales, except where a white in- 
dentation meets anterior sub-apical line. Hind-wings pale grey, 
cilia whitish-grey, Male, length 4^ lines. 

Two males taken in January on the bare dry grassy volcanic 
hills near Christchurch. 

2. G. euastera, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 236. — Head, antennae, 
and thorax dark fuscous. Palpi whitish at base, second joint 
with two whorls of dark fuscous white-tipped scales, terminal 
joints black with two white rings. Abdomen blackish-fuscous, 
beneath silvery-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, middle and poste- 
rior tibiae with white central and apical rings, all tarsi with white 
rings at apex of joints. Fore-wings elongate, very slightly 
dilated, hind-margin indented beneath apex ; basal and apical 
thirds dark fuscous, densely strewn with whitish scales, central 
third bronzy-ferruginous, more or less broadly suffused with 
dark fuscous on costa and inner margin ; a white oblique costal 
streak at ^, reaching middle, ending in a leaden metallic spot ; 
an indistinct white spot on inner margin near base ; two out- 
wardly curved steel-blue metallic fasciae, ending in white spots 
on both margins, first hardly before, second beyond middle ; 
beyond these are three white spots on costa, the first two giving 
rise to obsolete metallic streaks, the last sub-apical, sending a 
steel-blue metallic streak to hind-margin below apex ; a blackish 
spot on apex ; cilia whitish, fuscous-gray at apex and anal angle, 
basal half separated by a strong dark fuscous line, and clothed 
towards base with ferruginous scales, except where a wedge- 


shaped dark-margined white indentation meets the sub-apical 
streak. Hind-wings and cilia dark fuscous-grey. 

Male and female ; length 3^-3^2 lines. 

Distinct from all others in the Australian region through the 
absence of both the black discal streak and the apical hook, as 
well as by the contrast of the central ferruginous third with the 
rest of the fore-wings and the steel-blue markings. 

Five specimens taken on the dry grassy volcanic hills near 
Christchurch, in January. 

3. G. asteronota, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 240. — Head, thorax 
and antennae dark fuscous. Palpi whitish, with obsolete darker 
rings (?). Abdomen dark fuscous, apex whitish. Legs dark 
fuscous, middle and posterior tibiae with whitish central and 
apical bands, all tarsi with broad whitish rings at apex of joints. 
Fore-wings somewhat dilated, hind-margin rather strongly 
sinuate beneath apex ; dark fuscous ; two conspicuous clear 
white semilunate spots on inner margin, reaching half across 
wing, first near base, second slightly beyond middle, both out- 
wardly oblique, their apices curved towards apex of wing ; six 
slender oblique white streaks from costa ; first at ^ ; second 
hardly before middle, not reaching half across wing ; third 
uniting with a similar streak from anal angle to form an out- 
wardly curved transversed fascia ; fourth short ; fifth and sixth 
small, wedge-shaped, close before apex ; some irregular silvery- 
white scales above anal angle beyond the transverse fascia ; cilia 
grey (?), basal half separated by a black line and clothed with 
dark fuscous scales, except on a wedge-shaped black-margined 
indentation a little below apex, containing a whitish spot (?). 
Hind-wings and cilia dark fuscous-grey. 

Male and female ; length 3^ lines. 

Two specimens, in rather imperfect condition, taken at 
Auckland, flying over damp grass on a shady bank, in 

4. G. iocheczra, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 243. — Head and thorax 
dark bronzy-grey. Palpi whitish at base, second joint with two 
appressed whorls of fuscous whitish-tipped scales, terminal joint 
dark fuscous with two white rings. Antennae dark fuscous. 
Abdomen elongate, dark fuscous. Legs ochreous-grey, tarsal 
joints basally slightly suffused with darker. Fore-wings narrow, 
hardly dilated, hind-margin sinuate beneath apex ; dull grey, 
slightly tinged with bronze ; 1 dorsal and 5 costal slender rather 
obscure white streaks, anteriorly margined with dark fuscous- 
grey ; first costal in middle, second from before J^, both 
very oblique, not reaching half across wing ; dorsal from just 
before anal angle very oblique, apex almost reaching extremity 
of second costal ; third, fourth, and fifth costal streaks acutely 
wedge-shaped, short, almost wholly on costal cilia ; a silvery 
white metallic spot on middle of hind-margin ; a clear round 
black apical spot, cilia whitish, towards anal angle dark fuscous- 
grey, with a strong sharp black apical hook, and with basal half 
separated by a black line and dark fuscous-grey, except on a 


whitish wedge-shaped indentation below apex, whence proceeds 
a sharp black sub- apical hook. Hind-wings and cilia dark fus- 

Male and female, length 4-4^ lines. 

Four specimens taken on rushes {y uncus) in swampy places 
in January, at Dunedin and Christchurch. 

5. G. acrothecta, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 244. — Head and 
thorax dark bronzy-grey. Palpi white at base, second joint with 
two short oblique whorls of black white-tipped scales, terminal 
joint black with two oblique white rings and white above towards 
apex. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen elongate, blackish- 
grey with white rings, apex white. Legs dark fuscous, posterior 
and middle tibiae with white central and apical bands, tarsi with 
obsolete whitish rings at apex of joints, posterior tarsi with a 
clear white ring at apex of basal joint, and two apical joints 
wholly white. Fore-wings narrow, elongate, not dilated ; hind- 
margin sinuate beneath apex ; dull pale grey, suffused with 
brownish on disc and inner margin ; 6 rather obscure white, an- 
teriorly blackish margined, oblique costal streaks ; first at y^ 
reaching to middle, partially black-margined posteriorly as well ; 
second in middle, not reaching half across wing ; third to sixth 
short, mostly on costal cilia, each silvery-metallic at apex ; a 
black oblique streak from middle of inner margin, leading to an 
obscure whitish anteriorly black-margined spot below apex of 
first costal streak, a faint whitish spot on anal angle, preceded 
by a short curved black streak, two silvery-metallic spots on 
disc, beneath extremities of second and third costal streaks, 
sometimes united with them ; a rather large conical silvery- 
metallic black-margined spot on hind-margin below apex ; cilia 
whitish, with a sharp black apical hook, fuscous-grey towards 
anal angle, basal half separated by a black line and fuscous-grey, 
except where a whitish black-margined indentation meets the 
small silvery-metallic sub-apical spot. Hind-wings and cilia 
dark fuscous-grey. 

Male ; length 4^2-5 lines. 

Not nearly allied to any described species. The markings 
have a peculiar confused appearance ; the black dorsal streak 
from centre of inner margin is caused by the suffusion and dis- 
appearance of the accompanying white streak. Six males taken 
on the dry grassy volcanic hills near Christchurch, in January. 

6. G. astrapcea, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 245. — Head and thorax 
brilliant metallic coppery-bronze, face dark fuscous. Palpi with 
second joint clothed with three whorls of black very narrowly 
white-tipped scales, tei minal joint black with an oblique white 
lateral line. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen blackish fus- 
cous, apex ochreous-white. Legs dark bronzy-fuscous, middle 
and posterior tibiae with obscure slender whitish central and 
apical rings, tarsi with obscure white rings at apex of joints, two 
apical joints of posterior tarsi wholly white. Fore-wings moder- 
ately broad, somewhat dilated, hind-margin sinuate below apex; 
brilliant metallic coppery-bronze, with violet-silvery metallic 


obscurely dark-margined markings ; a short oblique streak from 
costa before middle ; a rather irregular outwardly curved fascia 
from beyond middle of costa to anal angle; a rather short oblique 
streak from ^ of costa, opposite extremity of which is a triangu- 
lar spot on hind-margin below middle ; two small spots on costa 
before apex, second produced as a curved streak to hind margin 
below apex ; cilia whitish towards apex, blackish-fuscous towards 
anal angle, with a black apical hook, and intersected by a strong 
black line, obliterated at anal angle, and where a white black- 
margined indentation meets the sub-apical streak. Hind-wings 
and cilia blackish-fuscous. 

Male, length 5^ lines, 

This and the succeeding species are very handsome insects, 
not coming very near any others, but very closely allied together. 
G. astrapcea is distinguished by the total absence of the longi- 
tudinal streak from base, and by the complete fascia beyond 
middle ; in other respects it is extremely similar. One male 
taken flying in the sun in a grassy swamp near Cambridge 
(Waikato), in January. 

7. G. transversella, Walker, I.e., vol. 5, p. 246. — Head and 
thorax brilliant metallic-bronze, face dark fuscous. Palpi 
yellowish at base, second joint with three whorls of black white- 
tipped scales, terminal joint black with a white lateral line. 
Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen in male dark bronzy-fuscous, 
beneath silvery-white ; in female blackish, apex whitish. Legs 
dark bronzy-fuscous, tarsi with whitish rings at apex of joints, 
posterior tibiae with white central and apical rings, posterior 
tarsi with two apical joints wholly white. Fore-wings mode- 
rately broad, somewhat dilated, hind-margin sinuate below apex ; 
brilliant metallic coppery-bronze, with golden-silvery metallic 
obscurely dark-margined markings ; an indistinct paler bronzy- 
yellowish central longitudinal streak from base to beyond 
middle, broadest posteriorly, attenuated at base ; a short oblique 
streak from costa before middle, and oblique streak from 
costa beyond middle, and a rather oblique streak from 
anal angle, which are not united, apex of dorsal streak 
lying beyond apex of costal ; a rather short oblique streak from 
i/l of costa, opposite the extremity of which is a triangular spot 
on hind-margin below middle ; two small spots on costa before 
apex, second produced as a curved streak to hind-margin below 
apex ; cilia whitish towards apex, dark fuscous towards anal 
angle, with a black apical hook, basal half, except towards anal 
angle, separated by a black line and clothed with bronzy scales, 
except where a white black-margined indentation meets the 
sub-apical streak. Hind-wings and cilia blackish-fuscous. 

Male and female ; length 5^-6 lines. 

Very nearly allied to G. astrapcea, but slightly less brilliant, 
and characterised by the paler central streak from base, and the 
costal and dorsal streaks beyond middle not being united into a 
fascia. Eight specimens taken flying gently in the shade over a 
damp grassy sheltered bank near Auckland, in January. 


Genus Phryganostola, Meyrick. 

Head smooth ; with ocelli ; tongue moderate. Antennae 
about half as long as fore-wings, filiform, very shortly ciliated in 
male. No maxillary palpi. Labial palpi rather short, thick, 
arched ; second joint clothed with long loose projecting hairs 
beneath, forming a broad tuft ; terminal joints short, acute. 
Fore-wings elongate, variable in breadth, apex produced, hind- 
margin indented, very oblique. Hind-wings lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, narrower than fore-wings, pointed, cilia about as 
broad. Abdomen elongate, slender. Legs moderate, smoothly 
scaled. Fore-wings with 12 separate veins ; secondary cell 
indicated ; 1 simple or furcate at base. Hind-wings with 8 
veins ; 3 and 4 from posterior angle of cell. 

The imagos have the habit of fanning themselves when at 
rest, and frequent the shade rather than the sunshine. The larvae 
are at present unknown. 

1. P. oxymackcera, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5, p. 251. — Head whitish. 
Thorax whitish, sometimes suffused with fuscous. Palpi white, 
second joint with two fuscous-grey rings beneath, with a long 
loose projecting tuft of white hairs, mixed with a few fuscous- 
grey. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen very elongate, 
especially in female, varying from pale-ochreous to dark fuscous- 
grey, with whitish rings. Legs fuscous-grey or ochreous-grey, 
posterior tibiae white at apex ; all tarsi fuscous or dark fuscous with 
white rings at apex of joints. Fore-wings elongate, narrow, hardly 
dilated, dull fuscous, sometimes suffused with whitish along costa, 
with white dark-margined markings; abroad streak along inner 
margin from basetobeyond middle, thence attenuated and directed 
obliquely upwards, ending on middle of disc at 2 /$ from base ; 
8 rather short oblique costal streaks, none reaching half across 
wing, first at J^, produced along costa towards base, all some- 
times rendered obsolete by a general white suffusion of the costa; 
a rather short oblique streak from anal angle, ending in a bright 
silvery-metallic spot on disc ; a small silvery-metallic spot on 
hind- margin below middle ; cilia white, with a black apical hook, 
and intersected by a strong black line, except where a white 
black-margined indentation meets hind-margin beneath apex. 
Hind-wings fuscous-grey, cilia whitish. 

Male and female, length 4^-5^ lines. 

Remarkable from its lanceolate wings and very elongate 
abdomen. Six specimens taken on the dry grassy volcanic hills 
near Christchurch, in January. 

2. P. acJdyocssa, Meyrick, I.e., vol. 5., p. 252. — Head and 
thorax whitish-grey. Palpi whitish-grey mixed with dark fus- 
cous, second joint beneath with a long loose projecting fringe of 
hairs. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen elongate, dark fuscous. 
Legs pale ochreous-grey. Fore-wings elongate, narrow, hind- 
margin strongly sinuate below apex ; pale whitish-grey, faintly 
strigulatcd transversely with darker ; a few solitary black scales 
tending to be arranged longitudinally on fold and lower median 


vein ; cilia whitish, with an obscure dark fuscous apical hook, 
basal ^3 separated by a blackish line and dark smoky grey. 
Hind-wings and cilia fuscous-grey. 

Male, length 5 y 2 lines. 

An inconspicuous narrow-winged almost unicolorous species. 
One male taken flying at dusk on a bare grassy hill near Wel- 
lington, in January. 



Mr. Maskell, in Nos. I. and II. of the New Zealand JOURNAL 
OF SCIENCE, has favoured us with his views on the Weka Pass 
Rock-paintings, gathered during a short excursion to that 
locality. I would not have taken any notice of these, evidently 
hasty impressions, had not Mr. Maskell accused me that, instead 
of striving to advance the truth and the knowledge of the former 
inhabitants of these Islands, I had only " endeavoured to make 
these paintings fit in with my preconceptions on the antiquity of 
the native races."* I must repel this insinuation as totally un- 
deserved and uncalled for. Mr. Maskell thinks it absurd that I 
should have compared some of the peculiar characters with 
Tamil letters, like those on Mr. Colenso's bronze bell ; but he 
does not give sufficient weight to the opinion of the Rev. Mr. 
Pargitter (quoted in my paper), who lived for a long time in 
Ceylon as a missionary, and who testifies as to the similarity of 
these characters to Tamil compound letters.f 

During a discussion, after some notes of mine on the same 
subject had been read before the Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain in August, 1878, one of the speakers, Mr. Wal- 
house, testified that there was certainly some faint resemblance 
with the Chalukuja characters of the rock inscriptions of the 
sixth and seventh centuries, so that my suggestion was, after all, 
not so far-fetched as Mr. Maskell wishes to make it. 

I shall now say a few words about Mr. Cameron, who was 
good enough to give us his views on the rock-paintings. I have 
nothing whatever to do with his etymological views as to the 
meaning of the Maori words, as I am not competent to judge 
how far that gentleman is right or wrong in his explanations ; 
however, although I must confess that I could not follow his 
conclusions, I still maintain that Mr. Cameron's views on the 
rock-paintings deserve all the attention I gave them, and, even 
considered as a mere suggestion, are not to be put aside as 

* " New Zealand Journal of ScieiNCE," page 56. 

t "Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," page 54. 


absurd, as Mr. Maskell, in his usual light and airy manner, 
wishes to do. 

If these rock-paintings were made by Buddhist missionaries 
or not is quite immaterial, but that Mr. Cameron's statement of 
similar characters and paintings having been found in other 
countries is correct has been amply confirmed by several of the 
speakers at the above-mentioned meeting of the Anthropological 
Institute of London. 

Mr Moggridge observed " That one of the figures, No. 17, 
was the same as one which had been seen on rocks 6900 feet 
above the sea level, in the North-west corner of Italy. It is 
probable that if we knew how to read them they might convey 
important information, since the same signs occur in different 
combinations, just as the letters of our alphabet recur in different 
combinations to form words."* 

After reading the discussion on my paper as printed in that 
journal, any unbiassed observer might be still more convinced 
that the attempted explanation of these rock paintings by Mr. 
Cameron and others opens up quite a new field for research into 
the early history of these Islands. 

Mr. Maskell thinks that I have fallen into a slight error in 
not having copied more of the black figures, as he considers them 
less rude designs than the red ones. I can only repeat my for- 
mer statement that we (Mr. Cousins and myself) selected the 
most remarkable of these black designs, one of each kind, which 
to any unbiassed mind will show their more rude characters. In 
fact they are more like the work of children or child-like savages, 
and can certainly not be compared with the figures and cha- 
racters in red. When visiting the locality at the end of May of 
this year, I found to my great sorrow that vandalism had been 
hard at work, not only to deface many of the red paintings, but 
actually to add some black ones, and some of the red ones had 
been obliterated with black paint. It is terrible to think that, at 
the end of the nineteenth century, men who can write their own 
names should consider it a great deed to scratch the proof of 
their imbecility upon the rock-shelter, and thus destroy the 
paintings which for ages had been respected by a so-called in- 
ferior savage race. I do not intend to go into Mr. Maskell's 
criticism of my views as to the meaning of the different drawings, 
but will only show how very little his own descriptions can be 
depended upon. He says : — " No. 17 in the plate is incomplete, 
at least as compared with Mr. Cousins' original drawing (in the 
Canterbury Museum), where a stream of smoke is made to issue 
from the cup-shaped top. Has there not been here also a little 
stretching of fancy, considering that the smoke may be due to 
the scaling of the rock ?" Now for the facts. In the first 
instance, everybody who honestly has compared Mr. Cousins' 
drawings with the originals must testify to his conscientious 
accuracy {he certainly had no theories or fancies). When Mr. 

* Journal of the Anthropological Institute, August, 1878, page 16. 


Cousins drew the vessel or instrument, No. 17, it had clearly and 
visibly smoke rising therefrom, as seen by every visitor for some 
time after the discovery of the paintings ; but as it appears Mr. 
Maskell did not see it, and therefore boldly suggests that the 
surface of the rock must have scaled off. Before visiting the 
place a few weeks ago, I really believed that such a thing could 
have taken place in the meantime, although it appeared to me 
most improbable. However, I was not a little astonished to 
find that some visitor had actually painted some black over the 
red, but that, nevertheless, the red smoke could still be seen 
through the recent vandalism. And that is the loose way in 
which my reviewer ventures statements ! Mr. Maskell's explana- 
tions of geological points are just as unfortunate. He says "that 
the paintings are scarcely anywhere laid on the surface of the 
rock itself ; they rest on a coating of stalagmite covering the 
rock, and it is this stalagmite which has scaled off." This is 
simply nonsense. In the first place, the rock is perfectly dry, 
and no stalagmite has ever been found here, but the weathering 
of the rock has caused this peculiar scaling of the surface so well 
known to geologists. So Mr. Maskell must have totally mis- 
understood " some of our party conversant with geological 
evidence." Moreover, in his first page (15) he speaks "of the 
scaling of the rock itself," so that since that was written he must 
have changed his mind. However, Mr. Maskell's observation on 
page 63 is quite correct, that some of the red paintings have been 
executed after some scaling of the rock had already taken place. 
This, of course, is not to be wondered at, if we look at the age of 
the rock-shelter from a geological point of view. A long time 
must certainly have elapsed since the creek or brook, to the 
former existence of which the rock-shelter owes its origin, ceased 
to flow there, and consequently a great deal of weathering or 
rock scaling has taken place before the spot was visited by 
human beings. Another point in Mr Maskell's reasoning could 
not fail to strike me as utterly fallacious. In speaking of the 
red oxide of iron with which the oldest and principal paintings 
are executed, I used the Maori designation, Kokowai, as best 
known in the Colony. So Mr. Maskell concludes therefrom that 
the paintings must be made by Maoris of the present day. Had 
I used the English expression, "reddle," he might just as well have 
taken this as a proof that they were made by Englishmen. In 
order not to be misunderstood, I wish once more to state (although 
I have done so again and again in various publications) that I 
have never denied that the Maoris of the present day are the suc- 
cessors of a former race or of former races inhabiting New Zealand. 
I only maintain (basing my views on geological evidence) that, 
long before the so-called Hawaiki immigration, New Zealand 
had been inhabited by a race having some Melanesian affinities, 
as proved by craniological researches. There are many more 
inaccuracies of a similar character to which I might draw the 
attention of the readers of this journal, but a few only will be 
sufficient to show that Mr. Maskell has either not read with any 


close attention what has been written on the subject under 
review, or totally misunderstood the points at issue. On page 
59 he observes that, whilst I state that only two representations 
of man can be recognised, human figures are in hundreds. I 
only was then speaking of the red paintings, but afterwards 
observed, on page 5 1 of the " Transactions of New Zealand," 
vol. X., that by far the greatest part of the black paintings 
represent the human figure, and I offered at the same time a 
description of them. Mr. Maskell speaks lightly of the Maori 
traditions concerning these paintings, although in other cases, he 
thinks, they are of some value ; but he forgets to point out that 
the Maori traditions are remarkably in accord with the character 
and antiquity of the paintings. The Parihika (Opihi) speci- 
mens are attributed to the younger Ngatimamoe, whilst those of 
the Waikari to the older tribe or race, the Ngapuhi — an uncon- 
scious confirmation of the evidence before us. Mr. Maskell 
gives us his belief, " that the rock-paintings are simply the work 
of some Maori artist or artists, not necessarily done at any one 
time, by no means of any great antiquity, and without any 
particular collective meaning." In fact, he compares them with 
the scrawls and figures of schoolboys. He does not bring one 
single palpable reason to support this belief, and which we have 
therefore to take for what it is worth. 

Now let us see what Mr. Maskell says on the very point, in 
the first part of his paper, on page 30 : — " The theory adopted 
by some of our number was, that the red ones were the oldest, 
or, to use the phrase adopted, ' really archaic ' ; that the filled up 
black ones, looking as if daubed on with the thumb, were less 
ancient, and that the black outlines were the most modern of the 

Has my reviewer ever seen other Maori paintings ? Are 
those of the Weka Pass rock shelter similar to them ? And in 
what way do they prove to be of similar origin ? I fear very 
much Mr. Maskell does not know any others, and only hazards 
some statements without any proof. For instance, where are 
the scrolls so characteristic of Maori art, to which the Rev. J. 
W. Stack has drawn attention ? Moreover, Mr. Maskell does 
not account for the very curious, and to my mind conclusive, 
fact,, that none of the Weka Pass drawings are indecent, while 
Maori drawings and carvings invariably are. 

Coming to the question asked by Mr. Maskell on page 57, 
whether the prevailing winds between Ceylon and here would 
allow Cingalese vessels to reach New Zealand ? he answers his 
own question on the very next page : — " From 1497, the year 
when the ships of Portugal first drove before the westerly winds 
of the Indian Ocean, to 1769, the year when Cook landed in 
New Zealand, surely there is scope and to spare for scores of 
European ships, .... which might or might not have 
left, or lost by stealing, various articles and implements." 

One might suppose that these westerly winds propelling 
European ships to New Zealand were also strong enough to 


bring Cingalese, Indian, or Malay ships to our shores. In one 
word, the whole series of arguments brought forward by Mr. 
Maskell shows conclusively that he has neither studied the 
paintings in question with that care and attention they deserve, 
so as to entitle him to speak with authority upon them, nor that 
he has read and digested what others have written about them ; 
and so I can only refer the reader to what still remains of the 
original paintings, or otherwise to Mr. Cousins' careful copies, in 
order that he may judge for himself. 

Finally, I may express my gratification in finding that Mr. 
Maskell and the rest of his party unanimously repudiated the 
absurd theory at one time current, that the paintings were the 
work of European shepherds and stock-drivers. 

It is now my turn to make merry of those who have often 
compared me to Jonathan Oldbuck, in Sir Walter Scott's 
" Antiquary," to whom even then I might have replied in Huss's 
well-known sentence, " O sancta simplicitas." 


Trochus priminus, Gould (" Otia Conch.," p. 55). — Testa 
solidula, elevata, ovato-conica, laevis, nitida, prunina, lineis 
capillaceis numerosis cincta : spira anfr. 7 convexiusculis, ul- 
timo subangulato ; sutura profunda ; apertura subcircularis ; 
columella rotundata, alba antice roseo-tincta, subsinuosa : 
interior margaritacea, vivide iridescens. Alt. ^3, lat. 7-ioths poll. 

Hab. Auckland Island. (I expect Gould means Islands.) 
This peculiarly coloured species has the form, thickness, and ap- 
pearanceofthedelicatelylineated specimens oiLittorinaangulifera. 

Patella lactuosa, Gould (" Otia Conch.," p. 8). — Testa oblique 
conica, crassa, vertice eccentrica, obscure olivacea, interdum san 
tincta, costis majoribus ad 12 rotundatis, scabrosis, pallidis, 
minoribus quibusdam interjectis : apertura ovalis ; margine 
crenulato ; facies interna livida, reflexionibus succineis micans ; 
limbo fascus fuscis et albidis inequalibus alternantibus radiato. 
Long. i% } lat. 1, alt. y 2 poll. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Patella ilhiminata, Gould (" Otia Conch.," p. 7). — Testa 
inequilateralis, ovato-conica, fuliginosa, maculis sparsis flavidis 
translucidis illuminata, creberrime radiatim costellata ; apertura 
ovata ; facies interna nigro-picea, sericeo splendens ; fundo 
flavido. Long. iyi, lat. 1%, alt. 3~5ths poll. 

Hab., Auckland Islands. 

In shape like P. argentea, with the interior of P. tramoserica. 
It may be the young of what is figured by Quoy as P . granularis . 

Limax fidiginosus, Gould (" Otia Conch.," p. 223). — E. 
abbreviatus, corpulentus, acute carinatus, fuliginosus, sulcis 


rcmotis obliquis rcticulatis, areolis rcticulatis ; clypeo ovali, 
postice latiori, foraminc pulmonali postico ; capite parvo ; ten- 
taculis brevibus, ad apicem ferrugineis. Long. 2.5 poll. 

Hay of Islands, New Zealand, among turnips. — Dr. Pickering. 

Characterised by its sooty colour. Dr. P. has no doubt that 
it is a native species. 

Unio waikarense, Colenso [Tasmanian Journal of Science, 
1844. "Memorandum of an Excursion in New Zealand," p. 
37). — Shell oblong or oblong-ovate, concentrically and irregularly 
sulcated, sub-diaphanous, inflated ; anterior side produced, ob- 
tuse, slightly compressed ; posterior slope keeled, sharp ; base 
slightly depressed ; umbones decorticated flattish, much worn ; 
primary tooth large, crested ; epidermis strong, overlapping at 
margin, wrinkled on anterior slope ; colour brownish-yellow on 
posterior side, shading into dusky green on anterior, with 
alternate light coloured lateral stripes ; 2>% inches broad (sic), 
2]/^ inches long. 

Hab., Waikare Lake, mountains, interior of the North Island. 


Among the numerous specimens of Pycnogonida obtained 
during the last voyage of the " Challenger," and which were 
handed over for examination and description to Dr. P. Hoek, of 
Leiden University, only three species were got in the New Zealand 
seas, and these atconsiderable depths. No littoral forms appear to 
have been gathered while the " Challenger " was in Wellington 
Harbour. Two of these species belong to the genus Nymphon 
of Fabricius, but the third is a remarkable form, which Dr. Hoek 
places in a new genus Oorhynchus. The generic description of 
Nymphon is taken from M. Edwards' " Histoire Naturelle des 
Crustaces," vol. iii, p. 532. 

Genus Nymphon, Fabr. 

Body slender. Head (proboscis) cylindrical and obtuse at 
the extremity, First thoracic segment much longer than the 
others, and bearing on the middle of the upper surface a tubercle 
furnished with 4 small smooth eyes. Abdomen conical, amalga- 
mated with the last thoracic segment. Mandibles (pates 
macJioires) one pair, terminated by an elongated claw, and carry- 
ing at their base a palp of 4 joints, inserted at the anterior 
extremity of the first thoracic segment. Four pairs of ambula- 
tory feet, very long and slender ; their 6th joint much elongated ; 
terminal claw small; penultimate joint furnished at the extremity 
with two claw-like spines. Accessory feet (in the female) much 
more slender than the others, borne on the lower part of the 
first body-segment, below the first pair of feet, and serving to 
support the eggs. 

1. Nymphon longicoxa, Hoek (I.e. p. 58 ; PL II., figs 1-5 ; PI. 


XV., figs. 8, 9). — Body smooth, very slender ; the lateral processes 
with large intervals between them. Proboscis large, one-third 
the length of the body ; mouth triangular, not very large. 
Cephalothoracic segment as long as proboscis. Eyes small but 
distinct, oculiferous tubercle rounded. Mandibles very long, 
basal joint longer than rostrum, second joint also very long ; 
immoveable claw curved more strongly than the moveable one, 
furnished with large spines, which reach almost to the extremity; 
moveable claw furnished with smaller spines, except at the 
smooth extremity ; mandibles smooth. Palpi very slender, 
longer than rostrum ; second joint very much longer than the 
third, fourth and fifth almost equal, latter with small hairs. 
Ovigerous legs of the mature male are characteristic ; the fifth 
joint is very long and curved, divided into two by a rudimentary 
articulation and strongly swollen at the extremity ; the sixth 
joint, also curved, makes an angle with the fifth ; four last joints 
small, and often bent so as to form a spiral ; the first joints are 
smooth, but the sixth is furnished with numerous hairs, and has 
on the upper surface rows of curiously-shaped knobs ; the four 
last joints bear respectively 13, 8, 7, and 6 denticulated spines. 
The ovigerous leg of the mature female is almost quite straight ; 
the fourth and fifth joints are not so dissimilar as in the male ; 
the denticulated spines on the four last joints are 19, 12, 10, and 
9 in number, and the sixth joint has none of the characteristic 
knobs. Legs about four times as long as body ; the second 
joint in the males four times as long as first, a little shorter in 
females, but somewhat swollen at the extremity ; sixth joint the 
longest, being about one and a-half times as long as the fifth ; 
first tarsal joint shorter than the second, the claw almost as long 
as the first joint ; auxiliary claws wanting. Genital openings of 
the females very large, and found on each leg ; of the male 
smaller, and found only on the three hinder pairs. 

Length of body, 10-12 mm. ; of legs, 38-46 mm. 

Habitat same as next. 

Dr. Hoek observes, " I believe this species with its rudimen- 
tary eyes to form the transition from the shallow-water species 
to the true deep-sea species. 

2. Nymphon compaction, Hoek. (I.e. p. 41 ; PI. II., figs. 6-8 ; 
PI. XV., fig. 10). — Body stout, sparsely hairy ; proboscis thick 
and swollen a little in the middle, and again at the extremity ; 
length about one-third of the length of the body. Cephalo- 
thoracic segment short, swollen anteriorly, constricted in the 
middle. Eyes obsolete, the oculiferous tubercle represented by 
a blunt knob. Abdomen long. Lateral processes of the body 
small, furnished with long hairs. Mandibles long, first joint a 
little curved, and much longer than the proboscis ; at the 
ventral side this joint shows feebly an articulation near the 
base ; second joint shorter, but furnished with very long claws, 
which are curved at the extremity, and both are armed with 
almost the same number of spines. Palpi much longer than the 
proboscis ; 2nd joint the longest, then follow in order of length 


the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 1st, which is the shortest of all ; hairs most 
numerous on the three last joints. Ovigerous legs tolerably 
long and stout, one and a- third times as long as body ;Jthe 4th, 
5th, and 6th joints being nearly the same length. The four last 
joints are about the same length ;. claw slender, and about 2 /^ as 
long as lasr joint. First three joints almost entirely smooth, 4th 
with a row of hairs at the end ; 5th and 6th furnished with 
numerous spines ; last four joints with hairs only at the distal 
extremity. The spines of the four last joints are of a very 
irregular shape, and their numbers are respectively 10, 8, 5, 7. 
Spines of the claw not very strong. 

Legs three times as long as the body (36 mm. in a body of 
12 mm.) ; 2nd joint longer than 1st and 3rd, and swollen ; 4th 
joint also very considerably swollen (with the ovaries), 5th and 
6th joints of nearly the same length, a little longer than the 4th ; 
of the two tarsal joints, which are together nearly ^3 the length 
of the 6th joint ; the 1st is longer than the 2nd ; claw half the 
length of the 2nd tarsal joint, auxiliary claws wanting ; 4th 
joint of the leg sparsely hairy, 5th a little more so, 6th very 
hairy, and shows some strong spines at the extremity; the tarsal 
joints covered with very minute hairs. Genital openings large 
and easily seen. 

Habitat — Dredged in lat. 40 28' S., long. 177 43' E., from 
a depth of 1 100 fathoms. 

Genus Oorhynchus, Hoek. 

Proboscis ovate, inserted ventrally on the cephalothorax at a 
considerable distance from the front margin. Mandibles rudi- 
mentary ; palpi 9-jointed. Ovigerous legs 10-jointed, the four 
last joints notfurnished with one or more rows of denticulate spines. 

The following is the only species : — 

1. Oorhynchus an ckl an dice, Hoek. (I.e. p. 59, PI. VII., figs. 
1-7). — Cephalothoracic segment short, but very broad, furnished 
at the front with a long cylindrical oculiferous tubercle, which 
projects horizontally beyond the extremity of the proboscis ; 
eyes four, two placed dorsally, two smaller ventrally. Cephalo- 
thorax armed at the corners with curiously-shaped spines, also 
projecting forwards, and bearing a couple of long hairs placed 
on small knobs above the attachment of the first pair of legs. 
Similar pairs of hairs on their spines also on the two following 
thoracic segments on the dorsal surface ; rest of the body 
entirely smooth. Three thoracic segments small, lateral pro- 
cesses separated by small intervals. Abdomen very long, one 
and a-half times as long as proboscis, furnished on both sides 
with a row of projecting hairs. Proboscis ovate, bearing a 
small triangular mouth surrounded by slightly swollen lips. 

Mandibles represented by I -jointed robust club-shaped 
bodies, placed at the front margin of the cephalothorax, on both 
sides of the oculiferous tubercle ; covered all round with strong 
hairs projecting at right angles. Palpi 9-jointed, placed close to 
and on both sides of the proboscis ; first joint very short, second 


longest of all, third short, fourth almost as long as the second 
and bent at an angle with the others ; fifth very short, four last 
subequal ; all furnished with strong hairs. Ovigerous legs 
strongly curved, not quite as long as body without the abdomen. 
Legs strong and very hairy ; first three joints small, subequal ; 
fourth twice as long as third, bearing a tubular process on the 
dorsal surface beyond the middle ; fifth and sixth joints very 
long, subequal, very slender ; first tarsal joint extremely small, 
second long and distinctly curved ; claw scythe-shaped, auxiliary 
claws wanting ; all the joints furnished with long and strong 
hairs, standing at right angles. 

Only one specimen of this remarkable species was obtained 
by the dredge from a depth of 700 fathoms in lat. 37 34' S., 
long. 1 79 22' E. 



Mr. Bentham, in a suggestive paper on the styles of the 
Australian Proteacea printed in the Journal of the Linnean 
Society (Botany vol. 13, p. 5 8), has pointed out that in nearly all 
the species the anthers open while the flower is unexpanded, 
and discharge their pollen on an enclosed portion of the style, 
usually, though incorrectly, described as the stigma. The case 
is thus strictly analogous with what takes place in Compositce y 
with this difference — that in Cornpositce the stigmatic surface is 
always on the inner face of the two arms of the style, which 
remain in contact until some little time after the floret has ex- 
panded. So that, although the outside of the style may be at 
first thickly covered with pollen, yet it is all brushed off by the 
visits of insects or removed by other means before the style- 
branches separate. There is thus little danger of the pollen from 
any particular floret reaching the stigma belonging to it, and a 
much greater chance is afforded of cross-fertilisation taking place. 
In Proteacece, as Mr. Bentham remarks, the style is undivided, 
and the stigma is always external, although generally minute. It 
therefore happens that in many of the Australian genera special 
contrivances are required to prevent the flower's own pollen from 
reaching the stigma. Some of these contrivances are so remark- 
able that it has long been a matter of surprise to me that no 
Australian botanist has fully examined them, and explained the 
different modes of fertilisation dependent on their action ; more 
especially as a cursory inspection of the few species cultivated in 
our gardens has shown me that Mr. Bentham has by no means 
described all the curious adaptations that exist. 

In New Zealand we have only two representatives of Pro- 
eacea, the well-known Rewa-rewa tree (Knightia excelsa) and the 
Toro {Persoonia tord). With the fertilisation of the latter plant 


I am not fully acquainted, but in neither species do we find 
modifications of structure so remarkable as those described by 
Mr. Bentham among the Australian forms, and probably both 
agree in possessing a comparatively simple mode of fertilisa- 

The curious inflorescence of Knightia is familiar to most 
settlers in the northern portion of the Colony. The flowers, 
which arc of a bright red-brown colour, and very conspicuous, 
are arranged in pairs on stout lateral racemes, 2 to 4 inches long, 
each raceme containing from 40 to 80 flowers, or even more. 
Before expansion the perianth is cylindrical in shape, slightly 
swollen at the base, and then contracted, but again gradually 
thickened toward the extremity. It is about lyi inch long, and 
is externally everywhere covered with a dense velvety tomentum. 
In the young bud there is no appearance of segments, but some 
time before expansion the top of the tube splits into four minute 
teeth, the apex of the style showing between. Later on the seg- 
ments come apart at the base of the perianth, and by degrees 
the separation extends higher up. For a long time, however, 
they firmly cohere in the upper swollen part of the tube, and the 
final separation always takes place suddenly and elastically, the 
four segments each coiling up into a tight spiral band, which is 
packed away at the very base of the flower. The fully matured 
racemes show, therefore, little more than a brush of long styles 
projecting from a mass of twisted perianth-segments, and present 
a very different appearance to those in the bud state, so much so 
that I have had both brought to me as the flowers of two distinct 
plants ! The anthers are four in number, sessile towards the top 
of the perianth lobes, and in the bud form a ring round the 
upper part of the style, to which they are closely applied. The 
style is over an inch in length, rather slender at the base, but 
much swollen in its upper half, forming a lengthened club-shaped 
termination usually considered as the stigma ; but the true 
stigmatic surface appears to be minute, and situated in a little 
depression towards the summit. At the base of the flower arc 
four rounded glands, secreting an abundance of nectar, which 
slowly exudes from them, and usually surrounds the base of the 
ovary. The flowers have a strong and very peculiar odour, a 
single raceme being quite sufficient to unpleasantly scent a close 

If a flower bud is examined just prior to expansion, it will 
be noticed that the anthers have opened down their inner face 
and deposited the whole of their pollen on the moist surface of 
the thickened portion of the style, on which it forms four little 
ridges. After the opening of the flower and coiling up of the 
perianth-segments, the pollen is thus left exposed on the surface 
of the style. This looks like a simple case of self- fertilisation, but 
a little examination proves that the stigmatic surface is not 
mature until some time after the flowers open, and that before it 
is in a receptive condition the pollen has all been removed. Some 
means must therefore exist by which the pollen is regularly 


transferred from the younger to the older flowers. It is natural 
to assume that this is done through the agency of insects, 
especially as the great abundance of honey induces many to 
visit the flowers. But in most cases they simply crawl 
about between the styles, and never touch either the 
pollen or stigma elevated far above them. It appears 
to me that large insects only could aid in the work of fertilisa- 
tion ; and even among these the nocturnal or crepuscular moths 
could be of little service, as the styles are far enough apart to 
allow of their proboscides being inserted without touching. 
Possibly some of the larger Diptera or Coleoptera, as well as the 
honey-bee (which is a regular visitant), may be of use ; but the 
conclusion I have arrived at is that the flowers are principally 
adapted for fertilisation by honey-feeding birds such as the Tui 
{Prosthemaderd) and Korimako {Anthornis). That the former 
bird regularly frequents the flowers I have repeatedly noticed ; 
and old and observant residents, who were well acquainted with 
the habits of the Korimako before its disappearance from the 
northern forests, all agree in stating that it was equally ready to 
take advantage of the luscious supply of honey offered by the 
plant. The exact mode of fertilisation hardly needs describing ; 
it is obvious that the bird, in thrusting its head between the 
styles of a recently-expanded raceme, must dust the feathers of 
the forehead and throat with pollen, and that when it visited 
flowers in a more advanced stage, the pollen would be rubbed 
off on the style, and probably smeared over the stigma. 

It is now well-established that, from causes that have hitherto 
eluded our research, undoubted advantages are possessed by 
cross-fertilised over self-fertilised plants ; and an excellent 
argument in favour of this view may be inferred from the case 
of Knightia. We find that the structure and arrangement of 
the parts of the flower are such that the style and stigma are 
actually embedded for some time in a mass of pollen, so that no 
one can doubt that if self-fertilisation had been the preferable 
mode, it might have been obtained with certainty, and with a 
minimum expenditure of force. But instead of this we see a 
number of contrivances all pointing in the opposite direction. 
The ripening of the stigma is delayed, and its size reduced, in 
order that there may be no risk of contamination by pollen 
from the same flower ; the summit of the style is enlarged to 
form a suitable stage on which the pollen may be presented to 
the visitors, to whom the task of transferring it from flower to 
flower is entrusted ; the perianth segments are coiled up and 
removed from their path ; and a suitable attraction is 
afforded in the abundant supply of nectar. Surely these 
contrivances would not be provided if some great advan- 
tage were not expected in return. To my mind, cases 
similar to those of Knightia — and they are probably numerous 
enough — afford additional proof of the truth of Mr. Darwin's 
well-known aphorism — " That Nature tells us, in the most em- 
phatic manner, that she abhors perpetual self-fertilisation." 



Earthquake Disturbances in North Canterbury. — 
We arc indebted to Mr. J. D. Enys for some interesting in- 
formation respecting the results of the earthquake of December 
5th, 188 1, as recorded from three different localities in the 
Canterbury provincial district. 

The first instance was recorded by Mr. Carson, manager of 
the Grasmere Station, near the Cass river. About two hours 
after the earthquake shock (10.30 a.m.) he noticed, in passing a 
small lake called Lake Sarah, that at a distance of about two or 
three chains from the bank, mounds of water were thrown up to 
a height of 4 to 5 feet. Two hours later they were still in 
action. The lake is situated at the foot of a sugar-loaf hill of 
considerable height, and is placed at an elevation of two or 
three hundred feet above the Waimakariri. The formation in 
which it occurs is said to be an ancient one, but nothing more 
definite is stated. Mr. Enys communicated his information 
about this remarkable disturbance to the Philosophical Institute 
of Canterbury, in a paper read at its February meeting. 

The second instance is from Banks Peninsula, on the south- 
western slopes of Mount Herbert, over Little River. Here, a 
few days after the earthquake, a mound of eartr. vas thrown up, 
and steam issued for some time. The clay and soil also in the 
mound were found to be burnt. 

Lastly, at a place called the Ram paddock, situated near 
Oxford, and about ten miles north of Waimakariri river, some 
springs several feet in depth were completely dried up. At the 
same time a new spring, described as possessing a smell which 
makes the immediate locality unapproachable, has broken out. 
The whole country in the neighbourhood of the Ram paddock 
is also said to be continually on the move. 

At Castle Hill, the chimneys were destroyed, and articles on 
shelves running east and west, and facing to the north, were 
thrown inwards into the rooms. 

The use of Lignite in the Blast Furnace. — We are 
indebted to the courtesy of the Editor of " Nature " for a copy 
of the paper on the above subject, by Prof, von Tiinner. The 
article is one which has a practical interest to us in New 
Zealand, where lignite is abundant, and no apology to our 
readers is needed for its insertion in these columns. 

FERNS. — We omitted to notice in our last issue that Mr. H. 
C. Field, of Wanganui, will be glad to name any collections of 
ferns entrusted to him for that purpose. We come across so 
many misnamed specimens among the ordinary fern-collectors' 
sets, that it is as well to know those persons who are able to 
name correctly. 


University Honours in Science. — It will be gratifying 
to all in New Zealand interested in scientific work, and to the 
friends of Mr. Chas. Chilton, of Canterbury College, in particular, 
to learn that he passed his Honours Examination in Biology 
very successfully. The examiner, Professor H. Alleyne Nichol- 
son, of St. Andrews, remarks on the research papers sent in by 
Mr. Chilton : — " Three excellently worked out and well illustrated 
memoirs, showing a wide knowledge of the subject dealt with, 
both as regards the original descriptions and the literature of 
the subject." 

New Zealand Systematists. — We have much pleasure 
in adding to our lists the name of Mr. Richard Wm. 
Fereday, solicitor, of Christchurch, and member of the Entomo- 
logical Society of London, as a worker on New Zealand Micro- 
Lepidoptera. Mr. Fereday's contributions to our knowledge of 
this branch of science have been very numerous and valuable, as 
the pages of the New Zealand Institute Transactions testify. 
Any persons sending collections of moths and butterflies to Mr. 
Fereday, are requested to append date and place of capture. 

Naultinus SYLVESTRIS, Buller. — In January, 1880, Dr. 
Buller described to the Wellington Philosophical Society a 
curious example of assimilative colouring which had come under 
his notice in the case of a tree-lizard, Naultinus sylvestris (Maori, 
Pirirewa), the reptile being brown with yellow spots, thus 
resembling a common lichen (see New Zealand Institute Trans- 
actions, vol xiii, p. 419). Two other cases have lately come 
within my own cognizance. The one is that of a Pirirewa, which 
I caught several weeks ago in the Upper Wangaehu Valley, and 
which I sent down alive to a friend in Wanganui, who keeps 
such things as pets. Besides the ordinary markings, the reptile 
has along each side of its body five large patches of bright golden 
green, and its tail is of a silver-grey colour. I do not know 
whether this last marking arises from its having cast its tail at 
some time, and produced another, for though the change in the 
marking is quite sharply defined, the tail is, if anything, longer 
than ordinary. At first I thought the creature was a new variety, 
as its eyes were surrounded by rings of fiery red. Dr. Buller, 
however, on seeing it, found that this glowing appearance arose 
from masses of parasites, which it seems infest that portion of 
the Pirirewa. 

The other was a similar lizard which Mr. T. Adamson caught 
about the same time at Murimotu, and which was of a silvery- 
white colour, but with red eyes similar to mine. Mr. Adamson 
put the animal alive into a jar, intending to give it to some per- 
son who took interest in such matters. In a few days, however, 
when he went to show it to a friend, he found it had vanished, 
and on enquiry it turned out that the Maoris, who are terrified 
at lizards, and who were afraid to visit the house while the rep- 
tile was there, had persuaded one of his family to let it go. This 
dread of lizards in the Maori race is very curious, as it seems to 


be more than a mere superstition. I have seen a leading chief 
who had distinguished himself in many fights, bleed at the nose, 
scream, and become quite convulsed at the sight of a little brown 
lizard which ran across the path in front of him. His nose bled 
till he nearly fainted. H. C. FIELD. 

" Transactions of the New Zealand Institute." — The 
fourteenth annual volume has made its appearance this year at 
an earlier date than usual. While the letter-press is quite up to 
the usual standard, the number of plates is largely in excess of 
the average. This is chiefly owing to Mr. Buchanan's excellent 
series of lithographed plates illustrative of our Alpine Flora ; 
these make the volume most interesting and valuable to the 
botanist. With the exception of these, and of one by Prof. 
Parker, illustrative of the skeleton of Notomis, all the other 
plates have been photo-lithographed. It is a pity, when con- 
siderable trouble has been taken in the preparation of drawings, 
that better reproductions of them cannot be had. While aware 
of the limited means at the disposal of the Board of Governors 
of the New Zealand Institute, we think it ought to be distinctly 
made known to the writers of papers that their drawings are to 
be photo-lithographed. They would then be spared the trouble 
of attempting to give some finish to their work. 

Considerable additions to our knowledge of the Fauna have 
been made during the year, chiefly in the Mollusca, Crustacea, 
and Insecta. The latter certainly do not figure much in the 
volume under notice, but it must be remembered that all Capt. 
Broun's papers on the Coleoptera have been separately pub- 
lished, and also that all the hitherto described species of Diptera, 
Orthoptera, and Hymenoptera, were separately catalogued by 
Prof. Hutton, and published during the current season. 

In Botanical work, the usual activity is manifested in the 
description of new species, and in the addition of forms hitherto 
foreign to our Flora. Probably no colony of recent growth has 
had its phanerogamic flora so well worked out as New Zealand; 
and, though much still remains to be done, it will be more of a 
critical nature in future. An article on the flora of the Nelson 
district is valuable, as extending the knowledge of plant distri- 
bution in a hitherto almost neglected part of the colony. It is 
gratifying also to see that the microscopists are coming forward 
with papers on Diatomaceae and fresh water Algae. There is 
here a wide field for those workers who cannot devote the time 
requisite for long-continued researches. 

It is matter for regret that so very little original work is done 
among us in Chemistry. A few short, but useful, papers are to 
be found in this volume of " Transactions," but nothing hails 
from either of our University laboratories. Considering what 
a vast amount of research lies before anyone entering on this 
domain ot science, it is certainly remarkable that so few seem 
to take it up as a study. In the geological portion of the 
volume is a valuable paper by Mr. Cox on " The Mineralogy of 
New Zealand," which summarises the information on the subject 


up to date. It is a pity however that the formulae of the 
minerals given are not written like any other chemical formulae, 
for while 2 Fe z O ? -f- 3 H a O is readily understood by every tyro 
in chemical symbolism — 2 Fe + 3 H is not. Besides, if the dot 
stands for oxygen, then h is certainly an incorrect formula for 
water. However, this is a trifling fault in an otherwise excellent 

About a fifth of the whole volume is occupied with papers 
on the Maori race, many of them of great value. Some of these 
would have been none the worse of condensation, and the 
volume as a whole would thus have been improved. 

We think that a very valuable addition might be made to 
the annual volume in the form of an Appendix, mentioning all 
scientific papers dealing with New Zealand matters which have 
appeared in foreign journals during the year. Such a list would 
be very useful for reference. 

In conclusion, we would congratulate Dr. Hector and his staff 
on the general excellence of the work which they have published. 


Fragmenta Phytographle Australia. — The nth 
volume of this valuable publication has been forwarded to us by 
the learned author, Baron F. von. Mueller. In addition to fasci- 
culi 88 to 93 of the Fragmenta, containing numerous descriptions 
and notes of Australian flowering plants and ferns, there are 
several supplements dealing with lower Cryptogams. These 
include lists of the (1) Algae by Sonder, (2) Characeae by Braun, 
(3) Mosses by Hampe, (4) Hepaticae by Gottsche, (5) Lichens 
by Krempelhuber, and (6) Fungi by M. C. Cooke. Ed. 

Microscopic Structure of some Igneous Dykes of 
NORTH GlPPSLAND. — The fourth number of the Journal of the 
Microscopical Society of Victoria contains an article on the 
" Microscopic Structure of some Igneous Dykes of North Gipps- 
land," by Mr. Howitt, which will be read with interest by all 
mineralogists, while Mr. Wooster has a valuable contribution to 
entomology entitled " How the Lerp Crystal Palace is built." 

The other articles are taken up with mounting and cleaning 
of slides, etc., and are hardly up to par for a journal of the kind. 

Caprellina Nov.#:-Zealandle, G. M. Thomson. — From a 
letter received from Dr. Mayer, of the Zoological Station, 
Naples, who has been recently engaged in working out the 
Caprellidae, we learn that this singular crustacean has been 
already described by Nicolet as Caprella longicollis, from the 
coasts of Chili. This is not, however, C. longicollis of Lucas, 
described in the British Museum catalogue of Amphipoda (p. 
362) as occurring in Algeria, as the latter is a true Caprella. 
Dr. Mayer retains for our species the generic name of Caprellina, 
but alters the specific name to Nicolet's. In the form of the 
mouth-organs, the branchiae (kiemer) and abdomen, Caprellina 
somewhat resembles Leach's genus Proto. Ed. 



" Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile- 
eyed Crustacea," by William A. Haswell, M.A., B. Sc 

It is not many years ago since the remark used frequently to 
be made in this Colony that the Australians were much behind 
hand in the matter of scientific work. Leaving out of account 
the excellent work done by those who had scientific appoint- 
ments under Governments or endowed boards, it was certainly a 
matter of comment that comparatively little was done in the 
same line by private individuals. The idea here was that the 
Australian climate was too hot for most people, and that all the 
superfluous energy and enthusiasm were distilled out of them. 
Whether the reproach ever justly attached or not, it cannot be 
affirmed at all now. There has been of late an extraordinary 
increase of scientific activity in all the Australian Colonies, and 
wide as the field to be worked out is, it will not be many years 
— at the present rate of things — before the zoology and botany 
of the great island-continent are well known. 

One of the latest and most important contributions to this 
knowledge has just been made by the publication of Mr. Has- 
well's catalogue of the Australian Crustacea-Malacostraca, by 
the trustees of the Australian Museum. It is essentially a 
compilation of all the known literature on the subject, and 
includes all Mr. Haswell's recent additions, already contributed 
by him to the " Transactions of the Linnean Society of New 
South Wales." The work is similar in general appearance and 
get-up to " Mier's Catalogue of New Zealand Crustacea," but 
forms a much bulkier volume. It is illustrated by four litho- 
graphed plates, with figures of new species. A very excellent 
feature is an introductory chapter explaining the structure of 
typical animals of the various groups, and this is illustrated very 
clearly by fairly-well-executed woodcuts. By means of these 
the merest tyro may make himself acquainted with the external 
structure of these animals. 

A glance over the contents of the volume shows that 538 species 
have been catalogued and described. Of these some 335 have 
been previously described, chiefly in the scientific records of 
voyages, while no less than 203 have been added to the list by 
Mr. Haswell's industry as a systematist. Of this last number 53 
belong to the Brachyura or True Crabs, 17 to the Anomoura 
(Hermit, Porcelain Crabs, etc.), and 12 to the Macroura or Prawn 
family. These three orders, forming (with the Stomatopodd) the 
large division of Podophthalmata or Stalk-eyed Crustaceans — are 
now probably fairly- well known as far as the eastern portions of 
Australia are concerned. The division includes all the large 
Crustaceans which were naturally collected by voyagers and 
travellers, while the smaller forms were comparatively neglected 
and were consequently but little known until very recently. 


Of 148 species of the Edriophthalmata or Sessile-eyed Crus- 
taceans in the catalogue, only 27 were previously recorded, so 
that Mr. Haswell has added a total of 121 to this division, viz: — 
77 sp. of Amphipoda (Sandhoppers, &c), 27 sp. of Isopoda 
(Wood-lice, Slaters, &c), and 17 sp. of Anisopoda. Notwith- 
standing the large additions made by Mr Haswell to our know- 
ledge of these groups, it is impossible to believe that anything 
like a complete record of this branch of the fauna is yet before 
us. But an excellent start has been made by the publication of 
this catalogue, and collectors will now be enabled to work up 
their finds in all parts of Australia, which previously could not 
be done owing to the want of available literature. Only 
a portion of the whole vast coast-line and of its surround- 
ing seas has yet been examined, and it may be antici- 
pated that a comparison of the forms occurring on the 
East and West Coasts respectively will reveal some remarkable 
facts of distribution. This question of the distribution of the 
Crustacea has been but little worked out as yet, but as the 
material accumulates it will no doubt receive more attention. 

It is to be hoped that the intention of the trustees of the 
Australian Museum, as expressed in the preface of this work, 
will be carried out, and that the volume now before us will prove 
to be only the first of a series dealing with the systematic 
geology of Australia. GEO. M. THOMSON. 



(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Sctknck.) 

Sir, — Will you allow me space to make one or two additions 
to my paper on the skeleton of Notornis, which appears in the 
new volume of the " Transactions of the New Zealand Insti- 

Mr. T. Francis Hankinson has favoured me with particulars 
as to the capture of the Te Anau specimen, which I intended 
to publish in the form of a postscript to my paper. - I find, how- 
ever, that this is unnecessary, as the whole story is told by Dr. 
Buller in his paper on the skin of Notornis, also in the new 
volume of " Transactions." 

Since my paper was printed I have found that Mr. Wallace, 
in " Island Life," speaks strongly in favour of the hypothesis 
that the Ratit?e are descended from ancestors capable of flight. 
I ought to have mentioned that the Dromozognathce (Tinamous) 
are probably the nearest living representatives of these hypo- 
thetical Proto-Carinatce. 

I have lately seen Captain Hutton's paper on Cabalus 
modesties (" Trans. N. Z. Inst.," vol. VI., p. 108). Judging from 
the figures which accompany the paper, I can only wonder that 


the generic distinctness of Cabalus from Rallus was ever called 
in question. Both sternum and shoulder-girdle are markedly 
ocydromine. The coraco-scapular angle is stated by Hutton to 
be a right angle ; from the figure it appears to be considerably 
more — quite as large, indeed, as in the Weka. — I am, etc., 

T. Jeffery Parker. 
Otago University Museum, ist June, 1882. 


SIR, — In his interesting paper, " A Trip to Lake Hauroto," 
Mr. Paulin refers to Celmisia ramidosa as being rare. This 
plant does not appear to be so rare as generally supposed, and 
its area of distribution is certainly tolerably large. It was dis- 
covered on the mountains near Dusky Bay by Dr. Hector and 
Mr. Buchanan ; is now reported by Mr. Paulin as growing on 
the mountains lying between the Waiau and the West Coast ; 
has been found on Mount Pisa by Mr. Petrie ; and on Mount 
Cardrona by myself. — I am, etc., 


Invercargill, 3rd June. 

[A plant very similar to this Hauroto species was gathered 
on Mount Peel, Nelson Province, by Mr. T. F. Cheeseman. 
That gentleman sent specimens to Sir J. D. Hooker, who con- 
siders it a new species, and intends to describe and figure it in 
" Icones Plantarum." Mr. Cheeseman's plant is, however, larger 
in all its parts than Mr. Paulin's. — Ed.] 


Sir, — The establishment of a bi-monthly Science Journal in 
New Zealand meets a long-felt want, not only in the more fre- 
quent opportunities given for the publication of original work, 
but also for criticism, for the latter will always prove a valuable 
aid to science when fairly used. The following notes on certain 
criticisms by Mr. Kirk in the last two volumes of the " Trans. 
N.Z. Institute ■" would, if held over till the publication of the 
next volume of that work, have proved out of time, and this is 
the only plea that I can urge for asking space for the present 

Beginning with the earliest of Mr. Kirk's criticisms in the 
"Trans. N.Z. Institute," vol. XIII., page 85, will be found the 
following under the head of Agrostis muscosa, n.s. : — " In the 
'Handbook of the N.Z. Flora' this species is confused with 
Agrostis subulata (Hook, fit) Fl. Ant., c. liii. Buchanan has 
fallen into the same error in his ' Indigenous Grasses of N.Z.' " 
From the above remark it is evident that Mr. Kirk has missed 
the intention of Hooker to abandon this antarctic grass as a 
species, having proved it to be only a variety of Agrostis muelleri, 


(Benth). The specific name subulata being thus open to use was 
adapted in the "Handbook N.Z. Flora" as Agrostis canina var. 
subulata. The existence of varieties in the " Handbook of the 
N.Z. Grasses" being objectionable, this little grass was then 
raised to the rank of a species under the name of Agrostis subulata, 
Unfortunately the hand-book had then gone to press, and the 
name only was altered, the irrelevant remarks below the specific 
description being entirely overlooked. The species, however, 
being correctly described, the name Agrostis subulata (Buch.) takes 
precedence of Agrostis muscosa (Kirk) by priority of time. 

In Vol. XIV. " Trans. N.Z. Institute," page 378, under the 
head Triodia, n.s., will be found the following : — " In his ' Indi- 
genous Grasses of N.Z.' Buchanan has wrongly referred Mr. 
Petrie's plant to Danthonia pauciflora (R. Brown), but it is clearly a 
Trijdia." If Mr Kirk will examine this grass again, he will find 
that the flowering glume is not 3-toothed as in Triodia, but only 
2-toothed, and with a very minute awn between the teeth ; all 
species of Triodia have the generic 3 teeth equal in size. Again 
the description given by Mr. Kirk of Danthonia pauciflora as having 
drooping many-flowered panicles is exaggerated, and incon- 
sistent with Bentham's description of the species and name, 
" pauciflora.'" There is also nothing improbable in any grass 
becoming reduced in all its parts under the influence of a severe 
mountain climate, in fact Festuca duriuscula is often found in sub- 
alpine situations in New Zealand very small in size, and with 
the flowers reduced to one or two spikelets. But Mr. Kirk's 
crowning mistake with this grass is his assertion that Danthonia 
pauciflora never has the lodicules ciliate ; on the contrary, this is 
the best generic character in Danthonia, and never absent. 

In Vol. XIV., "Trans. N.Z. Institute," page 385, will be 
found under Heirochloe alpina (Roem. and Schultes) var. sub-mutica 
a gross blunder on my part pointed out, in mistaking the genus 
Hierochloe for Danthonia. I can offer no better excuse for such an 
error than a lapse of the reasoning faculties — a not infrequent 
occurrence with scientific writers, — and which may be accepted 
for some other writers' conclusions, unless they can credit them 
to bad microscopes. However, this psychological phenomenon 
of the mind is not peculiar to botanists, as it is also shadowed 
forth sometimes in learned treatises on Maori cave paintings, as 
well as in other abstruse subjects scattered through the litera- 
ture of all scientific nations. 

The next criticism of Mr. Kirk's will be found under the 
head of Stipa setacea, R. Brown, " Trans. N. Z. Institute," vol. 
XIV., page 386, where he says : — " Stit>a petriei, of Buchanan's 
' Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,' must be referred to this 
species, as not improbably it is merely naturalised in Otago, and 
has no claim to be considered indigenous." While Mr. Kirk 
ignores this grass as a new species, he has probably never seen 
a specimen of it. The grass referred to by him is no doubt Stipa 
setacea, Br., as I have also specimens of that grass from Mr. Petrie ; 
but I have also received from the same gentleman a distinctly 


different grass, much larger, and with flowers entirely setaceous, 
while it differs in form, as shown in the illustrations to the folio 
edition of the " New Zealand Grasses." This grass I have named 
Stipa petriei. 

Mr. Kirk calls Stipa setacea (R. Br.), an introduced grass ; 
but it surely can put in as strong a claim as an indigene as 
Stipa macrantha (Cav), better known in New Zealand as Strep- 
tachnc ramoissima (Trim), which Mr. Kirk has declared an indigene. 

In the article, " New Zealand Olives," vol. XIV., page 378, 
under this title, will be found the following by Mr. Kirk : — " On 
the other hand, Olea Cunninghamii is the Santahim Cunninghamii of 
Buchanan's list of Wellington plants, and its wood has been 
distributed from the Colonial Museum under the name of 
Santahim." If this doubtful statement could have proved credi- 
table to the Museum it would not have been mentioned, and at 
the time referred to — 12 years ago — Mr. Kirk knew as little 
about our native olives as Buchanan did, neither flowers nor 
fruit of any of the species having then been seen, and the 
whole of them being only known by the name Maire. 

In vol. XIV., page 387, occurs the following : — " Stilbocarpa 
polaris (Dene, and Planche). I have been much interested in 
observing three specimens from the Auckland Islands, cultivated 
in the Wellington Botanic Gardens, side by side with a strong 
specimen from Stewart Island. Two have entirely lost their 
characters, and exactly resemble the latter. There is no differ- 
ence in the inflorescence of plants from the two habitats, and 
both alike give off strong scions." It is difficult to believe that 
any unprejudiced observer could write this. They are no doubt 
most distinct species, as shown by flowers, fruit, and leaves ; and 
Mr. Armstrong, in describing the Stewart Island plant as a new 
species, has only done what any observant botanist would have 
done under the circumstances. 

There is only one other of Mr. Kirk's criticisms that I shall 
notice, in vol. XIV. " Trans. N. Z. Institute," page 388, under 
the title of " Plants from Campbell Island ": — " Poa foliosa (Hook, 
fit). The typical form recorded by Buchanan in his ' Hand- 
book of the New Zealand Grasses,' from the Snares and 
Chatham Islands, in the latter case incorrectly, Festuca scoparia, 
which is omitted from his list of Chatham Island plants, having 
been mistaken for it." This is a mysterious statement, for in no 
part of the " Handbook " can I find the least reference to this 
grass or any of its varieties as being found in the Chatham 
Islands. How then could it have been mistaken for Festuca 
scoparia ? All the grasses in the Chatham Islands collected by 
Travers were named by Baron von Mueller ; and if Festuca 
scoparia was not in his, list it had not been collected. 

In conclusion, Mr. Kirk cannot complain that the " Handbook 
of the New Zealand Grasses " has not afforded him a good field 
for criticism ; but that it may not have proved so satisfactory to 
himself as he expected can only be regretted. — I am, etc, 
Wellington, June 26. JOHN BUCHANAN. 




gth May, 1882. — W. Arthur, Esq., president, in the chair. 

New member — Capt. Scott, R.N. 

The President announced that the Council had made arrange- 
ments for the delivery during the session of three or more short 
courses of lectures on scientific and literary subjects. These 
courses would consist of not less than two, nor more than four, 
lectures ; and, while members of the Institute would be admitted 
free, it was intended to issue tickets to the general public at a very 
low price, viz., either 2s. 6d. or 5s. for the course. A syllabus of 
each course would be printed and given away with the tickets. 
The first course, to be delivered in June, would be by Prof. 
Parker, on " Fermentation and Putrefaction." 

Papers— (1) " Macquarrie Island, its Fauna and Flora," by 
Prof. J. H. Scott. — The paper began with a general description of 
the island. It is hilly, and entirely destitute of trees or shrubs. 
The sea elephant is found on its beaches during a great part of 
the }ear. Its appearance and habits were described. There are 
four varieties of penguins on the island, as well as other sea-birds, 
A small and a large rail are also found, and parroquets, the same 
as the New Zealand species, occur in great numbers. Ten species 
of flowering plants were collected. These all occur in New Zea- 
land, or in the Auckland or Campbell Islands, with the exception 
of the Azorella selago, which is found in Kerguelen Land. The 
Pleuvophyllum crinifevum and the Stilbocarpa polaris are the commonest 
of the flowering plants. The mosses and lichens are fairly 

(2.) " New Zealand Copepoda," paper 1, by Geo, M. Thomson. 
— This is intended to be the first of a series of papers descriptive 
of this group of Crustacea. The author describes 10 species, of 
which Harpacticus chelifer (Miiller), Idya fuvcata (Baird), Scutellidium 
tisboides (Claus) and Acantiophoms scutatus (Brady and Robertson) 
are well known in the European seas. Amymome clausii and Porcel- 
lidium fidviim are new species of genera also found in Europe. The 
following belong to perfectly new forms, for which distinct genera 
are proposed : — Diarthvodes; a genus allied to Canthocamphis, but 
differing markedly in the torm and structure of the first pair of 
feet ; Boeckia, belonging to the Calanidse ; Conostoma, one of the 
Artotrogidae, but differing from any known form in the peculiar 
cone-like structure of the mouth-siphon ; and lastly Xouthoiis, a 
form resembling in general anatomy the Harpacticidae, but having 
no visible median eye, and in place of it two widely-separated 
blood-red lateral eyes ; the integument is of a dark opaque brown, 
except above these eyes, where it becomes colourless and trans- 
parent. Boeckia tviavtiadata is a fresh- water form, and was collected 
by Mr C. Chilton in gravel-pits in Canterbury ; all the rest were 
obtained by the author in Otago Harbour by the use of the dredge. 
Microscopic preparations of several of the forms were exhibited. 

(3.) "Connection of the air-bladder with the auditory organs 
iu the red cod," by Prof. T. J. Parker.— The following is a brief 


summary of the structural peculiarities described in this paper : — 
The anterior end of the air-bladder fits closely against the hinder 
Avail of the skull, and is produced outwards into paired 
pouches which are in contact with the thin skin beneath the oper- 
culum and in front of the shoulder-girdle. On each side of the 
hinder surface of the skull, immediately beneath the foramen for 
the exit of the vagus, is a large space closed by a thin lamina, 
partly membranous, partly bony. This lamina forms the partition 
wall of the auditory capsule, and is bathed internally by perilymph 
while externally the wall of the air-bladder is closely applied to it. 
Sonorous vibrations striking on the thin skin beneath the opercu- 
lum will be transmitted to the air in the air-bladder, thence to the 
thin laminae, and thence to the organ of hearing. The sub-oper- 
cular skin thus functions as a tympanic membrane, the bony 
laminae as a fenestra ovalis. Similar arrangements have been 
described in other fishes, but have not previously been observed 
in the Gadidae. The paper was illustrated and the structure per- 
fectly explained by a dis-articulating skeleton and prepared dissec- 
tions of the fish. 


4th May, 1882. — Prof. Hutton, vice-president, in the chair. 

A number of papers, etc., presented to the Society were laid 
on the table by the Secretary. 

The following papers were read : — 

(1) " Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera (I.) by 
E. Meyrick, B.A. 

Monograph of the Crambidce, with criticisms on previous 
writers, and remarks on affinities of New Zealand fauna ; Phyeidoe 
and Galleridce noted as wholly absent. 

Thinasotia leucophthalma, n. sp. — Brown, with two dark dentate 
transverse lines, a small transverse white discal spot, and some 
black basal marks. Christchurch. 

Scenoploca, n.g. — Allied to Thinasotia, but palpi tufted, and female 
with abbreviated wings. 

Seen, petraula, n. sp. — Grey, with some blackish suffused spots, 
two pale blackish-margined transverse lines, and a small trans- 
verse white discal spot. Larva on lichens. Christchurch. 

Cryptomima, n g. — Allied to Thinasotia, but fore-wings with raised 
tufts of scales. 

Crypt, acerella (Walk.) — Christchurch and Dunedin. 

Diptvchophora pyrsophanes, n. sp. — Dark fuscous, with hind-margin 
ochreous, and one costal and two dorsal small yellow spots. Wel- 
lington to Lake Wakatipu. 

Dipt, chrysochyta, n. sp. — Yellowish-ochreous, partly suffused 
with brownish, with two strongly-curved double dark fuscous 
transverse lines, and a discal spot, half white, half metallic-grey. 

Dipt, astrosema, n. sp. — Light ochreous-brown, with two dark 
transverse lines, a white blotch towards base, a white trifid discal 
spot, and several smaller white spots. South Island. 

Dipt, lepidella (Walk.) — Christchurch to Lake Wakatipu. 

Dipt, leucoxantha, n. sp. — Ochreous-orange, with a white discal 
spot, and hind-wings white. Lake Wakatipu. 


Dipt, metallifera (Butl.)— Probably from Mount Hutt. 

Dipt, atiriscriptella (Walk.) — Wellington, Christchurch. 

Dipt, helioctypa, 11. sp. — Ochreous-fuscous, with a whitish- 
ochreous patch towards base, a second on costa, a third along 
hind-margin, two dark transverse lines, and a white discal spot ; 
hind-wings dark fuscous. Lake Wakatipu. 

Dipt, elaina, n. sp. — Grey, slightly greenish, with two dark den- 
tate transverse lines, and a very small black discal spot. Larva 
on moss. Cambridge to Dunedin. 

Crambus aethonellus, n. sp. — Deep ochreous-brown, with a central 
longitudinal white streak ; hind-wings dark fuscous. Mount Hutt. 

Cr. corruptus (Butl.) — Mount Hutt. 

Cr. ramosellus (Dbld.) — Very common everywhere. 

Cr. angustipennis, Z. — Christchurch. 

Cr. dicrenelhis, n. sp. — Light greyish-brown, somewhat brassy, 
with a central white streak, and costa white almost to base ; head 
white. Mount Hutt. 

Cr. haplotomus, n. sp. — Greyish- ochreous, with a central streak, 
and costal edge almost to base white, and seven black dots on 
hind-margin ; head ochreous. Lake Wakatipu. 

Cr. callirrhous, n. sp, — Greyish ochreous, with a central streak ; 
costal edge, and upper veins posteriorly white ; head white. 

Cr. simplex (Butl.) — Canterbury. 

Cr. siriellus, n. sp. — Dark brown, with a. central streak and 
costal streak, silvery-white ; head white. Hamilton. 

Cr. apicellus, Z. — Hamilton to Christchurch. 

Cr. vitellus [Dbld.) — Very common everywhere ; very variable. 

Cr. flexuosellus (Dbld.) — Very common everywhere. 

Cr. tulwalis (Feld.) — Wellington to Christchurch. 

Cr. cyclopicus, n. sp. — Grey, with two double dentate dark trans- 
verse lines, and an ocelloid ring, often obsolete. Christchurch, 
Lake Guyon. 

Cr. harpophorus, 11. sp. — Grey, with a slender suffused whitish 
streak from base to beyond middle, with a hook beneath in middle, 
broadly margined beneath with dark grey. Lake Wakatipu. 

Cr. strigosus (Butl.) — Christchurch and Mount Hutt. 

Cr. xanthogrammus, n. sp. — Whitish, with a spot towards base, 
two slender irregular transverse fasciae, and hind-margin dark 
fuscous-grey, and two slender bright ferruginous longitudinal 
streaks. Lake Coleridge. 

Cr. sabulosellus (Walk.), Cr. rotnellus (Feld), and Cr. trivirgatus 
(Feld.) belong to a different family. 

(2.) " On a new species of Stauwneis" by Jno. Inglis, Esq. 
Stauroneis Huttonii, n. sp. — Frustule. Front view : Oblong, with a 
marked depression at the line of suture ; length rather more than 
six times its breadth. Side view, with three inflations on both 
sides, those at each end slightly less than those in the middle ; 
valve narrowing towards the ends, which are obtuse. Stauros 
linear, dilated towards the margin of valve, reaching the margin. 
Length, .008 of an inch. Habitat (recent), fresh water at Nga 
Pari, Fernside ; fossil at Lake Sumner, Onehunga. This 
interesting diatom was found in a fossil condition about 10 j'ears 
ago by Professor Hutton, who figured, but did not describe it. It 
has therefore been named 5. huttoni. 


Mr. C. Chilton proposed the following resolution, which, after 
some discussion, was agreed to — " That this Society desires to 
place on record its high appreciation of the great services that 
have been rendered to science by the late Mr. Charles Darwin, 
and its deep sense of the loss that science has sustained through 
his death." 

Mr. W. M. Maskell, whose views on the development theory 
are wholly opposed to those of the world-renowned and lately 
deceased naturalist, could not agree with the resolution, though 
he fully appreciated the labours of Dr. Darwin outside of his theory. 

ist June. — W. M. Maskell, Esq., in the chair. 

Several donations of books were laid on the table. 

Papers — (i.) " On the New Zealand Siphonariidae," by Prof. 
F. W. Hutton, This paper described the shell and animal of all 
the species of Siphonaria and Gadinia known to inhabit New 
Zealand. Figures are given of the dentition, reproductive and 
alimentary systems, and of the jaws. The following species are 
recognised : — 

Siphonaria obliquata, Sowerby. — From Dunedin to Wellington ; 
and at the Chatham Islands. 

Siphonaria australis, Quoy and Gaimard. — From Dunedin to 
Cook Straits. 

Siphonaria zealandica, Quoy and Gaimard. — From Auckland to 
Banks' Peninsula. 

Siphonaria redimicuhim, Reeve. — Auckland Islands. 

Gadinia nivea, Hutton. — East coast of Otago. 


8th May, 1882. — The first ordinary meeting of the Session was 
held ; Dr. Spencer, vice-president, in the chair. 

The only paper read was one by the Hon. Secretary, Mr. 
Colenso, " On the large number of species and genera of ferns 
found in a small given area in the 70-mile Bush." Several interest- 
ing specimens illustrative of the paper were exhibited. 

The Hon. Secretary also gave a brief address to the memory 
of Dr Darwin, an early hon. member of the N.Z. Institute, whose 
acquaintance Mr Colenso had made in 1835, when Dr Darwin and 
Admiral Fitzroy were together in New Zealand, in H.M.S. 
" Beagle," 

A number of entomological exhibits, including the larvae of a 
species of Myrmelcon (Ant-lion) believed to be new to science, were 
also made by Mr Colenso. 

12th June. — Dr. Spencer, Vice-president, in the chair. 

Papers — (1)" Descriptions of New Ferns belonging to the genera 
Cyathea, Dichsonia and Hymenopliyllum, collected in the 70-mile Bush," 

(2) " On the hackneyed quotation of Macauley's ' New 
Zealander' "; both by W. Colenso, Esq., F.L.S., the Hon. Secretary. 

The previous paper was accompanied by specimens and illus- 
trations of allied ferns. In the second paper the author pointed 
out that the simile was by no means an uncommon one, and as 
something very like it had been used by several authors who had 


preceded Macauley — notably Kirke White, Volney, Shelley, and 
Billiardiere — it was probable that he was indebted to them for the 

Mr. Colenso also exhibited specimens of a new species of 
Gunner a, allied to G. scabra of Chili. 


gth May, 1882. — J. T. Thomson, Esq., president, in the chair. 

Papers — (1.) " On the work done by the New Zealand Insti- 
tute," by the President. This paper gave an account of the 
writers who had contributed most of the articles published 
annually by the Institute, and of the subjects discussed. In con- 
cluding it, the author paid a high compliment to Mr. P. Goyen, 
the secretary of the local Society, whom he spoke of as an 
enthusiastic and indefatigable worker. 

(2.) " On the formation of certain quartz pebbles," by Mr. 
Hamilton. In this paper the author sought to account for the 
pebbles which are so plentifully found in the neighbourhood of 
Invercargill, which he considered were not brought down from 
the hills of the interior, nor were they to be looked upon as the 
remains of hills which might once perhaps have existed where the 
pebbles are now found. He advanced the theory that they were 
formed from ancient forests : the carbon of the buried timber 
escaping by oxidation, and its place being taken by silica brought 
down by solution in water. This siliceous matter gradually 
hardened into stone, bearing marks in many cases of the woody 
tissues which it had replaced. Specimens were shown in corrobo- 
ration of the theory, some showing the woody tissue only partially 
altered. In the discussion which ensued, the President dissented 
from the theory propounded, while Mr. Goyen suggested that the 
pebbles could possibly be formed from the siliceous matter con- 
tained in the wood itself. 

3rd June. — J. T. Thomson, Esq., president, in the chair. 

Papers— (1.) "On Forestry," by Mr. D. M'Arthur. The 
author detailed chiefly the history of the plantations made by the 
Dukes of Athol in Scotland, and dealt with the suitability of the 
Larch as a forest tree, and as one which would thrive in Southland. 

(2 ) " Folk-lore," by Mr. J. G. Smith. 

Two new members were elected, and Mr. Carswell and the 
Rev. Mr. Fairclough were appointed members of the Council. 


May 3rd, 1882. — Annual Meeting. H. C. Russell, Esq., presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

From the annual report we extract the following: — The 
number of new members elected during the year was 46, and the 
total number of members on 30th April, 1882, was 475. The 
Clarke medal for the year 1882 was awarded to James D wight 
Dana, LL.D., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Yale 
College, Newhaven, U.S.A., in recognition of his eminent work as 
a naturalist, and especially in reference to his geological and 
other labours in Australia when with the United States Exploring 


Expedition round the world in 1839. During the year the Society 
received 645 volumes and pamphlets as donations, and presented 
531 volumes to various kindred societies The Council subscribed 
to 39 scientific journals and publications ; and in all spent the 
sum of /206 19s. upon the library. During the year 8 meetings 
were held, at which 13 papers were read, and three of the sections 
held regular monthly meetings. The mortgage upon the Society's 
building was reduced from ^"2000 to ^1500, and the amount now 
standing to the credit of the building fund is £35 12s. 3d. The 
sum of ^"48 1 8s, was handed over to the Biological Laboratory, 
Watson's Bay. 

The receipts for the year were ^"1048 os. 3d., and the expendi- 
ture was ^"987 7s. iod., leaving a balance in the bank ot £60 12s. 5d. 
The sum of ^218 2s. 3d. stands as a fixed deposit to the credit of 
the Clarke Memorial Fund in the Oriental Bank. 

The election of office-bearers for the ensuing year resulted as 
follows: — President, Mr. Chr. Rolleston, C.M.G.; vice-presidents, 
Messrs. Robert Hunt, F.G.S., and F. N. Manning, M.D. ; hon. 
treasurer, Mr. H. G. A. Wright, M.R.C.S E., and L.S.A , Lond. ; 
hon. secretaries, Professor Liversidge and Dr. Leibius ; members 
of council, Messrs. H. C. Russell, B.A , F.R.A.S., W. A. Dixon, 
F.C.S., C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., Charles Moore, F.L.S., G. D. 
Hirst, W. G. Murray. 

Reports from the sectional committees were read, showing that 
the following officers had been elected for the session : — 
Microscopy: Chairman, H. G. A. Wright, M.R.C.S.E. ; secretary, 
P. R. Pedley ; committee, Dr. Ewan, F. B. Kyngdon, G. D. 
Hirst, H. O. Walker. Medical ■ Chairman, Dr. P. Sydney Jones ; 
secretaries, Dr. H. N. MacLaurin, Thomas Evans, M.R.C.S.E. ; 
committee, T.C.Morgan, L.R.C.S. Edin., A. Roberts, M.R.C.S.E., 
Dr. Mackellar, G. Bedford, M.R.C.S.E., Dr. Craig Dixson, Dr. 

The Chairman then read his annual address. [We regret that 
the space at our disposal will not allow us to print this interesting 
and exhaustive address in extenso ; we must refer our readers for a 
full report to the files of the Sydney Morning Herald of 4th May. 
The full report of the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods' paper on the 
" Geology of the Hawkesbury Sandstone," and of the discussion 
which followed, will be found in the Herald of May 11, 12, 13, 18, 
22, and 23. — Ed.] 

10th May, 1882. — C. Rolleston, Esq., C.M.G., president, in the 

Papers — (1.) " On the Hawkesbury Sandstone," by the Rev. 
J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. (Abstract). This iormation 
forms an oblong mass about 140 miles long, with a width of from 
40 to 80 miles ; it constitutes much of the Blue Mountains west 
of Sydney, and is also conspicuous in Sydney Harbour at the 
Heads, and on the banks of the Hawkesbury river. A line 
drawn westwards from Newcastle on the N., and another from 
Shoalhaven on the S., mark its approximate limits in these direc- 
tions ; while a line N. and S. between Sofala and Goulburn lies 
outside its western boundaries, except just near the former locality. 
It lies horizontally upon rocks of different age, sometimes on the 
coal measures, or upon Devonian or Silurian beds. It is overlaid 


in many places by the Wainamatta beds, and by igneous rocks. 
In no place is there sign of upheaval, but at the first Zigzag are 
numerous signs of a downcast or fault. False-bedding is the 
characteristic feature of the formation in nearly every portion. 
There are two distinct forms of stratification — one which makes 
the main lines of subdivision, dividing the stone into massive 
layers of varying thickness, the spaces between the layers being 
often filled with a fine-grained dust, or by red bands of ironstone ; 
and between these are fine lines ol stratification which are mostly 
inclined to the horizon. The fossils are mostly composed of the 
roots and stems of plants. As a whole, the beds are from 800 to 
1000 feet thick, and contain, in addition to the plant remains, 
patches of shale or coal, and occasionally fishes of at least two 
species. From a consideration of their whole structure and con- 
tents, the author concludes that the formation has been formed 
by wind, and he inclines to the opinion that the land from which 
it was derived was a desert like Arabia, in which sand storms 
were numerous and the accumulation of dust rapid. This view 
is strengthened by the examination and comparison of eolian 
rocks in various other parts of the world. The interior of Australia 
is now in many parts composed of a desert region, with shifting 
sand hills, iresh and salt marshes and lagoons, and when the 
waters dry up, as often happens, fish, etc., are left entombed in 
the salt. The conditions, then, requisite for the formation of 
such a deposit as the Hawkesbury sandstone are all to be found 
still in Central Australia. The appearances which have been 
attributed to ice-action are believed by the author to be the 
remains of creeks and streams which flowed among the loose 
sandy hillocks, and exercised a great denuding action, especially 
when in flood. The results of the essay are summarised thus : — 
1. That the Hawkesbury sandstone is a wind-blown formation, 
interspersed with lagoons and morasses, with impure peat. 2. 
That there has been no upheaval, but rather a subsidence, 
which probably extends from the base of the range to the sea. 3. 
That the peculiar lamination of the beds is due to the angle at which 
dry sand slips and rests when blown by the wind. 4. The beds 
of ironstone represent vegetable matter destroyed in oxidizing the 
iron, and this is why so few plant remains are lound. 5. The 
irregular layers of the sandstone formation probably represent 
what was a tranquil portion of the surface for a time, on which 
there may have been a vegetable growth now represented by iron- 
stone bands. 6. The smaller gravel may be wind-blown ; the 
larger may have been derived from creeks. This is also the origin 
of the fragments of shale. The creeks have undermined them and 
broken them up. 7. Conglomerates may have been derived from 
stony deserts, such as we have in the centre of Australia. They 
represent all the stones of a sandhill district from which the sand 
has been blown away. 8. The precipitous cliffs of the Blue 
Mountains are the hard central cores of sandhills, the loose por- 
tions of which were easily blown or washed away. g. That in all 
respects the sandstone is like many desert formations oi the 
interior. 10. That a large arid or desert region has existed in 
Australia in mesozoic times, while to the north and north-west 
there was a cretaceous sea. 11. That this desert was terminated 
by the outpouring of vast quantities of volcanic rock, which altered 


the drainage and probably changed the climate. 12. We have no 
means of knowing the eastern limits of this ancient desert, as there 
has been a subsidence on that side. 13. This iormation differs 
but slightly irom other and more extensive aerial ones in other 
countries, especially in Mexico, China, Arabia, &c. 14. There is 
no evidence of ice-action, and all the physical features are against 
such a supposition. 

17th May, 1882. — C. Rolleston, Esq. C.M.G., president, in the 
chair. This was the adjourned meeting held to discuss Mr Wood's 
paper. Mr. Wilkinson, Government geologist, combated Mr. 
Woods' conclusions at nearly all points. While endorsing the 
author's description of the formation of blown sand deposits, he 
pointed out — (1) the undulating and hilly surface of blown sand 
areas as seen near Sydney, whereas the prominent feature of the 
sections exposed in the cliffs along the coast, or fringing the har- 
bour, or in the magnificent precipices of the Blue Mountains, was 
the horizontal stratification of the beds oi sandstone ; (2) that Mr. 
Woods' second conclusion applies equally well to the lower coal 
measures which occur near Wallerawang at 3000 feet above sea- 
level, and are full of spirifers and other marine fossil remains, and 
the bedding of which is nearly horizontal like that of the Hawkes- 
bury sandstone overlying them ; (3) the lamination or " false bed- 
ing " is not confined to eolian rocks, but is met with in almost all 
sedimentary formations, whether of marine or fresh water origin, 
and is regarded as indicative of more or less strong currents in 
shallow water ; (4 and 5) the beds and irregular bands of iron- 
stone can hardly represent old land surfaces, as they not only 
curve in all directions, but are sometimes vertical ; most of them 
have been formed from the oxidation of water containing iron in 
solution permeating the sandstones and shales ; (6) the gravels 
included in the sandstone beds have evidently been brought by 
the same currents that transported the sand, and as some of the 
pebbles consist of quartzite, black slate, etc., they may have been 
derived from the Hartley ranges, some 60 miles distant, which are 
the nearest formations of the character; whereas creeks traversing 
blown sand beds seldom traverse such a distance. (7) The con- 
glomerates, to satisfy Mr. Woods' theory, must occur at the base 
of the series, but here they are principally found in the upper- 
most portions. They are plainly seen to have been deposited by 
aqueous agencies. (8) The horizontal arrangement of the beds, 
and their structure, already alluded to, are against the idea of the 
precipitous cliffs of the Blue Mountains being the hard central 
cores of sandhills. (9, 10, and 11.) The conclusions arrived at 
by Mr. Woods are also disputed; while 12 and 13 are passed 
over. In regard to the last of Mr. Woods' conclusions, it is 
pointed out that the signs of ground-ice are present — e.g., the 
sandstones lying immediately above the thin beds of shale which 
occur frequently enclose angular boulders, which have been torn 
up from the underlying beds and embedded in a very confused 
manner in the sand and rounded pebbles brought by the 
transporting currents. The angular form and mode of occur- 
rence of these boulders of soft shale evidently show that the shale 
beds have been disturbed by moving ice, and this opinion is shared 
in by Prof. J. von Haast, director of the Canterbury Museum, N.Z. 


Professors Stephens and Liversidge commented at considerable 
length on the paper, after which the author replied to Mr. Wilkin- 
son's objections seriatim. (We must again refer our readers to the 
Sydney Morning Herald for a lull report of this most interesting 


May 29th, 1882. — E. A. Mackechnie, Esq , president, in the 

New Members elected — Messrs. R. Anderson, J. Banks, R. 
Browning, C. E. Bourne, M.A., F. E. Compton, J. M. Dargaville, 
M.H.R., N. Giblin, E. W. Hanmer, A. G. Horton, A. E. Isaacs, 
Dr. Kenderdine, Dr. Kidd, Messrs. A. H. Nathan, J. M. Shera, 
C. B. Stone, W. Thorne, and H. J. Wickens. 

1. The President delivered his inaugural address. He briefly 
sketched the progress of the Institute during the past year. He 
then proceeded to enquire into the aims and conditions of 
scientific progress, and its supposed antagonism to religion, 
endeavouring to show — (1) Every advance in science enlarges our 
conception of the universe. (2) The scientific mind is, in a great 
measure, a religious mind. (3) Scientific speculation is not 
science. Reference was also made to the gifts of Mr. T. Russell, 
Dr. Campbell, Mr. Mackelvie, and others toward the promotion 
of art, and the requirements of an art gallery and library. 

2. " On some recent additions to the New Zealand Flora," by 
T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. The following new species were de- 
scribed : — (1) CoUda linear i folia, allied to C. pyrethri folia, Hk. f. , in 
the structure of its flower-heads, but differing from it and from all 
the known New Zealand species in having narrow linear entire 
leaves. Hab., Wairau Mountains, Nelson ; alt., 3000-4000 feet. 
(2) Veronica Cheesmani, Benth. (Hk. f., in " Icones Plantarum," t. 
1366). Belonging to the same division of the genus as V. canescens, 
but a larger, densely-tufted plant, with lobulate or pinnatifid 
leaves and calyx lobes, and small white flowers. Hab., summit of 
Gordon's Nob., and on the Raylan Mountains, Nelson ; alt., 
4000-5500 feet. (3) Carex dew'a, allied to C. testacea, but amply 
differing in habit ; glumes and utricle. Abundant in mountain 
districts in Nelson ; alt., 2000-4000 feet. 

3. " Additions to the Geodephaga of New Zealand," by Capt. 
T. Broun. In this paper Capt. Broun named and fully described 
24 new species of carnivorous ground beetles, or Geodephaga. 
Of this number 12 had been collected in Otago by Messrs. S. W. 
Fulton and T. Chalmer, 5 had been brought from Nelson by Mr. 
T. F. Cheeseman, and the remainder had been collected in the 
North Island by Messrs. P. G. Sandager, W. D. Campbell, and 
the author. The finest specimen was stated to be Trichosternus 
opvdentus, discovered in the Wangapeka Valley, Nelson, by Mr. 
Cheeseman, but several of Mr. Fulton's captures in Otago were 
nearly equally noteworthy. Capt. Broun stated that, nearly all 
the larger and finer species of the group are inhababitants of the 
Southern portions of the colony, those found in the North Island 
being much less conspicuous, and those from Auckland province 
the poorest of all. He considered, however, that future explora- 
tions in the mountainous interior of the North Island may possibly 


modify tins statement. Much has still to be ascertained respecting 
the geographical distribution of the species. The general im- 
pression is that they have singularly narrow ranges, but facts 
have recently been collected which prove that this is not always 
the case. 



The Editor of the N.Z. Journal of Science would be glad to 
receive answers to the following queries, together with any other 
information bearing on the subject, from all teachers engaged in 
the teaching of Science in New Zealand Schools : — 

i. What science subjects are taught in the School ? 

2. What is the number of pupils receiving such instruction, 
and what is their average age and status in the school ? 

3. How much time is devoted to each subject ? 

4. Are the subjects taught practically ? And what provision 
exists in the School in the way of apparatus, &c. ? 

5. Is there any Museum attached to the School ? How is it 
supported ? 

6. Is any special class-room set apart for such teaching ? 




By various Makers, 


Booftsellers anti stationers, 







SEPTEMBER, 1882.] 



[No. 5, Vol. I. 


Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si f ahum est, adcingere contra. 



Zoological Geography. Prof. F. W. Hutton. 195 

On some hitherto Unrecorded Plant Stations. T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. ... 202 

Recent Views on the Trilobites. Chas. Chilton, B.A ... 205 

New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera 208 

General Notes — 212 

Australian Museum, Sydney — Habitat of Saprinus Pedator— Clasping Organs in Male Spiders 
and Mites — A Marine Caddis-worm — On Patella Solandri (Colenso). 

On the New Zealand Carabidae Capt. T. Broun, M.E.S 215 

Meetings of Societies— 227 

Wellington Philosophical Society— Auckland Institute — Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — 
Otago Institute— Southland Institute — Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club— Royal Society of 
New South Wales — Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

Review — "Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales " 241 

Correspondence — 243 

Earth-worms in New Zealand— A Reply— The Weka Pass Rock-paintings— New Zealand Moths. 

Notes and Queries 246 






Vol. I., No. 5, SEPTEMBER, 1882.] 



That different countries and different seas are inhabited by 
different kinds of animals has been known for centuries, but it is 
only during the last fifty years that naturalists have been able to 
form correct notions about the geographical limits of the various 
faunas, and so lay the foundations of a true zoological geography. 
In discussing the subject the question at once arises — Have the 
different groups of animals the same geographical limits, or must 
we record separately the distribution of each ? But this question 
cannot as yet be answered. Mr. Wallace, who has done so much 
for this branch of natural history, is of opinion that the regions 
founded on the distribution of the birds and mammals must apply 
to all classes of animals, and says " it is certainly not convenient 
or instructive to have a distinct set of regions established for each 
class or order in the animal and vegetable kingdom." If this 
opinion should turn out to be true, it will simplify matters very 
much, but it seems quite possible that some of the lower orders 
of animals, which must have been widely spread during the 
mesozoic era, may have different areas of distribution from those 
of the higher orders, which only came into existence in the cai- 
nozoic era. Mr. Wallace also ignores altogether the marine pro- 
vinces, which necessarily supplement the land regions and differ 
from them considerably. So different, indeed, are the land and 
marine districts, that it will be necessary to consider them sepa- 
rately ; and, as far more attention has been given to the distri- 
bution of terrestrial animals than to those inhabiting the sea, it 
will be better to begin with the land regions. 

Passing over the earlier attempts of Buffon, Fabricius, Latreille, 
Kirby, and Prichard, which, although valuable as establishing 
the fact that a zoological geography was possible, are of little 
use to us now, we come to Mr. W. Swainson, who, in 1835, pro- 
posed to divide the land into five provinces, each inhabited by a 
distinct variety of the human race, as well as by different 
animals ; but at the same time saying that his provinces did not 
admit of accurate definition.* His provinces were the follow- 
ing: — 1. Eitropean or Cancasian,mc\\xdmg Europe, Asia Minor, and 
the shores of the Mediterranean. 2. Asiatic or Mongolian, com- 
prising Asia east of the Ural Mountains, as far south as Java and 
Sumatra. 3. American, both North and South America. 4. 
Ethiopian or African, comprising Africa south of the Desert of 

* Treatise on the Geography and Classification of Animals.— Lardner's Cabinet 


Sahara ; and 5. Australian or Malay, including not only Aus- 
tralia, but also the Indian Archipelago south of Java, New 
Guinea, and Polynesia. 

Dr. Prichard, in the fourth edition of his " Reseaches into 
the Physical History of Mankind," published in 185 1, proposed 
nine zoological provinces, some of which he subdivided. His 
remarks are rather confused, but the following seem to be his 
divisions: — I. Arctic America, Europe and Asia. 2. Temperate 
North America, Europe and Asia. 3. Intertropical and south 
temperate America. 4. Intertropical and south temperate 
Africa. 5. Tropical Asia and India. 6. Indian Archipelago. 
7. Polynesia, including New Guinea and New Zealand. 8. 
Australia. 9. The southern extremities of America and Africa.* 
Dr. Sclater, in 1857, from a study of the distribution of birds, 
divided the land into six regions, which were afterwards shewn 
by Dr. Gunther to hold good for reptiles, and by Mr. Wallace to 
hold good for mammals. These regions are — 1. Palcearctic 
Region, comprising Europe, North Africa to the Sahara, and all 
Asia, except South Arabia, India, and South China. 2. Ethio- 
pian Region, including Africa south of the Sahara and South 
Arabia. 3. Indian or Oriental Region, including India, South 
China, and the Indian Archipelago as far south as Borneo and 
Java. 4. Australian Region, including Australia, the Indian 
Archipelago from Celebes and Lombok, New Guinea, Polynesia, 
and New Zealand. 5. Neotropical Region, comprising South 
America, the West Indies, and tropical North America. 6. 
Nearctic Region, comprising all extra-tropical North America. 

In 1866 Mr Andrew Murray proposed to unite together the 
Palsearctic and Nearctic Regions, and also the Ethiopian and 
Indian Regions, thus reducing them to four. In 1868 Professor 
Huxley pointed out that the Pal arctic, Nearctic, Ethiopian, and 
Indian Regions were closely related to each other, and proposed 
that they should be united into an Arctogaea ; and also that New 
Zealand should be detached from the Australian region on 
account of its great peculiarities, its extreme isolation, and its 
being the remains of a more extensive land, and should be made 
into a Novozelanian region ; this latter suggestion being adopted 
by Dr. Sclater in 1874. Mr. Wallace, however, in his valuable 
"Geographical Distribution of Animals," published in 1876, 
rejects all these innovations, and goes back to Dr. Sclater's 
original six regions as the most natural and useful. 

It appears, therefore, that naturalists agree pretty well as to 
where the boundary line between districts should be drawn, so 
far as mammalia, birds, and reptiles are concerned, but they 
differ as to how these districts should be grouped into regions 
an 1 sub-regions. 

In his " Introduction to the Study of Fishes," published in 
1880, Dr. Gunther arrives at the conclusion that although Dr. 
Sclater's regions do very well for the fresh-water fishes, their dis- 

These appear to be already included in 3 and 4. 


tribution is decidedly in favour of Professor Huxley's grouping 
of the regions into north and south — that is into Arctogaea and 
Notogsea — rather than Dr. Sclater's grouping of them into old 
and new worlds — that is into Palaeogaea and Neogaea — and that 
Tasmania, Patagonia, and New Zealand ought to form one region . 
Perhaps the best compromise between existing opinions would 
be the following : — 

1. Arctogaeal Region. 

(a) Nearctic sub-region. 
(J?) Palaearctic sub-region. 

2. Oriental Region. 

3. Ethiopian Region. 

4. Neotropical Region. 

5. Australian Region. 

6. Novozelanian Region. 

Mr. Wallace has shown that these regions represent very 
fairly the distribution of the butterflies, the carnivorous ground 
beetles, the stag beetles, and the lamellicorn beetles ; while the 
hawk moths, the Buprestridae, and the longicorn beetles show 
several anomalies, especially in a connection between the 
Australian and Neotropical regions ; and the same thing is seen 
in the distribution of the frogs. Very little is known of the 
distribution of other groups of insects and of earth-worms, 
while the classification of the land mollusca is in such a state of 
confusion that we cannot for many years know much about 

To account for the resemblances between the different 
southern regions, Mr. Wallace has proposed a very ingenious 
theory. It is, that all the principal groups of animals have 
originated in the Arctogaeal region, and have spread in wave 
after wave southward into Africa, India, South America, and 
Australia ; while the new forms constantly arriving in Arctogaea 
have successively exterminated the older ones. Thus Australia 
is inhabited by the descendants of an early wave of mammalian 
animals which have been preserved from destruction by the 
Australian region having become isolated from the large masses 
of land to the north, and the Neotropical, Ethiopian, and 
Oriental regions each contain remnants of the forms which once 
occupied Arctogaea ; while the Novozelanian region was cut off 
from Australia before any mammals had travelled so far south. 
The large amount of palaeontological evidence which Mr. 
Wallace has accumulated is sufficient, I think, to prove this 
theory for the mammalia, and perhaps even for the struthious 
birds ; but the distribution of both the ganoid fishes and the 
tailed amphibians is not in accord with it ; and for other groups 
of animals which are found in the south, but not in the north, 
we have no direct proof of a southerly migration. We must 
therefore, in these cases, be guided by other evidence, and can 
hardly accept Mr. Wallace's theory as the explanation of every 
case of affinity between the regions of Notogaea. 


We will now turn to the marineprovinces. The pelagic animals 
which live at or near the surface of the ocean are all more or less 
cosmopolitan. The same may be said of the inhabitants of the 
deep sea, for the researches of the naturalists of the " Challenger" 
and other scientific expeditions have proved that the animals 
living 3,000 feet or more below the surface are very much 
the same all over the world. Consequently the deep sea forms 
a single, very irregularly-shaped province, and is almost as com- 
plete a barrier to the migration of the shallow water animals as 
is the land. It is therefore to the shallow waters surrounding 
the shores that we must look for our marine zoological districts. 

Mr. S. P. Woodward, in 1856, from a study of the marine 
mollusca, divided the ocean into the following eighteen 
provinces*: — 1. Arctic province, containing all the northern seas 
from Kamtschatka and the Aleutian Islands to the North Cape, 
Iceland, and Newfoundland. 2. Boreal province, including the 
North Atlantic from Massachusetts to Iceland, the Shetland 
Islands, and Norway. 3. Celtic province, comprising only the 
British Islands, Denmark, South Sweden, and the Baltic. 4. 
Lusitanian province, the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, 
N. W. Africa and Madeira, the Azores and Canary Islands. 5. 
Aralo-caspian province. 6. West African province, comprising 
the tropical coast of W. Africa. 7. South African province, 
comprising Africa outside the tropics. 8. Indo-paciftc province. 
This most important of all the marine provinces was first indi- 
cated by Cuvier and Valenciennes in 1828 ; it extends from 
tropical Australia to the Yellow Sea, and from the Red Sea and 
E. Africa to Polynesia. 9. Australo-zealandic province, New 
Zealand, Tasmania, and extra-tropical Australia. 10. Japonic 
province, the Japanese Islands and Corea. 11. Aleutian province, 
including the Northern Pacific, from the Sea of Okhotsk to 
Vancouver's Island. 12. Californian province. 13. Panamic 
province, from the Gulf of California to North Peru. 14. 
Peruvian province, the coast of Peru and Chili to Valparaiso. 
15. Magellanic province, from Valparaiso, round South America, 
to Cape Blanco. 16. Patagonian province, the east coast of 
South America, from Cape Blanco to the tropics. 17. Carib- 
bean province, the Gulf of Mexico, the West Indies, and tropical 
South America. 18. Trans-atlantic or P em isylvanian province, 
the Atlantic coast of the United States as far north as Massa- 

Dr. Gunther, in discussing the distribution of the shore fishes 
in 1880, formed seventeen districts, which correspond very 
closely with those of Mr. Woodward ; and he has grouped these 
districts into (1) Arctic Ocean, (2) North Temperate Zone, (3) 
Equatorial Zone, (4) South Temperate Zone, and (5) Antarctic 
Ocean. We may therefore safely assume that the main outlines 
of marine distribution are known ; although, as with the land 

* " Manual of the Mollusca " (Weale's Series). Some of these provinces had 
been previously made out by Professor E. Forbes. 



regions, there may be difference of opinion as to the best way of 
grouping" the provinces or districts. It appears to me that Mr. 
Woodward's provinces are too minute and too unequal, while 
Dr. Gunther's grouping into circumpolar zones is too compre- 
hensive for the tropics, as it ignores the well-marked Indo- 
Pacific province ; knowing also, as we do now, how different the 
mollusca and higher Crustacea of New Zealand are from those 
of Australia, we must, I think, separate them as distinct 
districts.* This will give the following six provinces as the 
main divisions of the ocean, the deep sea being excluded : — 

1. Arctic Province, to 6o° N. 

2. North Temperate Province, to 30 N. 

(a) Celtic District. 

(b) Lusitanian District. 

(c) Pennsylvanian District. 
id) Aleutian District. 

[e) Californian District. 

(f) Japanese District. 
Central American Province, between 30 N.and 3Q°S. 



West African District. 

Caribbean District. 
Panamic District. 

(d) Galapagos District. 

Peruvian District. 


Indo-pacific Province. 


South Temperate Province, to 50 S. 


South Australian District. 

Novozelanian District. 
Chilian District. 


Patagonian District. 
South African District. 

6. Antarctic Province, from 50 S."f" 

Of course these various provinces and districts are not 
tenanted by altogether distinct animals ; each has sent colonists 
to, or has received colonists from, its neighbours, but they 
sketch out with sufficient accuracy the various marine faunas of 
the world. 

* As the terms Region and Sub-region are used for the land divisions, it will 
assist the memory if Province and District are used for the marine divisions. The 
following table will give some idea of the isolation of the marine fauna of New 
Zeaalnd : — 


No. of 



S. Amer. 

Marine Fishes 



38 p.c. 

7 p.c. 

Marine Shells 


71 p.c. 

21 p.c. 

4 p.c. 

Marine Crustacea ... 


67 p.c. 

20 p.C. 

11 p.c. 

f The fauna ot this last Province is very small, and hardly worth distinguishing 
from the South Temperate. 


It might have been expected that the Arctic Ocean would 
form a single province, and it might also perhaps have been 
expected that the south temperate zone would form a province 
divided into districts by the deep sea ; but it could never have 
been expected that the animals of the North Pacific would 
prove to be so intimately allied to those of the North Atlantic 
that the two oceans would have to be united into one province. 
This is principally due to the resemblance between the marine 
faunas of Japan and of the Mediterranean, there being many 
identical species and genera found in both these districts, but 
which do not occur on either the Atlantic or the Pacific coasts 
of America. This proves that there must once have been a 
direct sea communication between the Mediterranean and Japan; 
and we learn from geology that an ocean, in which the " nummu- 
litic limestone " was deposited, did extend from Europe to 
China in the Eocene period. 

The tropical zone exhibits several peculiarities which could 
not have been predicted.' The Indo-Pacific fauna is very homo- 
geneous and distinct ; its extension down the east coast of 
Africa is stopped by the cold current coming from the south- 
west that sweeps past Southern Africa ; and very few Indo- 
Pacific forms have reached the Cape of Good Hope. But to 
the north this fauna pushes into the warm basin of the Red 
Sea ; and, despite the Isthmus of Suez, it has invaded the 
Mediterranean, and even spread into the Atlantic — thus proving 
that the Isthmus of Suez must once have been submerged. To 
the eastward this fauna stops abruptly at the most easterly of 
the Polynesian Islands, not a single form apparently having 
crossed the deep ocean and reached America. The tropical 
American province is divided by the Isthmus of Panama, but 
this has comparatively little effect on the distribution of the 
animals, nearly one-half of the species being found on both 
sides. This fauna has pushed on to the Galapagos, and a few 
species have managed to reach the Sandwich Islands. The 
Atlantic forms, however, have not travelled down to Peru, which 
district is inhabited by the descendants of the aborigines that 
peopled the whole Pacific coast before the irruption of the 
Atlantic invaders. This proves that the Isthmus of Panama has 
been submerged at a not very remote period ; but as many of 
the species have distinct varieties on each side of the Isthmus, 
the re elevation was evidently sufficiently long ago for a con- 
siderable amount of variation to have taken place subsequently : 
perhaps it occurred at the end of the Pliocene or beginning of 
the Pleistocene period. That the eruption was from the Atlantic 
into the Pacific, and that no migration took place in the oppo- 
site direction, was no doubt due to the great ocean current which 
now sweeps into the Gulf of Mexico, and is turned back as the 
Gulf Stream, at that time passing through into the Pacific 
Ocean. This diversion of the Gulf Stream probably helped to 
produce the glacial epoch in Europe. 

Another remarkable peculiarity is the occurrence of the same 


or representative genera, and sometimes even of the same or 
representative species, in both the north and south temperate 
provinces, which genera or species are altogether absent from the 
tropical zone. Very much the same thing is found with plants, 
and here we account for it by supposing that the temperate forms 
have migrated along the meridional chain of mountains which 
crosses the tropics in America ; and it seems necessary to sup- 
pose that the marine forms which are found in both temperate 
zones have migrated across the tropics in the cold layers of 
water which underlie the warmer ones. It would be possible to 
pass from the north to the south hemisphere in water never ex- 
ceeding 6o° F. without ever having to descend so low as 1000 
feet, at which depth seaweed is found, and consequently to which 
light can penetrate. But although this may possibly account for 
the distribution of the fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans, it seems 
hardly a sufficient explanation of the fact that the ancestors of 
the whales and seals which at present inhabit the Arctic and 
Antarctic Oceans must once have crossed the tropics ; for, being 
air-breathing animals, they would be compelled to come to the 
surface for respiration. A still greater difficulty is found in the 
distribution of some of the fresh-water fishes of S.E. Australia, 
Tasmania, New Zealand and Patagonia, which are closely allied ; 
in some cases, indeed, the very same species occurring in S. 
America, New Zealand, and Tasmania. It is true that all these 
fishes go to the sea for a short time every year to spawn, but 
they could not possibly cross the wide and deep oceans that now 
separate these countries, and in order to account for their distri- 
bution, we are compelled to suppose that the physical geography 
of the Southern Hemisphere was at one time very different from 
what it is now. 

In taking a general view of the subject, we see that the land 
regions, with the exception of Arctogaea, run north and south, 
while the marine provinces run east and west. This is easily 
accounted for by the present distribution of land and water, com- 
bined with the former submergence of the Isthmus of Panama, 
and, at an earlier date, with the existence of an ocean connecting 
the Mediterranean with Japan. The conclusion is that animals 
would arrange themselves in circumpolar zones, according to 
climate, were it not for the existence of barriers to migration. A 
good example of the effect of barriers is seen in the Gulf of Bothnia, 
which contains exclusively a Celtic fauna, while the White Sea 
and the coast of Norway in the same latitudes have Arctic faunas. 

Another conclusion we arrive at is that the present configura- 
tion of the different regions, both land and marine, dates, in its 
main outlines, back to the Miocene or perhaps even to the Eocene 
period, while during that time the sub-regions and districts 
have in many cases been considerably modified, because we see 
that migration has often taken place along routes that are at 
the present day impassable. Beyond the Eocene period we can- 
not go. There is no evidence that zoological distribution was 
the same during the Mesozoic era as at present, and none that 
were any distinct regions at all in the Palaeozoic era. 





No one can examine the broken and fragmentary evidence 
we possess respecting the distribution of our native flora without 
granting that a wide field is open for future research. No doubt 
much preliminary and useful work has been done, considering 
the youth of the Colony, and that most of its inhabitants have 
of necessity to occupy themselves with more personal and press- 
ing matters than that of tracing the range of a plant, of finding 
out how high it ascends the mountains, or of ascertaining the 
physical character of the localities in which it grows. But a 
noteworthy difference exists between what is already recorded 
and what is required before it will be possible to compile a 
" Cybele Novae Zealandiae " similar in scope, and equal in point 
of detail, to the " Cybele Britannica " ot the late Mr. H. C. 
Watson. Material might, however, be more rapidly collected if 
our working botanists would from time to time publish in the 
JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, or elsewhere, notices of new or unpub- 
lished localities, using, of course, due care in the identification of 
the species. Probably this system, if once established, would 
soon lead to the formation of a Botanical Exchange Club, similar 
to the well-known institution of this name in England, which 
has so materially assisted in bringing the knowledge of plant- 
distribution in the British Isles to its present satisfactory condition. 

So far as I am aware, the plant-stations given below have 
not been previously published. With most of them I have been 
acquainted for years, and it is possible that some may also be 
known to other botanists, although I have no knowledge that 
this is the case. 

Pittosporum virgatum, Kirk. — Between Coromandel and Ken- 
nedy's Bay ; abundant. The other known localities are the 
Great Barrier Island and Whangaroa. 

Pittosporum kirkii, Hook, f. — Summit of Maungataniwha, 
Hokianga, alt. 2500ft. ; the most northern habitat yet recorded. 
Hills to the north of the Pirongia Mountain ; its southern limit 
so far as is at present ascertained. 

Pomaderris edgerleyi, Hook, f. — Bare hills along the Northern 
Wairoa River, from Te Koporu to Dargaville, and stretching 
across to the sea south of Maunganui Bluff (T.F.C.) Between 
Orewa and the Wade (Rev. J. Bates). The stations previously 
recorded for this local plant are : — Cape Colville Peninsula, from 
Tarara to Cabbage Bay ; Mount Manaia, Whangarei ; and the 
North Cape District. 

Discavia toumatou, Raoul. — Sandhills to the north of Port 
Waikato ; probably its extreme northern limit. 


Myriophyllum pedunculatum, Hook, f. — Lake Pupuke, near 

Hydrocotole dissecta, Hook, f. — Swampy forests by the Northern 
Wairoa River ; abundant. Also plentiful in several localities 
between the Auckland Isthmus and the Middle Waikato. 

Coprosma fatidissima, Forst. — Attaining its most northern 
station between the Thames and Tairua (J. Adams). Also 
gathered by the same gentleman on Te Aroha. 

Erechtites prenanthoides, D.C. — Kaueranga Valley, Thames ; a 
few plants only. Not previously known northwards of Cam- 
bridge in the Waikato, and Tauranga on the East Coast. 

Senecio latifolius, Banks and Sol. — By the sides of streams in 
the Hunua Ranges, south of Auckland ; probably its northern 

Dracophyllum strictum, Hook, f. — Head of the Kaueranga 
River, and hills near Puriri, Thames (J. Adams). This gives a 
marked extension to the range of the species, the nearest 
locality previously known being the Tamahere Narrows, 

Myosotis spathidata, Forst. — Moist ground by the Papakura 
River ; the most northern station known to me. 

Myosotis antarctica, Hook, f. — Sea-cliffs north of the Manukau 
Harbour ; not common. A minute depauperated variety, but 
clearly referable to this species. 

Teucridium parvifolium, Hook, f. — Low grounds by the Thames 
River, near Te Aroha (J. Adams). 

Mentha australis, Br. — Naturalised in many places in the 
Raglan district, and particularly abundant between the Mata 
Creek and Ruapuke, where I first observed it in January, 1877. 
Mr. Kirk has recently recorded its occurence in the W T airarapa 
(" Trans. N.Z. Inst," 14, p. 383), and seems to consider there is 
a chance of its being indigenous in that locality. It is clearly 
an introduced plant at Raglan. 

Utricularia colensoi, Hook, f. — Peaty swamps in the Middle 
Waikato ; plentiful, especially near Ohaupo. This plant appears 
to have been lost sight of since its original discovery on the 
East Coast by Mr. Colenso many years back. 

Pisonia umbellifera, Seem. — Whangape Harbour, north of 
Hokianga, (J. McLennan, J. Webster, F. E. Manning). I believe 
that this is the only known locality on the mainland, for although 
it is recorded in the " Handbook " from near Ngunguru and from 
Whangarei, I have been unable to find it in the first locality, and 
it is unknown to the settlers. As to the second station, I am 
informed by Mr. R. Mair that a single tree planted by the Maoris 
formerly existed on Limestone Island, in Whangarei Har- 
bour, and that Dr. Sinclair's habitat was probably based on this 
solitary specimen, long since destroyed. The other recorded 
localities, all of which were first specified by Mr. Kirk, are as 
follows : — The Taranga Isles (Hen and Chickens), where it is 
most abundant, associated with the still more local Meryta 
sinclairii; the Little Barrier Island, on which also it is not un- 


common ; and Arid Island, to he north of the Great Barrier. 
From information received from fishermen and others, I have 
little doubt that it also exists on the Poor Knights and the Fanal 
Isles ; but I have not seen specimens from thence. 

Fagus menzicsii, Hook, f. — Near Table Mountain (inland from 
the Thames), and on Te Aroha (J Adams). These habitats give 
a marked extension to the northern range of this species. 

Ascarina lucida, Hook, f. — Of very local occurrence on the 
Waitakerei Range, near Auckland. 

Phyllocladus glauca, Carr. — Waitakerei Range ; rare. With the 
exception of Hokianga, this is the only station yet known on 
the western side of the Island. 

Pterostylis barbata, Lindl. (P. squamata, Hook, f., "Handbook 
N.Z. Flora," now R. Br.) — Bare clay hills, near Mercer, on the 
Waikato River. The only other locality certainly known is Kopu 
(Thames district). 

Juncus tennis, Willd. — Upper Maungatawhiri Valley ; banks of 
the Waikato," near Rangiriri ; near Ngaruawahia ; between 
Hamilton and Cambridge ; Wangapeka Valley, Nelson. 

Juncus articulatus, L. var lamprocarpus. — Pumiceous deposits by 
the Waikato River, near Rangiriri. A few plants only were 

Schcenus nitens, Br. — Waimarama, Hawke's Bay (H. Tryon). 

Carex teretiuscula, Good. — Ruataniwha Plains, Hawke's Bay 
(H. Tryon). Swamps in the interior of Nelson Province, 
alt. 1000-3000 ft. ; not uncommon (T.F.C.) 

Carex buchanani, Berggren. — Abundant in river valleys in the 
Nelson Provincial District. 

Carex dipsacea, Berggren. — Mount Egmont Ranges, alt. 3000 
feet (H. Tryon). Plentiful in hilly and wooded districts in 
Nelson (T. F. Cheeseman). This and the two preceding species 
were accidentally omitted from my enumeration of Nelson 
plants, printed in " Trans. N. Z. Inst.," vol. 14. 

Apera arundinacea, Hook, f. — Banks of the Wai-iti stream near 
Foxhill, and in the W T angapeka Valley, Nelson. Now con- 
sidered by Sir J. D. Hooker to belong to the genus Mnhlenbergia. 
Mr. Bentham seems inclined to place it in Stipa, principally on 
account of its close resemblance to Stipa verticillata, Nces 
(Streptachne ramosissima, Trin.) See " Journ. Linn. Socy.," 19, 

P . 81. 

Danthonia bromoides, Hook, f. — Sea-cliffs, Bay of Islands, 
Whangaroa, Doubtless Bay, &c. ; abundant. Curiously enough, 
this species is not mentioned in Mr. Buchanan's list of North 
Auckland plants (" Trans." 2, p. 239), or in Mr. Kirk's list of 
additions ("Trans." 3, p. 166). 

^ Gymnostichum gracile, Hook, f. — Low grounds by the Thames 
River, Kopu, Keri-ken, Puriri, &c. Mr. Bentham, in his " Notes 
on Graminece" ("Journ. Linn. Society" 19 p. 134) remarks that 
Willdenow's name Asprclla has the priority over Gymnostichum. 
In future, therefore, our plant should bear the name of Asprclla 
gracilis, Benth. 


Lindsay a viridis, Colenso. — Banks of the Waikato, near the 
Tamahere Narrows (Mrs. Gubbins). Not previously known 
from any part of the Waikato country. 

Adiantum forrnosum, Br. — Although this species has long been 
known to occur in the north of Auckland province, no one has 
yet specified the exact locality, and considerable misapprehen- 
sion exists respecting it. In the " Handbook," the habitats of 
Kaipara and Whangarei are given, on the authority of Mrs. 
Jones' little book. This statement has been copied into several 
later publications, although it is certainly incorrect, as the plant 
is not known in either district, properly so called. Mr. Kirk 
has pointed this out (" Trans. N. Z. Inst.," 3, p. 173) ; but, being 
misled by imperfect information, has fallen into the error of 
assigning the West Coast as the proper habitat. The exact 
locality is the valley of the Northern Wairoa River. In a boat 
voyage made up this stream in 1875, specimens were first 
observed about six miles above Dargaville ; but the plant is 
apparently rare until the " great bend " of the river is passed. 
It then becomes plentiful in the swampy forests fringing the 
banks, in many places covering acres of ground, and attaining a 
height of over four feet. A little below the old Mission Station 
at Tangitiroria it thins out, and is only occasionally seen ; while 
before reaching the junction of the Mangakahia and Wairua it 
has altogether disappeared. 

Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Swz. — Mohaka River, Hawke's Bay (E. 

Phylloglossum dmmmondii, Kunze. — Near Papakura ; hills by 
the Waikato River, near Mercer ; north-western side of Lake 
Waikare. Not previously recorded from the south of the 
Auckland Isthmus. 



In the " Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
Harvard College," Vol. VIII. (April, 188 1), there is an important 
paper by Mr. C. D. Walcott, intituled " The Trilobite : New and 
Old Evidence relating to its Organisation." As this may not 
be accessible to many in New Zealand, a short account of the 
results arrived at by Mr. Walcott may not be out of place. 

The trilobites, as everyone is aware, are fossils that have 
been known for a very long time ; immense numbers of speci- 
mens have been found, many of them very perfect ; yet for long 
nothing was known but the hard dorsal shell and the hypostoma ; 
and though we now, thanks to Mr. Walcott's laborious re- 
searches, know a little about the appendages, still our knowledge 
is very fragmentary and unsatisfactory. 


Here we have an instance of the imperfection of the evidence 
afforded by palaeontology even under the most favourable 

Burmeister, in the "Organisation of Trilobites " (1843), 
arguing chiefly from the variable number of body segments, and 
from the absence of appendages, came to the conclusion that 
the " trilobites were a peculiar family of Crustacea, nearly allied 
to the existing Phyllopoda, approaching the latter family most 
nearly in its genus BrancJripus" Consequently he thought that 
the appendages were soft and membranous like those of 
Branchipus, and that they had in all cases perished, while the 
hard dorsal shell had been preserved. He supported this 
view by asking why the trilobites had the power of rolling 
themselves into a ball, if it was not to protect the soft and 
delicate appendages. In making use of this argument he seems 
to have forgotten that many Isopods have the power of rolling 
themselves into a ball, although they have ambulatory legs 
covered with a moderately hard exoskeleton. 

Up to 1870, nothing more was known about the appendages 
of trilobites. In that year Mr. Billings discovered a specimen 
of AsapJius platycephalus, which appeared to afford evidence of 
the presence of articulated appendages. This was, however, so 
unsatisfactory that Messrs. Dana, Verrill, and Smith rejected 
Mr. Billing's view, and his discovery has since been ignored by 
many recent authors in zoology. It was in the same year that 
Mr. Woodward, who supported Mr. Billing's view, announced 
the discovery of the jointed palpus and one of the maxillae of 
an Asaphus, in position by the side of the hypostoma. All 
other knowledge that we have on this point is due to Mr. Wal- 
cott's researches. In 1876 he announced the discovery of the 
natatory and branchial appendages of the trilobites, and in the 
next year he gave additional evidence to show the presence of 
manducatory jaws, ambulatory legs, and branchiae in the genera 
Calymene and Ceraurics ; and in 1881 he published the paper 
now under consideration, which, he says, " terminates, for the 
present, an investigation that has occupied much time and 
attention during the last seven years." 

His results were obtained almost wholly from two species — 
Calymene senaria and Ceraur?is pleurexanthus ; for it was only in 
these species that the appendage, &c, were recognisable. Of 
these species 3,500 entire specimens were obtained from the 
Trenton limestone, at Trenton Falls, N.Y. Out of this great 
number 2,200 were in a condition to warrant sections being made 
of them ; but even out of these comparatively few showed 
remains of the appendages, " only 270 sections affording more 
or less satisfactory evidence of their preservation." 

From these numbers it will be seen that Mr. Walcott's 
paper, though not very long, is the result of much patient and 
laborious work, and not of the fortunate discovery of a few 
specimens showing the appendages. 

His results are briefly as follows : — The ventral membrane 


was thin and delicate, and was strengthened in each segment by 
a transverse arch, to which the appendages were attached, being 
thus something like the ventral membrane of the abdomen of a 
cray-fish. The intestinal canal had previously been discovered 
by Professor Beyrich. Mr. Walcott says it is a very rare thing 
to find traces of it, one in a hundred being a large proportion. 
From the mouth it extends forward a little, and then curves 
backward, proceeding direct to the pygidium. The mouth opens 
obliquely backward instead of directly downward, and is formed 
of four pairs of appendages, which have a general structure like 
the cephalic legs of Limulus and Eurypterus. The basal joints 
of these legs were large, and were undoubtedly used as jaws as 
in the American king-crab (Limulus). Each leg probably con- 
sisted of six or seven joints ; but as no one leg was seen entire, 
this is somewhat doubtful. In the first three cephalic appen- 
dages, all the joints except the first were slender ; but in the 
fourth the terminal joints were expanded so as to form a 
swimming leg. Of the appendages of the body there appear 
to have been one pair of legs to each segment, both of the thorax 
and the pygidium. They were slender, each consisting of six or 
seven joints, of which the basal one was the largest, and sup- 
ported a branchia and an epipodite, which consisted of two or 
more joints, and was probably kept in constant motion so as to 
produce a current of water circulating among the branchiae. The 
branchiae themselves were of three forms. In the first they 
bifurcate near the base, and extend downwards and outwards as 
two simple slender tubes or ribbon-like filaments ; the second 
kind are similar to these, but have the two branches spiral ; the 
third form appears to be confined to the anterior segments of 
the thorax, they consist of several straight filaments, radiating 
from a central support. Possibly those parts that are still pre- 
served do not represent the actual branchiae, but supports to 
which the delicate branchiae were attached. 

These are the conclusions that Mr. Walcott feels justified 
in forming ; whether they will all be confirmed or not remains 
to be seen. Some of them are evidently most fully supported by 
his sections, of which he gives drawings, to all appearances very 
accurate ; but with regard to others the evidence can hardly be 
considered quite satisfactory. This is more particularly the case 
with the appendages. These, he says, were ambulatory ; and yet 
at the same time he says that their integument was very thin, in 
this being in marked contrast to the thick dorsal shell. It was, 
in fact, so thin that he has to produce evidence to show that it 
could be preserved sufficiently well to be observed in the fossil 
state, and cites the case of the gill feet of BrancJiifius being pre- 
served in the Eocene fresh-water strata on the Isle of Wieht. 
Now, if the membrane of the legs were as delicate as this, they 
could not have been of much use as ambulatory organs ; while 
from their slender form (with the exception of the fourth cephalic 
appendage) they would have been almost useless as swimming 


Notwithstanding this, however, there can, as Mr. Walcott 
says, be no longer any reasonable doubt that the affinities of the 
trilobite are with Limulus and its allies. This group of animals 
he raises to the rank of a class — the Paecilopoda, — placing it 
between the Crustacea and the Arachnida. He divides this 
class into two sub-classes — (i) Merostomata, including the two 
orders XipJiosura {Limulus) and Eurypteridce ; (2) and Palceodce, 
with the single order Trilobita. 

In thus making the Paecilopoda intermediate between the 
Crustacea and the Arachnida, Mr. Walcott adopts the views of 
Professors A. Milne Edwards, Gegenbaur, and E. Verrill ; on 
the other hand, however, Professor E. Ray Lankester, in a 
paper, " Limulus an Arachnid," published in the " Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science" for July and October, 1881, 
appears to have conclusively proved that Limulus is not a 
Crustacean at all, but an Arachnid, which is best understood 
11 as a marine scorpion." Hence the Xiphosura must be placed 
among the Arachnida and the Eurypterida, and Trilobita must 
of course follow them ; so that the trilobites, which, after much 
buffeting to and fro, had settled down quietly as Crustaceans, 
must now leave the resting place they have enjoyed for many 
years, and march over to rank themselves along with the 


Fam. Erechthiad^:. 
Genus EscJiatotypa^ Meyrick. 

Head rough all over, tufted between eyes ; with ocelli ; no 
tongue. Antennae shorter than fore-wings, somewhat thickened 
in male, basal joint slightly broader. Maxillary palpi long, 
folded. Labial palpi moderately long, porrected, second joint 
with a few bristles above, and clothed beneath with short pro- 
jecting hairs, especially at apex ; terminal joint much shorter 
than second, bluntly pointed, loosely scaled. Fore-wings elon- 
gate, somewhat dilated, hind-margin very obliquely rounded. 
Hind-wings ovate-lanceolate, rather narrower than fore-wings, 
cilia narrower. Abdomen rather elongate. Legs moderate, 
posterior tibiae smoothly scaled, beneath fringed with long hairs. 
Fore-wings with 12 separate veins ; 5 branches to hind-margin ; 
sub-costal obsolete towards base ; secondary cell indicated ; 1 
furcate at base. Hind-wings with 8 veins, sub-costal obsolete 
before middle ; 5 and 6 stalked, 6 running to hind-margin. 

This genus differs from all the rest of the family, in 
possessing 12 veins (all separate) in the fore-wings, and is pro- 
portionately somewhat broader winged. In repose the apex of 

* Continued from page 1 7$. 


the fore-wing is somewhat turned up, but not very con- 

I. E. meliclirysa, Meyrick (I.e. vol. 5, p. 257). — Head snow- 
white. Palpi white, fringe of second joint mixed with dark 
fuscous-grey. Antennae whitish-ochreous, basal joint white. 
Thorax white, irregularly suffused on margins with greyish- 
ochreous. Abdomen dark ochreous-grey. Legs pale greyish- 
ochreous, tarsi suffused with darker grey at base of joints. 
Fore-wings white, with irregular and partially suffused greyish- 
ochreous or yellow-ochreous markings ; an oblique rather narrow 
dark-margined band from ^ of costa, meeting an obsolete 
similar band from j£ of inner margin on disc, to form an 
angulated fascia, of which the lower half is indistinct ; before 
this are several irregular strigulae on costa and inner margin ; a 
similar dark-margined angulated rather broader fascia, from 2 /^ 
of costa to about 2 /^ of inner margin, often furcate on costa 
(in one specimen obsoletely double throughout), most indistinct 
on disc ; between the two fascise are faint greyish-ochreous 
clouds on disc, and sometimes indistinct fuscous-grey strigulae 
on costa ; apical portion of wing greyish-ochreous or ochreous, 
separated from second fascia by a narrow white fascia, and con- 
nected with it by an oblique greyish-ochreous dark-margined 
irregular band below middle ; in the apical portion are two small 
white irregular spots on costa close before apex, a small blackish 
apical dot, white-margined above and below, a small white 
black-margined spot on hind-margin beneath apex, and some 
irregular confused white black-margined spots on lower part of 
hind-margin and on disc ; all the markings are variable in shape 
and intensity of colouring ; cilia yellowish-ochreous, with a dark 
grey dividing line, and a white spot below apex. Hind-wings 
and cilia pale slatey-grey. 

Male and female ; length 4-6 lines. 

A rather elegantly marked insect, but variable in size and 
colouring ; my southern specimens are the largest and brightest. 
Rather common at Wellington and Dunedin, in December and 
January, beaten from forest growth ; its habits are sluggish. 

Genus Erechthias, Meyrick. 

Head rough all over, tufted between eyes ; with ocelli ; no 
tongue. Antennae shorter than fore-wings, somewhat thickened 
in male, basal joint rather broader. Maxillary palpi rather 
short, folded. Labial palpi moderately long, porrected, second 
joint with from a few bristles to a dense fringe of hairs beneath ; 
terminal joint shorter, bluntly pointed, sometimes also fringed 
beneath with hairs. Fore-wings elongate, rather narrow, 
tolerably evenly pointed. Hind-wings lanceolate, about as broad 
as fore-wings, cilia about as broad. Abdomen elongate. Legs 
moderate, posterior tibiae clothed with long fine hairs. Fore- 
wings with 1 1 veins ; sub-costal obsolete towards base ; 
secondary cell indicated ; 4 and 5 sometimes approximated on 
hind-margin ; 1 furcate at base, but lower sometimes partially 


obsolete. Hind-wings with 8 veins, sub-costal obsolete before 
middle ; 5 and 6 stalked, one to either side of apex. 

The habits of the imago are retired and sluggish ; in repose 
they sit flatly appressed to the surface, with the apex of the 
fore-wings bent upwards. Though not brightly coloured, they 
are elegantly marked. 

The larva of one species only is known to me; it is 16- 
1 egged, without peculiarity, and feeds in the seed-heads of one of the 
Liliacew ; the pupa is placed in a slight cocoon amongst refuse 
in the seed-head. 

1. E. cJiasmatias, Meyrick (I.e. vol. 5, p. 264). — Head white. 
Palpi white, second joint of labial palpi dark fuscous above, 
beneath with loose scales ; terminal joint with loose, rather long 
hairs. Antennae dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. 
Legs whitish, anterior tibiae and tarsi blackish above middle, 
tarsi with dark fuscous rings at base of joints. Fore-wings 
white, with dark fuscous markings ; a broad streak along inner 
margin from base to beyond middle, where it is attenuated and 
bent upwards, ending on disc beyond middle ; a slender 
straight line from base of costa through disc to apex, inter- 
rupted at J^, beyond which it becomes much broader, containing 
a black longitudinal streak, and ending in a round black apical 
spot ; a short very oblique blotch on costa beyond middle ; a 
black streak along costa from about y^ to apex ; an elongate 
streak on hind-margin about anal angle, attenuated at both 
ends ; cilia white, with two blackish dividing lines throughout, 
and indications of a projecting hook at apex. Hind-wings 
whitish-grey, cilia whitish, with two dark fuscous cloudy lines 
round apex. Male ; length 6j^ lines. 

Two males taken at Wellington, among forest growth, in 

2. E. stilbella, Walker, Argyresthia (I.e. vol. 5, p. 265). — 
Head white, narrowly dark fuscous on sides and behind. Palpi 
white, labial palpi with second joint and base of terminal joint 
dark fuscous externally, second joint with loose scales beneath, 
terminal joint with loose rather long hairs. Antennae dark 
fuscous. Thorax white, lateral margins broadly dark fuscous. 
Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish ; anterior tibiae and 
tarsi dark fuscous above, middle tarsi with dark fuscous 
markings ; a rather broad straight central streak from base to 
apex ; extreme costal edge blackish towards base ; a slender 
partially indistinct line from base of costa through disc, 
coalescing with the central streak at ^ of wing ; a slender very 
oblique streak from costa beyond middle, also coalescing with 
central streak before apex ; a slender streak along costa 
from y^ to apex ; a slender streak along hind-margin, 
throughout ; a round blackish apical spot in cilia ; cilia white, 
with two dark fuscous dividing lines throughout towards tips, 
innermost indistinct. Hind-wings pale fuscous-grey, cilia 
whitish, with a blackish dividing line round apex. 
Male and female ; length 6-7 lines. 


Characterised by the strong central streak from base to apex. 
Three specimens taken among forest at Auckland and Wel- 
lington, in January. 

3. E. ckaradrota, Meyrick (I.e. vol. 5, p. 268). — Head and 
palpi pale ochreous, face darker ochreous ; labial palpi exter- 
nally dark fuscous, second joint roughly scaled beneath, with 
two or three projecting bristles above at apex. Antennae pale 
ochreous, with obsolete darker fuscous annulations. Thorax 
pale ochreous. Abdomen greyish-ochreous. Anterior and 
middle legs blackish, tarsi with slender pale ochreous rings at 
apex of joints ; posterior legs whitish-ochreous, tarsi suffused at 
base of joints with dark fuscous. Fore-wings narrow, pale 
ochreous ; a broad sharply marked ochreous-fuscous streak, 
suffused with blackish, along costa from base to apex, narrowest 
at base and dilated beyond middle ; a similar more evenly 
broad streak along inner-margin from base to anal angle ; in 
the costal streak are a very slender pale ochreous oblique streak 
from middle of costa, and an irregular streak-like pale ochreous 
spot before apex ; cilia whitish-ochreous, with two blackish 
dividing-lines, and a small apical hook-like spot beyond them. 
Hind-wings pale fuscous-grey, cilia whitish-grey, with two 
blackish lines round apex. 

Male and female ; length 5-6*^ lines. The narrowest-winged 
species of the genus. Three specimens taken among dry forest- 
scrub near Wellington and Port Lyttelton, in January. 

4. E. chionodia, Meyrick (I.e. vol. 5, p. 268). — Head white, 
sides of crown narrowly brownish-ochreous. Palpi white, second 
joint of labial palpi dark fuscous externally except at 
apex, both joints loosely haired. Antennae whitish, with obso- 
lete dark fuscous annulations. Thorax ochreous-brown, with a 
narrow white longitudinal stripe. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. 
Legs white, anterior tibiae and tarsi obscurely suffused with 
dark fuscous above middle tarsi, with dark fuscous rings 
at base of joints. Fore-wings glossy snow-white ; a broad 
ochreous-brown streak along inner-margin from base to 
anal angle, posteriorly attenuated, containing some blackish 
scales on inner margin ; this streak is margined above by a 
blackish streak, commencing at base as a slender line and 
dilating gradually to anal angle, where it is as broad as the 
inner-marginal streak in middle, thence continued along hind- 
margin to apex, its upper edge obtusely dilated about middle of 
hind-margin, produced into apical cilia asashortstraightprojecting 
bar ; base of costa slenderly blackish ; a small cloudy sub- 
costal blackish spot before middle ; two slender blackish oblique 
streaks from costa, first beyond middle, very short, nearly obso- 
lete, second midway between first and apex, longer, its apex 
confluent with the hind-marginal streak ; cilia whitish, with 
three broad cloudy blackish-fuscous lines. Hind-wings and cilia 
white, extreme apex and two obscure lines round it fuscous. 

Male and female ; length 4%-$% lines. Two specimens at 
Auckland, amongst forest growth on a shady bank, in January. 



Australian Museum, Sydney. — The report of the trustees for 
1881 shows that this institution is in a flourishing condition. The 
donations, exchanges, and purchases added largely to the collec- 
tions, and numerous specimens were sent out to museums and 
individuals in other parts of the world. The following figures are 
interesting: — "The number of visitors was 115,655, being an 
increase of 3,192 on the number for 1880. The number who 
attended on Sundays* was 41,660, being an increase of 8,963 on 
the number for 1880; while the attendance on week-days de- 
creased by 5,771. The average daily attendance on week-days 
was 281, and on Sundays 801." Appendix XII. contains a list of 
the specimens obtained during the dredging excursion to Port 
Stephens in November, 1880. 01 these all the vertebrates have 
been identified except some small deep-sea fishes; while of the 
invertebrate specimens several species of Pycnogonida, Polyzoa, 
Hydrozoa, and siliceous Spongida have not yet been worked out. 
The Mollusca and Crustacea have received the most close exami- 
nation — the former at the hands of Mr. Brasier, and the latter of 
Mr. Haswell. The 16th section of the report is specially inter- 
esting : — " The most important work undertaken by the trustees 
during the year has been the renewal of the exploration of the 
caves of the Colony, for which object a special sum of money 
was voted by Parliament. Mr. Jenkins, of Yass, was engaged to 
explore the caves at Coodradigbee. The bones obtained there 
are all of recent origin, belonging to still existing species of the 
kangaroo, wallaby, wombat, opossum, &c. The Siluro-Devonian 
fossils, however, obtained by him from the limestone rocks are of 
considerable interest, and will form a valuable addition to the 
Museum collection. The exploration of the caves at Wellington 
was superintended by the Curator, who frequently visited the 
locality, leaving in charge of them, during his absence, one of the 
Museum employes. The first cave examined was found to contain 
several feet of water on the floor, and could not be worked 
without very great expense. The second cave showed no signs of 
bone breccia, consequently the search was discontinued. The 
third cave, known as the Breccia Cave, was next examined. Here 
above 1000 specimens were obtained, many of them of great 
interest ; among others an almost perfect ramus of a Thylacoles 
with the articulating condyle ; and the toe bones oi a large species 
of Echidna. The fourth cave examined was the large one 
situated at the summit of the ridge. Photographs were taken by 
magnesium light of the walls of this cave. At first no bones 
were discovered ; but on sinking a shaft through the floor, the 
tooth of a Diprotodon and some bones of small marsupials were 
found. In some other shafts the bones were larger and more 
perfect than those in the Breccia Cave. Among the most 
important discoveries were portions of the pelvis of an immense 
kangaroo, caudal and cervical vertebrae ; jaws of large marsupials, 
especially five rami of Thylacoles nearly perfect, and many good 


teeth. The Curator inspected all other caves in the district, but 
found only two, on the Nanima Estate, 6 miles east of Wellington, 
which showed any good signs of bones." The exploration of the 
Richmond River (undertaken by one of the assistants) resulted in 
the discovery of some new and interesting species offish, but " no 
fishes in any way allied to the Ganoidei, Sirenoidei, or Dipnoi 
were found." Ed. 

Habitat of Saprinus Pedator. — I noticed, on reading Capt. 
Broun's paper on the Histeridce in your last issue, that he seems to 
have found all his specimens of Saprinus pedator above ground. 
The six obtained by me at Cape Saunders were amongst very 
much decayed kelp some eight or nine inches below the surface. 
They were all taken at one spot, and though several of the 
neighbouring beaches were searched no others were found, nor 
have I been able to discover any on the beaches near Dunedin. 

Thos. Chalmer. 

Clasping Organs in Male Spider and Mites. — Mr. W. F. 
Howlett has forwarded from Waipawa, Hawke's Bay, a male 
specimen of Macrothele huttonii (a spider described and figured by 
the Rev. O. P. Cambridge in the" N.Z. Inst. Trans., vol. vi., p. 200) 
and he suggests that the great development of the tibiae and meta- 
tarsi of the first pair of legs is to enable the male to seize and hold 
the female. The latter is described by Mr. Cambridge as being 
larger than the male, but wanting the above abnormal develop- 
ment. A comparison of the figures in the volume referred to (pi. 
vi., figs. 10 and 17) showing the normal structure of the legs of 
first pair, and also the structure in Macrothele, certainly bears out 
Mr. Howlett's idea. Hitherto, as far as is known, no such peculiar 
modification of structure among the males has been observed 
among spiders, though familiar enough in many other animals. 
Mr. Howlett also states that a similar structure is to be found in a 
mite [Acarus sp.l) which infects Tuis. This observation we also 
believe to be new for the Acarida. 

A Marine Caddis-worm. — Last year Professor Hutton collected 
in Lyttelton Harbour several specimens of a Trichopterous larva 
living among the corallines that grow in rock pools between tide 
marks, the case of the larva being composed of fragments of the 
corallines. After several failures to hatch these larva out, he 
succeeded in obtaining a pupa from which the insect was ready to 
emerge, but this was dead and in a fragmentary condition. This 
pupa and some larvae were sent to the well-known entomologist, 
Mr. R. McLauchlan, of 39, Limes Grove, Lewisham, London, 
who has determined the insect to be Philanisus plebejus, Walker, a 
species previously known to inhabit New Zealand. This is the 
only known marine Caddis- worm ; it has been described to the 
Linnean Society of London by Mr. McLauchlan. 

On Patella Solandri, Colenso. — On page 168 of the four- 
teenth volume of the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 
just published, will be found a paper by Mr. Colenso on " Two 


little-known specimens of New Zealand Shells." The author says: 
11 Although just forty years have passed since I first detected and 
made known these shells, ... I have good reasons for believ- 
ing they are still but little known. Their scientific descriptions, 
&c, were early noted in " Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science," 
but I do not find them noticed in any of the modern conchological 
works in our library, under my own or any other specific names ; 
neither are they included in the exhaustive " List of New Zealand 
Mollusca," recently laboriously compiled from almost all concholo- 
gical authorities by Professor Hutton, and published last year by 
the New Zealand Government. I therefore conclude that they are 
still but little known. This, however, may easily be accounted for if, as 
I suppose, the single localities in which I separately found them are 
their onl} known habitats, as such are quite out of the way of both 
the scientific and the general traveller ; and although I sought 
them diligently in my early and general collecting of shells in this 
country, I never met with these species anywhere else." Then 
follows a description of the two shells. It is the first of these, viz. 
Patella solandri, that is the subject of this note. From a com- 
parison of Mr. Colenso's description with that of Acmcsa fragilis 
Chem.,andan examination of specimens forwarded by the author to 
the Colonial Museum, I am convinced that they are identical. 
With regard to the statement that this shell does not appear in any 
modern conchological work in the library of the Hawke's Bay 
Philosophical Society, or in the " Manual of New Zealand Shells," 
recently prepared by Professor Hutton, and issued by the Colonial 
Museum and Geological Survey Department, I would direct 
attention to the fact that it is noted in the following works under 
the names attached : — 

i. Lottia fragilis (Q. and G.) — Gray Dieflf., N.Z. II., p. 240. 

2. In a paper " On the Botany and Conchology of Great 
Omaha," by Mr. T. Kirk, published in " Trans. N. Z. Inst.," vol. 
V. p. 366, it is thus mentioned : — " The singular Lottia fragilis, 
which resembles a fragment of greenish membrane adhering to 
the rock, is found at Matakana and Little Omaha, but is far from 

3. On page 43 of the " Catalogue of Marine Mollusca of New 
Zealand," prepared by Prof. Hutton, and published by the 
Colonial Museum authorities in 1873, the same shell appears 
under the name of Tectum fragilis (Quoy) with Lottia fragilis (Gray) 
as a synonym. 

4. In a paper by Prof. Hutton, " Trans. N. Z. Inst.," vol. X., 
p. 296, it is pointed out that Patella unguis-almce (Lesson.) is the 
same as Tectura fragilis (Chem.) 

5. On page 88 of the " Manual of New Zealand Mollusca," 
recently published, it is noticed under the name of A cmoea fragilis 
(Chem.) followed by a full synonym, and the remark that it is 
found from Auckland to Dunedin. 

I have myself collected it at Auckland, Wanganui, and Wel- 
lington. There are also specimens in the Colonial Museum, 
which were obtained at the Auckland Islands. It is therefore by 
no means the local shell supposed by Mr. Colenso ; quite the 
contrary. T. W. Kirk. 




[With this paper Part III. of the " List of the New Zealand Coleoptera " is 
commenced. Parts I. and II. have already been issued by the Colonial Museum 
Department. The numbers on the margin are in continuation of those in Part II. 
When insects are referred to by numbers, these numbers correspond with those in 
Parts I. or II.] 


1322. Mecodema rugicolle, sp. nov. — Body moderately glossy, 
brownish-black, legs and antennae rufo-piceous ; elongate, sub- 
parallel. Head nearly smooth on the middle, longitudinally 
rugose in front, irregularly wrinkled laterally, its posterior portion 
covered with transversal linear impressions and punctures ; 
labrum broadly rounded, bearing a row of course punctures and 
ferruginous bristles. Prothorax sub-depressed, its length and 
breadth about equal, widely rounded laterally, abruptly narrowed 
behind, its sides almost crenate ; the surface has a distinct 
median groove not attaining the apex, many transversal furrows 
deepest near the sides, some abbreviated longitudinal striae in 
front, and a row of obvious punctures, with elongated ferruginous 
bristles proceeding from them, along the rims ; the basal foveae 
are well defined, and placed close to the edges of the contracted 
part. Elytra cylindrical, slightly convex, each with three rows 
of distant punctures on the disc, the sides and apices more 
coarsely and irregularly punctured ; their surface exhibits a few 
aciculate impressions but no distinct striae. Underside piceous ; 
flanks of the brosternum punctate, those of the mesostemum 
similarly, but more densely impressed ; abdomen with distant 
shallow punctures near the sides ; the head transversely 


Differs from all the other species of the genus having crenu- 
lated thoracic margins by the sculpture of the head and thorax, 

Length, 11 ; breadth, 3^ lines. Described from a mutilated 
specimen found by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager near Taranaki. 

1323. Metaglymmapunctifer, n.sp. — Elongate, slightly convex, 
medially narrowed, glossy black, scarcely bronzed, tarsi and 
antennae pitchy-black, tips of the palpi pale in colour. Head 
moderate, longitudinally bi-impressed in front, a little constricted 
behind, and punctured in line with the back part of the eyes ; 

* Read before the Auckland Institute, June 13, i88r. 


these latter prominent. ProtJiorax longer than broad, margined, 
its sides but little curved, considerably contracted behind, with 
somewhat obtuse but rectangular posterior angles, apex slightly 
arcuated, base emarginated ; the dorsal groove terminates in the 
curved frontal impression, basal fovea; deep, close to the angles, 
with a few punctures extending inwards ; the disc is obsoletcly 
striated across, and there are several sctigerous punctures along 
the margins. Elytra elongate, marginated, wider behind than 
in front, a little rounded laterally ; each with eight rows of punc- 
tures, the four inner arranged in pairs, so that the interstices 
between them and the outer rows are broader than the others, 
yet not so wide as the smooth space near the side ; these punc- 
tures are sometimes confluent, but never form striae, the outer 
are more rounded and deeper ' than the inner, whilst the whole 
sculpture becomes confused apically. Underside shining black, 
head rugose, base and flanks of the prosternum, and most of the 
mesosternum, rugosely punctated, the sides of the metasternum 
and abdomen more or less punctured. The mentum tooth, 
though entire, is concave at the apex, and the terminal articula- 
tions of the palpi are elongate-oval but rather obtuse at the 

Female length, 6yi \ breadth, ij4 lines. 

One of Mr. T. Chalmer's captures near Dunedin. 
1 324. Metaglymma oblonga,n. sp. — Broad, sub-oblong, somewhat 
convex ; moderately shining, black, legs and antennae pitchy- 
red. Head nearly smooth, having only a few abbreviated 
longitudinal lines on the forehead, an inter-antennal and post- 
ocular impressions, and two or three short marks on the vertex. 
ProtJiorax large, as long as broad, obtusely rounded laterally, 
much narrowed behind, with indistinct posterior angles ; its 
surface presents the usual dorsal groove, not reaching the base 
nor apex, some obsolete aciculate impressions, half-a-dozen 
punctures in the marginal channels with ferruginous hairs pro- 
ceeding from them ; an indistinct, curved, frontal impression 
most visible near the anterior angles, and the basal foveae repre- 
sented by mere punctiform depressions. Scntellnm smooth. 
Elytra oblong, slightly rounded, evidently and regularly 
punctate-striate, with the common smooth lateral space, inter- 
stices simple. Underside glossy black, with a puncture on each 
side of the middle of the second, third, and fourth abdominal 
segments. A rather broad, easily recognised species. 

Length, 8}i ; breadth, 2^ lines. 

I have only a single mutilated specimen, which was found 
on " The Brothers," Cook's Strait, by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager. 


1325. DicJirocJiile nitida,n. sp. — Sub-oblong, ratherbroad, some- 
what depressed ; shining black, legs pitchy-black, tips of palpi 
testaceous. Head of rather rounded outline, with prominent 
eyes, two inter-ocular punctures, and a deep frontal groove, and 
somewhat uneven near the sides: ProtJiorax transversal, sub- 


quadrate, base and apex not truncate, its sides moderately 
rounded and gradually narrowed posteriorly, hind angles obtuse, 
lateral rims a little reflexed ; the surface obsoletely striated 
across, the curved frontal impression scored with a number of 
short lines ; the basal foveae are large; the dorsal line tolerably 
well marked, but not reaching the apex ; two small foveae appear 
near the middle, and the base bears many short longitudinal 
grooves. Elytra oblong, broad, narrowed towards the shoulders, 
obliquely sinuated behind ; striate interstices nearly plane, the 
third bi-punctate. Legs normal. The elytra are unusually 
short and broad, their greatest width being in line with the 
posterior femora, and are but little narrowed apically ; the 
thorax is similar to that of No. 37 as regards shape, though 
rather shorter, and the eyes are quite as large and prominent as 
in that species, far more so than in No. 40. 

Length, 4^ ; breadth, ifo lines. 

I have lately received a specimen from Outram, where it had 
been found by Sydney W. Fulton, Esq. 

1326. Dichrochile cinctiger, n. sp. — Variegate, head, thoracic 
disc, andalarge space on the anterior half of the elytra dull brownish 
black ; the thorax narrowly, the elytra very broadly, margined 
with testaceous ; femora yellowish, tibiae somewhat rufescent. 
Head large, not narrowed behind, and, with the exception of two 
punctures near each eye, quite unimpressed ; eyes rather small, 
not prominent ; labrum deeply notched but abbreviated. Pro- 
thorax transversal, the apex widely, the base deeply incurved ; 
the sides finely marginated, rounded medially, obliquely narrowed 
posteriorly, hind angles blunt ; the parts near the hind-angles 
are broadly yet slightly depressed, and not at all foveate, the 
discoidal furrow is moderately distinct, and its whole surface 
rather flat, except just at the apex. Elytra a little convex, oval, 
scarcely sinuated apically, feebly striated, their interstices plane, 
the third with two small punctures. Underside brownish-black, 
the coxae, sides of the prosternum, and epipleurae testaceous, 
mentum and trophi infuscate ; abdomen a good deal contracted, 
so that the basal segment alone comes in contact with the sides 
of the elytra. A very peculiar form. The dark space on the 
wing-cases does not extend beyond the hind-thighs nor the fourth 
striae ; the median punctures are surrounded by testaceous spots, 
the other two are sub-apical, and there are two larger ones near 
the scutellum, but not outside the second striae; the broad lateral 
testaceous spaces are closely dotted with brown, thus giving them 
a punctate-striate appearance, but, in reality, the only large 
punctures, and these rather shallow, extend along the sides. 

Length, 3j{ ; breadth, i 1 /, lines. 

One example, minus antennae and most of the legs, was 
picked up dead by S. W. Fulton, Esq., of Outram, Otago. 


1 327. Anchomenus haastii, n.sp. — Sub-depressed, shining black, 
legs pitchy-red, trophi and antennae dark red, tarsi ferruginous. 


Head and mandibles elongate, nearly smooth, transversely de- 
pressed behind ; eyes large and prominent. Prothorax small, 
about as long as broad, widest at the middle, from that point 
narrowed yet scarcely rounded anteriorly, somewhat sinuously 
narrowed behind ; the middle of the base truncate, but oblique 
near each sub-acute angle, the latter, therefore, does not touch 
the shoulder ; the disc, owing to the deep and broad marginal 
channels, and fine slightly reflexed lateral rims, appears convex, 
the dorsal groove and transversal stride are finely impressed. 
Elytra large, oblong, only slightly rounded laterally, and but 
little sinuated apically ; each has a scutellar and seven seemingly 
impunctate striae, and a row of shallow punctiform impressions 
at each side ; interstices a little raised, the third bi-punctate ; 
the third, and fourth, and fifth, and sixth striae united before the 
apices. Underside pitchy-black, destitute of distinct sculpture. 
Legs moderately long, the four first joints of all the tarsi super- 
ficially grooved. The elytra are four times the length and twice 
the breadth of the thorax ; the posterior angles of the latter 
appear somewhat elevated and distant from the elytra. 

Length, 6 ; breadth, 2]/^ lines. 

I have seen one male and two females. One of the latter 
was sent by Professor Julius von Haast (whose name the species 
bears) some time ago ; the other two were found near Wellington 
by Mr P. Stewart-Sandager. 

46. AncJiomenus sandageri, n. sp. — Glossy, head and thorax 
black, elytra infuscate-black with paler margins, palpi, legs, and 
basal joint of antennae nearly fulvous, remaining joints of these 
latter as well as the tarsi some vhat rufescent ; underside brownish 
black, the four anterior coxae and posterior trochantes yellowish. 
Head oviform, nearly as wide as thorax, and, with the excep- 
tion of the usual frontal impressions and ocular punctures, quite 
smooth ; mandibles robust, rather short ; labrum emarginate, 
reddish. ProtJiorax about as long as broad, its sides medially 
rounded, but very much incurved behind the middle, so that the 
hind angles appear uncommonly large and prominent ; it is 
moderately convex, and, besides the marginal groove, each side 
has a broad curved impression extending from the basal fovea 
to the middle, the basal fossae appear angulated or curved, and 
extend inwardly almost to the dorsal furrow, and the disc 
exhibits a few faint transversal striolae. Elytra oval, a good 
deal narrowed towards the shoulders, sinuated apically ; striate, 
interstices nearly plane, the third tri-punctate. Legs moderate ; 
tarsi furrowed above. The posterior contraction, sub-acute and 
unusually conspicuous hind angles of the thorax, which, how- 
ever, do not project beyond the medial line, in conjunction with 
oval elytra, render the species distinct. Its nearest congener, so 
far as general contour is concerned, is, perhaps, A . parabilis. 

Length, 4.% ; breadth, 1 ^ lines. 

I have named this species after Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager, 
from whom I received it. 

A. mojitivagusy I think, will prove to be merely a varietal 


form of A. elevatus ; the former, bearing the number 46, is 
therefore replaced by this species. 

1328. Anchomenus helmsi, n. sp. (Sharp, " Ent. Mon.Mag.,"vol. 
XVIII., p. 47, July, 1 881). — Sat elongatus, parum nitidus, nigro- 
piceus, antennis, palpis pedibusque rufo-testaceis ; prothorace 
parvo, lateribus postice fortiter sinuatis, angulis posterioribus 
rectis, basi utrinque profunde impresso ; elytris sat convexis, 
lateribus valde curvatis, profunde striatis, prope apicem fortiter 

Long., 1 1 ; lat, 4 mm. 

Similar in appearance, and more particularly in colour, to 
A.otagoensis (Bates), but abundantly distinct, rather smaller, the 
upper surface less opaque and not so flat, the thorax shining, 
the elytra deeply striate. The thorax is much rounded at the 
sides, and much constricted behind, the posterior part is quite 
straight, and the hind angles are abruptly marked, and quite 
rectangular ; the surface is not flat, but is deeply impressed on 
each side at the base ; the mesial longitudinal channel is very 
distinct. Elytra rather short, the sides and shoulders much 
curved ; the striae deep, but not punctate ; the interstices are 
broad and but little convex, the three punctures on the third 
moderately distinct. There is but little difference between the 
male and female, even the front tarsi of the former being but 
little dilated. 

Greymouth, Helms. 

1329. Tropopterus marginalis, n. sp. — Shining, brownish-black, 
antennae, legs, trophi, and elytral margins rufescent. Head bi- 
sulcate at each side, the grooves not connected in front ; epistome 
with two punctures. Prothorax sub-quadrate, convex, rounded 
laterally, sinuously narrowed towards the acute, slightly pro- 
minent hind angles ; side margins somewhat flattened posteriorly ; 
basal foveas broad, rather shallow, and finely punctated ; its sur- 
face, save a few small basal punctures and dorsal striae, unim- 
pressed. Elytra convex, broadly oval, marginated, much broader 
than thorax, rather feebly punctate-striate, the four inner striae 
of each only distinct ; interstices plane, the seventh bordered by 
a sharp, curved carina extending from near the posterior femur 
to the apex, the sides bear a few punctiform impressions. The 
three basal joints of the antenna are nude. Extremely like an 
Ooptertts, but the sutural stria of the wing-case is not recurved at 
the apex. Allied to T. sulcicollis ; of a broad, moderately convex 
form, having the frontal foveas separated by a broad rather than 
carinated interval, and the thoracic foveas not all sulciform. The 
elytral sculpture of T. placens is decidedly coarser. 

Length, 2>% 5 breadth, iyi line. 

I have one (female) from Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager, Wellington. 


1 330. Trichostertmsputus, n. sp. — Colour black tinged with red and 
green, legs pitchy-black, tibiae occasionally red, tarsi and antennas 
piceo-rufous ; oblong, moderately convex. Head moderate, 


smooth ocular orbits large and gradually narrowed behind. 
Prothovax sub-quadrate, widely incurved apically, base emarginate; 
sides rounded and sinuously narrowed towards the rectangular 
posterior angles ; the dorsal groove extends from the base and 
terminates in the frontal impression ; the basal fovene are deep, 
almost sulciform, but extend outwardly close to the base so as 
to form a transversal depression near each angle. Elytra oblong, 
punctulate-striate, interstices somewhat convex ; shoulders den- 
tate. This species is abundantly distinct. On examination it 
will be observed that the basal joint of the antennae is depressed 
or broadly grooved above ; that the posterior tibiae terminate 
inwardly in a robust calcar-like process, and that the basal arti- 
culation of the tarsi (hind) is very mnch compressed laterally, 
and widely furrowed underneath. 

Male ; length, 1 1 lines ; breath, 4. 

The discovery of this species at Mount Arthur is due to 
Messrs. T. F. Cheeseman and Fred. Combes, of Auckland. No 
females were obtained. 

l^Y.Tvichostevnus combesi,n.sp. — Oblong, sub-depressed ; shining 
black with green and red metallic reflections, the latter hue pre- 
dominating, antennae and trophi dark red, femora blackish, tibiae 
and tarsi rather clear bright red. Head rather broad, somewhat 
uneven, epistome and vertex bi-punctate ; eyes prominent. 
Prothovax sub-quadrate, transversal, rounded laterally and sinu- 
ously narrowed towards the posterior angles ; the basal foveas 
are deep and rather narrow, and in addition a smaller depression 
occurs near each angle. Elytra oblong, their humeral angles dis- 
tinct, punctulate striate, interstices plane. 

The following are distinguishing characteristics. The first 
antennal joint is broadly sulcate above, and several of those 
which follow are peculiarly compressed at the sides ; the basal 
joint of the posterior tarsus is long and narrow ; and the elytral 
interstices, second, fourth, and sixth, are more or less reduced in 
width, particularly in the vicinity of the base. 

Female ; length, 1 1 ; breadth, 4 lines. 

I have named this fine insect in honour of Mr. Fred. H. 
Combes, of Auckland. It was found by him on Mount Arthur; 
but unfortunately no examples of the male were procured. 

1332. Trichosternus humevalis } n.sp. — Oblong, moderately convex, 
brilliant greenish black, legs and antennae rufo-piceus, tarsi red. 
Head not much narrower than thorax, smooth and somewhat 
contracted behind, forehead with the common impressions ; eyes 
prominent. Prothovax transversal, slightly but widely incurved in 
front, base obsoletely sinuated, sides distinctly marginated and 
obtusely rounded, moderately narrowed behind, posterior angles 
rectangular, not protuberant ; basal foveas large and deep, 
united by an impression extending from side to side, the dorsal 
groove attains the base and apex, the curved frontal impression 
is well marked ; its whole surface is evidently striated across, 
has two rounded impressions near the middle, and many 
abbreviated aciculate marks 'at the base and apex. Scutellum 


depressed, wholly striate. Elytra oblong-oval, a little wider than 
thorax at the middle, moderately sinuated apically ; punctate- 
striate, the punctures minute, interstices slightly elevated, the 
third with four, the seventh with six setiferous punctures, 
eighth smooth, the lateral sculpture irregular. Underside glossy, 
pitch black, and impunctate. Antenna broken, three basal articu- 
lations nude. Legs stout, tibial spurs rather short. When 
examined with the unaided eye, the transverse striolse on the 
thorax are quite visible, whereas the thorax of each of the 
previously published species would exhibit an almost smooth 
surface ; the elytral rim forms an uninterrupted curve from the 
posterior sinuation to the base, but all the other species have 
more or less prominent (dentate) humeral angles ; this latter 
character is therefore distinctive. 

Male ; length, 10 ; breadth, 3^ lines. 

My specimen was found at Hick's Bay, East Coast, by Mr. 
P. Stewart-Sandager. 

1333. Trichostemus fultoni, n.sp. — Oblong, slightly convex, shining, 
black, all the elytra and the sides and base of the thorax tinged 
with green, legs and antennas piceous, tarsi pitchy-red. Head 
moderately broad, a little inflated behind the prominent eyes, 
with the usual frontal impressions. Pvothorax moderately trans- 
versal, broadest just before the middle, rounded laterally, nar- 
rowed and slightly sinuated towards the base, posterior angles 
rectangular but little prominent ; apex slightly but widely in- 
curved, the base emarginated medially ; disc slightly convex, 
feebly lineated across, dorsal groove well marked and not abbre- 
viated, basal fossae deep, united by a curved impression, mar- 
ginal channels impunctate, a distinct puncture near each hind 
angle, some faint longitudinal lines in front and behind. Scutellum 
broadly striated at base. Elytra oblong-oval, humeral angles 
prominent, sides but little rounded, strongly sinuated apically ; 
a little convex, punctate-striate, the punctures small and not 
approximated, interstices slightly elevated, just perceptibly im- 
pressed with short transverse lines, the third with three, the 
seventh with five or six large punctures. Legs robust, femora 
clavate but not dentate. Underside glossy black, impunctate. 

Distinguished from No. 72 and its immediate allies in being 
larger, flatter, broader, and less narrowed medially and posteriorly; 
the head larger, thorax much less incurved apically, not ciliated 
at the base, a character which obtains in Nos. 65, 68, 71, 73, and 
T, humemlis ; the elytra much less oviform, more strongly and 
abruptly sinuated apically, and with flatter intervals between the 

Male ; length 9 ; breadth 3^ lines. 

Named in honour of its discoverer, S. W. Fulton, Esq., 
Outram, Otago. 

1334. Trichostemus £»j«,n.sp. — Black, nowhere aeneous, shining, 
legs and antennae piceous. Head large, smooth, its frontal impres- 
sions rather shallow, a little dilated round the eyes, these latter 
prominent. Prothorax sub-quadrate, rather deeply incurved in 


front, less so behind, sides rounded, sinuously narrowed posteriorly, 
hind angles almost rectangular ; disc almost smooth, dorsal line 
abbreviated, basal foveae deep, not perceptibly united, there being 
only a slight impression between them, curvedly impressed in 
front. Scutellum striate at base. Elytra oblong, shoulders 
moderately dentate, sides very slightly curved, apical sinuations 
moderate ; slightly convex, finely punctate-striate, interstices 
nearly plane, the third with three, the seventh with several large 
punctures. Legs robust ; thighs strongly inflated, the intermediate 
abruptly notched and grooved near the extremity, but without 
forming a distinct tooth below. 

The structure of the middle femora allies this -species to 
T. difformipes, but the tibiae, though stout, are simple. 

Male ; length, 9 ; breadth, 3^ lines. 

J. D. Enys, Esq., F.G.S., transmitted a mutilated specimen 
from Canterbury. 

1335. Holcaspis cribrale ) n.sp. — Elongate, slightly convex, glossy 
black, palpi, an tennae, and legs piceo-rufous. Head of moderate size, 
more or less finely rugulose. Prothorax quadrate, very little 
curved laterally, and but little contracted behind, posterior 
angles not prominent ; basal foveae deep, well-limited, and 
rather narrow ; the dorsal furrow terminates before attaining the 
base or apex, the angulated frontal impression ends near each 
anterior angle in a fovea-like expansion, and the surface presents 
numerous transversal aciculate marks. Scutellum striate. Elytra 
oblong, sub-parallel, shoulders tubercular ; in addition to the 
marginal sculpture, each elytron bears seven very irregularly 
defined, interrupted striae, consisting sometimes of large oblong 
depressions united by means of very fine linear impressions, at 
other parts these latter are obliterated, and the cavities assume 
the form of punctures, the interstices also are irregular, so that 
the sculpture somewhat resembles basket-work ; the sinuations 
before the apices are rather deep and abrupt, and just at that 
point the sculpture ends in a broad groove. Male legs robust ; 
posterior femora expanded, deeply excised for the reception of 
the trochanters, and then angulated, so that the space between 
that angle and the extremity forms a nearly straight line ; 
intermediate tibia considerably dilated. Female legs more slender. 

Length, 9 ; breadth, 3 lines. 

Some specimens of this species, both sexes, were found 
under logs on Mount Arthur, by Messrs. Cheeseman and Combes. 

1336. Holcaspis catenulata, n. sp. — Narrow, elongate, sub-parallel, 
slightly convex, glossy black, palpi and antennae blackish. 
Head moderate, uneven above, with prominent eyes, mandibles 
wrinkled. Prothorax but little broader than long, base incurved, 
slightly wider before the middle than elsewhere, regularly but 
not strongly rounded laterally, and gradually narrowed towards 
the blunt posterior angles ; a little uneven, distinctly wrinkled 
transversely on the disc but longitudinally in front, the basal 
fovea) deep and sulciform ; dorsal line distinct, with a curved 
impression extending from one anterior angle to the other. 


Scutellum striate. Elytra elongate-oblong, their sides but little 
curved, humeral angles scarcely protuberant, sinuated behind ; 
striate, having small punctures in the grooves ; the sutural, 
third, fifth, seventh, and eighth interstices simple to beyond the 
middle, from thence irregular, the others more or less contracted 
and interrupted at uncertain intervals, all finely lineated across ; 
the seventh striae bear some punctiform impressions, and the 
margins several larger ones. Legs moderate, femora robust but 
not dentate. Underside pitchy-black, flanks of the sternum more 
or less rugae and punctate. 

Allied to Nos. 74 and 83, as well as to H. cribrale ; yet readily 
enough identified by the obtuse hind angles of the thorax and 
the chain-like sculpture of the alternate interstices of the elytra. 

Length, 8 ; breadth, 2^ lines. 

Described from a male found by S. W. Fulton, Esq., of 
Outram, Otago. 

1337. Cerabilia punctigera, n. sp. — Body elongate-oblong, sub-de- 
pressed, moderately shining, pitchy black, trophi and antennae infus- 
cate,legs rufo-piceous, tarsi rufescent. Head short and broad, bi-sul- 
cate ; labrum transverse, widely, but not at all deeply hollowed; 
eyes convex, prominent. Prothorax a little longer than broad, 
apex nearly truncate, base considerably emarginated, sides 
obtusely rounded, gradually incurved posteriorly, hind angles 
nearly rectangular but not protruding, lateral margins entire ; 
disc almost plane, with a distinct median groove, and two elon- 
gate, sulciform, basal foveae situated midway between the middle 
and sides. Scutellum triangular, smooth. Elytra elongate-oblong, 
slightly rounded laterally, feebly sinuated apically ; striate, inter- 
stices flat, third tri-punctate ; the striae are obsoletely punctured, 
and the intermediate pairs unite near the apices. Antennae longer 
than head and thorax conjointly, their three basal articulations 
destitute of pubescence. Underside black, sparingly punctured. 
The mentum, as described by Count de Castelnau, is toothless ; 
the mandibles are short and robust, but greatly curved and acute 
at the extremity ; the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi is 
rather longer than the penultimate and slightly obtuse at the 
apex ; the front tarsi have three dilated joints, triangular, but 
emarginate at the apex, and spongy underneath as well as hispid. 

Male ; length, $% \ breadth, 2 lines. 

I have seen one only, much mutilated, labelled by Professor 
Hutton, " Invercargill." 

1 3 3 8. C. vuftcome, n. sp. — Oblong, somewhat convex, glossy, pitchy- 
black, antennae, palpi, and legs infuscate-red ; head rather short and 
broad ; frontal depressions broad, shallow, and finely lineated ; la- 
brum much reduced, widely incurved ; mandibles long and stout, 
arcuated apically ; eyes moderate, not very prominent. Prothorax 
sub-quadrate, base and apex nearly entire; sides verylittle rounded, 
gradually narrowed till near the posterior angles, where they are 
straight, or nearly so, the angles rectangular but not projecting ; 
disc nearly plane, its dorsal groove extending from the hind 
margin to near the apex, basal foveas elongate, quite sulciform. 


Elytra oblong-oval, scarcely sinuatedapically ; moderately striated, 
the striae more or less confluent posteriorly, the four sutural only 
distinctly, yet rather finely punctured, interstices simple. Antenna 
short and stout, their three basal joints glabrous. Palpi robust, 
terminal articulations of all quite oval and acuminate. Legs 
stout ; anterior tibiae somewhat dilated, intermediate externally 
and inwardly spinose, the posterior inwardly, and arcuated. The 
stout palpi (maxillary and labial), with their perfectly oval termi- 
nal joints pointed at the extremity, distinguish the insect. The 
mentum is concave but not apparently dentate. The characters 
do not correspond with those assigned to the genus by Castelnau, 
nevertheless, I must refer it to Cerabilia until the difficulties con- 
nected with the paucity of entomological literature and collections 
can be surmounted. 

Length, 2 Y / 2 ; breath, nearly I line. 

Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager recently sent me two examples, 
both females, from Wellington. 


1339. Oopterus carinatus, n.sp. — Convex, oblong-oval ; moderately 
glossy, dark castaneous, the suture and margins of the elytra 
rufescent; legs fulvous; labrum, palpi, and antennae ferruginous. 
Head sub-trigonal, with a groove close to each eye, and a broad 
irregularly formed one nearer the middle united to its fellow by 
means of a curved impression proceeding from the base of each 
mandible ; epistome bi-punctate ; labrum truncate. Prothorax 
longer than broad, sub-oblong, finely marginated, a little 
narrowed anteriorly, behind nearly straight, yet just visibly 
sinuated before the rectangular, but not at all projecting hind 
angles ; the median groove is feebly impressed, the basal foveae 
are large and distant from the sides, and the interval is punctate ; 
the narrow marginal channel is separated from the basal fovea 
by a very evident carina extending forwards from the hind edge. 
Elytra broad, oviform, moderately convex, finely striate ; inter- 
stices nearly plane, the third quadri-punctate, the sixth termi- 
nating in a sharp curved carina ; a few distant punctiform 
impressions appear along the sides. The antennae, reach back- 
wards almost to the intermediate femora, their second joint is 
more slender but nearly as long as the first, these two articula- 
tions are nude, the others pubescent. In the male the two basal 
joints of the anterior tarsi are strongly produced inwardly at 
the extremity ; the elytral striae are just perceptibly punctu- 
lated, the thorax rather shorter, and the whole insect darker in 
colour than in the other sex ; but, notwithstanding these dis- 
crepancies, I consider my two specimens to be the sexes of one 
species only. 

Length, 3^ ; breadth, \y 2 lines. 

Collected by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager, near Wellington. 

The insect No. 1 145 (" Manual of the New Zealand Coleop- 
tera," part II., p. 655) is a female, and must be removed from 
Tropopterus so as to become known as Oopterus patulus. 

new zealand carabid^e. 225 


1340. Bembidium musce, n.sp. — Convex, robust; head and thorax 
glossy aeneous ; elytra testaceous, their surface with three large 
irregularly formed fusco-seneous spaces, striae aeneous ; palpi, 
legs, and three basal articulations of the antennae testaceous 
yellow. Head broad, much narrowed anteriorly, foveae large, 
broad, and shallow ; eyes convex, very prominent. Prothorax 
obtusely rounded towards the front, gradually narrowed till 
within a short distance of the base, where it is considerably 
contracted, but straight, so that the posterior angles do not 
project ; there are a few linear impressions behind the disc, an 
obvious transversal depression in line with the foveae, these latter 
being very small and narrow, and situated close to the angles, 
its front exhibits an evident curved impression extending from 
one anterior angle to the other, and a shorter one behind it ; the 
lateral margins, distinct enough near the middle, become obso- 
lete in front. Elytra broadly oval, gradually narrowed pos- 
teriorly, punctate-striate ; interstices broad and plane, third 
bi-punctate ; the scutellar and three inner striae only attain the 
base, where the first and second become confluent, and the 
punctation of all is more or less obliterated beyond the hind 
thighs. Legs long and stout ; the basal joint of the front tarsi 
strongly developed, oblong, and, like the following transversal 
one, considerably produced inwardly and hispid. Palpi robust, 

Male ; length, 3 ; breadth, 1% lines. 

A single individual, allied to B. anchonoderum, was obtained by 
Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., on Mount Arthur. 

1 341. B. latmsculum,n. sp. — Sub-depressed, rather broad ; shining, 
bluish-black, occasionally somewhat bronzed, legs palpi and 
antennae dark piceous, tarsi pitchy-red. Head with rather deep, 
broad, and slightly rugulose foveae, and a distinct punctiform 
impression near each eye. Prothorax slightly convex, a good 
deal narrowed behind, its posterior angles nearly straight and 
not projecting ; the abbreviated dorsal groove is neither broad 
nor deep, the basal impressions are narrow and placed close to 
the angles, and the disc is finely wrinkled transversely. Elytra 
broad, but little curved laterally, nearly plane above ; punctate- 
striate ; the sutural stria only reaches the apex, where it is 
recurved towards the second, the sixth and seventh become 
indistinct, the latter before, the former behind the posterior 
femur, the two inner converge toward the base, which is other- 
wise almost smooth ; interstices almost flat, the third with four, 
the fifth with two setigerous punctures ; the oblique apical 
groove and scutellar stria are well-marked. 

Allied to B. charile, but with a broader thorax and the elytra 
not attenuated apically ; the presence of four sutural punctures 
on each elytron, and the abbreviation of the external striae dis- 
tinguish it from B. maorinum. The grey hairs on the penultimate 
joint of the maxillary palpi, though sufficiently conspicuous, do 


not appear unusually long. The basal articulation of the 
anterior tarsi of the male is oblong, the second prolonged 

Length, 3 ; breadth, 1 J^ lines. 

Discovered by T. F. Cheeseman, Esq., F.L.S., on Mount 


1342. Scopodes venustus, n. sp. — Body almost convex, glossy, head 
and thorax cupreous (id. est. reddish), elytra silky bronzed-black , 
antennae and tarsi black, legs more or less aeneous. Head finely 
striate, irregularly in front, longitudinally behind. Prothorax 
about as long as broad, cordate, the lateral margins slightly 
angulated near the middle, from thence narrowed till near the 
base, where, instead of forming the posterior angles, they bend 
inwardly until quite obsolete ; its surface is impressed with a 
distinct median groove and fine transversal striae. Elytra oblong, 
obliquely sinuated apically, bearing shallow striae, and on each 
elytron three large but not deep foveas. 

The coppery head and thorax, the latter without trace of 
posterior angles, will render its identification easy. 

Length 2^; breadth 1 line. 

One example of this charming beetle was found by T. F. 
Cheeseman, Esq., F.L.S., on Mount Arthur. 

1343. Scopodes planus, n. sp. — Black tinged with green; slightly 
convex. Head rugulose in front, longitudinally striate elsewhere. 
Prothorax cordiform, rather narrow, irregularly striated trans- 
versely, without posterior angles. Elytra oblong, obliquely sinu- 
ated apically, feebly striated, the four hind foveas obsolete, the 
basal represented by evident punctures. In form like S. venustus, 
the thorax narrower but with precisely similar margins ; the 
intermediate tibiae are very perceptibly flexuose ; the metallic 
green tinges are inconstant, one tibia being green whilst the 
others are black. 

Length 2^ ; breadth 1 line. 

Mr. Cheeseman obtained one specimen on Mount Arthur. 

1344. Scopodes tardus, n.sp. — ^Eneous, thorax reddish, elytra infus- 
cate,legs and antennae blackish. Head unevenly and finely strigose, 
behind longitudinally. Prothorax rather narrow, cordate, the 
sides acutely angulated near the middle, from thence incurved, 
and again dentate before attaining the true base ; the median 
furrow is well defined, and the whole disc striated across. Elytra 
oblong, incurved before the middle, obliquely sinuated pos- 
teriorly ; each elytron bears three distinct punctiform foveas of a 
bluish colour, and several indistinct interrupted striae. Quite 
distinct from S. fossulatus. The posterior projections of the 
thorax (they can hardly be termed true hind angles) are less 
conspicuous than in S. multipunctatus, probably its nearest ally ; 
the apices of the elytra are more decidedly oblique, and their 
strias are indicated by the difference in coloration rather than 


actual impressions when viewed from behind, but can be dis- 
cerned when examined sideways. 

Length, 2^ ; breadth, 1 line. 

Another of Mr. Cheeseman's captures on Mount Arthur. 
I have seen one mutilated specimen only. 

1345. Scopodes p iistulai -us, n.sp. — Sub-depressed, shining, head cu- 
preous reddish-black, elytra silky black slightly tinged with red, 
legs and antennas blackish. Head finely sculptured behind length- 
ways. Prothorax moderately broad, laterally angulated near the 
middle, from that point curvedly narrowed, the margins incurved 
at the base without forming posterior angles ; surface finely and 
irregularly strigose, and with an obvious dorsal groove. Elytra 
broadly oblong, obliquely truncated behind, bearing shallow 
striae, and on each three large deep foveas. 

On comparing this species with S. Edwardsi, it will be noticed 
that the thorax is much broader and more sinuously contracted 
behind ; the elytra also are broader and their extremities more 
truncate, and on their sides, in line with the middle and hind 
thighs, are large, velvety-black, blister-like spots, most easily 
seen when looked at from behind. 

Length 2]/^ by nearly 1 line. 

The only individual I have seen was sent to me from Wel- 
lington by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager. 



8th July, 1882. — W. T. L. Travers, Esq., president, in the 

New members — Messrs. A. S. Atkinson, J. W. Byrne, J. L. 
D'Arcy Irvine, C.E., and T. B. Kirk, B.A. 

Papers — (1) " On the Manufacture of Granolithic Cement," 
by J. C. Crawford, Esq. The material for this manufacture was 
stated by the author to be abundant in New Zealand. 

Dr. Hector considered this a question of great importance, 
and the information was most valuable. We had ample material 
in accessible positions, and he had no doubt that in time we could 
ourselves manufacture all the cement and concrete we required in 
the colony, and of the very best kind. He instanced the blocks 
now largely used here, and known as O'Neill's patent flagging, as 
showing the excellent quality of this production, which was so 
highly thought of at the Sydney and Melbourne Exhibitions. 

The President endorsed these views, and remarked that he 
hoped in time also to see the splendid granites we had, largely 
used in constructive works. 

Dr. Newman mentioned the newly-erected cement works in 
Nelson, which would prove of great importance, and entirely 
supersede the imported article. 

(2) " Hedge-plants for New Zealand.' 


(3) "On Harvesting Crops, independent of weather, and on 
Entillage,"' both by the same gentleman. 

Archdeacon Stock submitted to the Society a circular sent to 
him by Mr. Tebbutt, of Windsor Observatory, New South Wales, 
inviting assistance from New Zealand observers in systematic 
11 comet seeking." 

Dr. Hector explained that Mr. Tebbutt was a most zealous 
worker in this branch of astronomy, and had been foremost in 
discovering the Southern comets. He had been requested by the 
Astronomical Society at Boston, who had established a corps of 
comet seekers, to endeavour to get information from the Southern 
latitudes, and hence this appeal to New Zealand. He knew that 
there were many amateur observers in possession of good instru- 
ments, who might do valuable service in this direction. It was a 
pity that we had not in New Zealand a properly-equipped astro- 
nomical observatory placed in a suitable position, and he believed 
if the societies combined in an appeal to Government something 
might be done in this matter. He would suggest that a copy of 
this circular be sent to the other societies inviting co-operation in 
this special matter of comet-seeking, and in an endeavour to 
bring about the establishment of a permanent observatory. 

The President concurred, and said he thought such an appeal 
wou]d be successful. 

The meeting then discussed the subject of a paper by Dr. 
Meldrum, on u W r eather, Health, and Forests in Mauritius," and 
the President pointed out that this bore immediately on the 
question of forest conservation in New Zealand. He gave a short 
description of the damage done by the destruction of our forests, 
which brought about floods of a most disastrous kind. In 
confirmation of this, Dr. Hutchinson, who has recently arrived 
from the Sandwich Islands, stated that there, in consequence of 
this wholesale destruction of the forests, floods had occurred 
doing great injury. The water rushed down the bare hills and 
through the valleys, and then followed a long drought, and the 
ground became baked, as there was no vegetation left to hold 
the moisture of the previous rain. He was glad to say that the 
settlers had at last seen the necessity of forest conservation, and 
great improvement was taking place. 

Mr. Chapman described a brilliant triple meteor seen by him 
on Wednesday last. It was travelling from the south. 

5th August, 1882. — W. T. L. Travers, Esq., president, in the chair. 

New members — Drs. Hutchison and Keyworth. 

Papers — (1). On the " Thames Goldfield, and the Laws which 
govern the distribution of the Gold," by Mr. S. H. Cox, F.G.S. 

The author alluded briefly to the geological structure of the 
Cape Colville peninsula, stating that the slates formed the base- 
ment rock oi the district, and had proved to be auriferous at one 
or two localities. Above this the auriferous series, consisting of 
submarine fragmental volcanic rocks, occurs, and overlying this 
again comes a series of miocene volcanic rocks, with which are 
interstratified thin seams of coal. With regard to the auriferous 
scries he pointed out that the rocks were striking N.N.W., and 
dipping W.N.W., at an angle of one in two, and alluded to the 
difficulty which was experienced in determining this. He also 


showed that the hard dioritic bands which had been generally con- 
sidered as dykes, were really interstratined beds. Alluding to this 
stratification, he illustrated by means of a section the different 
belts of country in which the various mines occur, the Queen of 
Beauty belt being the lowest, and a sequence of auriferous belts 
occurring above this including the Waiotaohi, Caledonian, and 
Moanatairai belts, a thickness ot 4000 feet of strata being thus 
shown to be auriferous. He showed how auriferous leads were 
frequently cut off by the dioritic belts, and alluded to the action 
of the slides in also cutting off and heaving the gold. He stated 
that the strike of the auriferous reefs varied from N. iodeg. E. to 
N. 8odeg. E., but that the greater number approached a N.E. 
strike, and showed that the average strike oi the reefs had no 
influence on the quantity of gold, but that the successive strikes 
in a reef which followed a sinuous course were of the greatest im- 
portance, and where this strike most nearly approached N.E. the 
reef was the richest. The mean dip of the reels, again, was of no 
use in determining the value of a reef, as they ranged from vertical 
to nearly horizontal, but that in each reef the successive inclina- 
tions had to be studied, as the steeper parts were generally the 
richest. In conclusion he expressed the opinion that the Thames 
was by no means worked out, as some had asserted, but that he 
fully expected to hear of as rich deposits being found in the future 
at deep levels as have yet been got near the surface, and stated 
that the diamond drill would afford valuable assistance in pros- 
pecting. The paper was listened to with great interest, and the 
President pointed out the importance of having accurate scientific 
information bearing on our gold-mines recorded. It assisted in the 
search for gold, and saved unnecessary expense in prospecting. 
Our alluvial diggings were being worked out, but reel-mining 
would become a great and highly remunerative industry. 

Mr. J. W. A. Marchant then gave the following account (illus- 
trated by drawings) of the waterspout which occurred in the 
neighbourhood of Cook Straits on the 15th instant : — The water- 
spout was first seen from LyellBay about 1.30 p.m., and continued 
in sight about quarter of an hour. A squall, accompanied by 
heavy rain, was passing from the westward through Cook Straits 
towards Cape Palliser. It was whilst engaged watching the pro- 
gress of the storm from the western shore of the bay that I observed 
the waterspout clear of the south head, bearing about S.E., and 
distant, perhaps, two miles on the northern verge of the storm 
area. It presented the appearance of a cylinder of blue-grey 
colour, several hundred feet in height, and of uniform diameter. 
It conveyed the impression that it was suspended from a mass of 
lowering clouds, the extremity near the sea being distinctly pointed 
like a crayon, resting upon a zone of elevated water in an intense 
state oi agitation, but the gyratory motion was not perceptible in 
the upper part. The column was slightly curved, being bent over 
towards the west, and it travelled in the opposite direction 
towards Fitzroy Bay, and as the movement was quickest at the 
base, the inclination from the perpendicular increased ; the clouds 
seemed to descend and assume the form usual in such cases, that 
of an inverted cone, whilst the vapours over the sea were drawn 
upward, when the waterspout appeared to fade away, the last 
ppearance of the column being that of a light-grey streak, con- 


trasting remarkably with the gloomy background. No unusual 
sound accompanied the phenomenon ; there were indications that 
it was not the only one formed, but the mist was too dense to 
enable them to he clearly discerned. The storm did not break 
over Lyell Bay till 3 o'clock, when there was a great downpour of 
hail and rain, accompanied by lightning and thunder. The 
points which impressed me most were the immense height, the 
symmetry, and the distinctness of the column, and the absence of 
agitation and convolution in the first stage, save at the surface of 
the sea. 

In conclusion, Mr. Marchant read an account written by the 
late Captain Igglesden, of waterspouts seen in the northern part 
of the Indian Ocean in 1836, the peculiarity of which was that 
they were unaccompanied by an increase of wind. The cause of 
such phenomena might, thereiore, be due either to high upper 
winds, contrary winds, or electrical action. 

[From a different source, we learn that the waterspout was 
seen by another observer about ten minutes after Mr. Marchant 
saw it. It was then distant about 30 miles (measured on the 
map), and was travelling up Palliser Bay on a N.E. course. The 
height of the column was estimated at 1200 feet, and its diameter 
about 30 feet. The observer obtained these estimates by com- 
parison with a range of hills of known height, behind which the 
lower part of the waterspout was seen to pass, and on the top of 
which large trees stood out clearly against the sky. — Ed.] 


June 26, 1882. — E. A. Mackechnie, Esq., president, in the chair. 

New members elected : — C. Cooper, A. Grey, T. Melville. 

Papers — (1) " New Species of Pselaphidae," by Capt. T. Broun, 
M.E.S. The following new forms were fully described : — Startes 
sculpturata, Bvyaxis nemoralis, B. difformipes, B. calcarata, and Sagola 
tervicola. All of these had been collected by the author on the 
Waitakerei Ranges, near Auckland, with the exception of the 
last mentioned, which was obtained at Tuakau, in the Lower 

(2) " Protective Resemblances among New Zealand Spiders," 
by A. T. Urquhart. The author commenced his paper by stating 
that although spiders were more or less conspicuous when resting 
on their webs, yet when they occurred on foliage, amongst twigs, 
or on rocks or loose earth, there was always a general similarity 
of coloration between them and their surroundings. He then pro- 
ceeded to point out special instances of protective coloration. For 
instance, all the spiders found by him on the charred branches of 
burnt manuka (Leptospermum) were of an ashy grey colour, streaked 
and spotted with black, and often so closely resembled the 
blackened branches in colour as only to be distinguished by close 
observation. On the other hand the spiders collected on the 
living manuka were of various shades of green, brownish-green, 
brown or grey colours all to be found in the leaves, twigs, and 
bark of the tree. Similarly, spiders found on the common furze, 
the cabbage-tree (Covdyline), the kangaroo acacia, and on pines 
and eucalypti, always possessed colours harmonising with the 
different tints of the vegetation. Passing to species found chiefly 


on the ground or on rocks, the same rule was found to apply, and 
several special cases were briefly described, the most interesting 
being where the spiders not only resembled in colour the rocks on 
which they were found, but also mimicked the colour of the lichens 
growing on the rocks. 

(3) " Notes on the Origin of Language," by H. G. Seth Smith. In 
this paper the theories of Max. Miiller and Proi. Sayce were 
criticised at considerable length, and the speculations that had been 
thrown out by thinking men of all views were briefly considered. 

(4). Mr. H. G. Seth Smith exhibited a harmonograph for pro- 
ducing harmonic curves. The construction of the instrument is 
such that a finely-pointed glass pen, placed at the junction of two 
cranks proceeding from the top of two pendulums vibrating at 
right angles to one another, traces curves on a sheet of paper. 
Attention was drawn to the endless variety of curves produced by 
varying the length of one of the pendulums ; and it was pointed 
out that the curves were then only symmetrical when the ratio of 
the times of vibration corresponded to a definite interval in music, 
as a third, fifth, octave, &c. In other cases asymmetrical figures 
were produced. 

July 31st, 1882. — E. A. Mackechnie, Esq., president, in the 

New members — F. Lawry, J. Street. 

Papers — (1.) " New Genera and Species of Heteromera," by 
Captain T. Broun. In this paper Captain Broun fully describes 
twelve new species of beetles belonging to the family of Hetero- 
mera. Four of these were considered sufficiently distinct from 
other forms to constitute new genera. As to their localities, three 
had been brought from Nelson by Mr. Cheeseman, two had been 
collected in Otago by Mr. Fulton, one on the Patetere plateau by 
Mr. W. D. Campbell, and tht remainder by the author in the 
Auckland district. Brief remarks were made on the affinities of 
the species, and several structural points of interest were fully 

(2.) Description of a new species of Cardamine, by T, F. Cheese- 
man (C. late-siliqiia, n. sp.) Allied to C. fastigiata, Hk. f., but dif- 
fering in the more pubescent leaves, larger flowers, and in the pods, 
which are nearly three times as broad as those of C. fastigiata. 
Habitat — Nelson Province, abundant on Mount Arthur and Mount 
Owen, alt. 3,500 to 5,000 feet. 

(3.) " Futher Experiments with Sorghum," by Mr. Justice 
Gillies. The author gave a full account of some experiments made 
during the past season in the cultivation of Sorghum, and also of 
his attempts to produce sugar from the syrup. Samples of the 
sugar and treacle were exhibited. 

(4.) " On the Effect of School-life on the Sight," by B. Schwarz- 
bach, M.D. The changes in the functions of the visual organs, 
which were more immediately developed under the influence of 
school life were : — (1) Decrease of the range of vision ; (2) decrease 
of the acuteness of vision ; (3) decrease of the endurance of vision. 
As a rule, short-sightedness was only feebly developed in children, 
and with proper attention could be stayed, and often removed. 
The most dangerous time for such eyes was between the ages of 
eight and fifteen. The visual organ was then in a state of change 


and growth, and very susceptible to outer influences, the effects 
of which easily became settled and permanent. When children 
looked persistently at near and small objects, an undue pressure 
on the eye was produced by the accommodation muscle, as well 
as by the accumulation of blood caused by the stooping position so 
often assumed by children. The result of this was that the young 
scholar not only remained short-sighted, but the defects increased 
in proportion to the continuance of injurious influences. Short- 
sighted eyes should not only be guarded against overstraining, 
especially against evening work, but proper counter-influences 
against the prime causes should be instituted — such as practising 
the sight upon distant objects, by much out-door exercise, by 
school gymnastics, and by carefully guarding against that which 
is obnoxious to a normal development of the organ. In order to 
stem the tide of short-sightedness, Professor Cohn made the fol- 
lowing demands to the schools throughout the world — demands to 
which he (Dr. Schwarzbach) fully assented. For the protection 
of the eyes and sight of school children, it was necessary — (i) To 
have a pause of fifteen minutes after every lesson of three-quarters 
of an hour; (2) to pause half an hour at 11 o'clock if the morning 
instructions are carried on during five hours ; (3) to shorten the 
lessons and the tasks at home ; (4) to have a reading board for 
testing the sight fixed in the room (if certain letters could not be 
distinguished at a certain distance, the pupil must rest the organ) ; 
(5) to introduce lessons on hygiene in all schools, colleges, and 
universities ; (6) every council of education should have a medical 
man as a member ; (7) to close by law all school-rooms which are 
badly lighted and insufficiently ventilated. It was true that short- 
sightedness was often hereditary, but this must not be thought to 
mean that the children of short-sighted parents were born short- 
sighted ; they had only the predisposition to become so. Dr. 
Schwarzbach condemned the use of small print in school books, 
and the existing internal arrangements in schools, which, he said, 
were too often made without sufficient regard to the proper supply 
of light. 


Christchurch, 6th July, 1882.— Prof. F. W. Hutton, vice- 
president, in the chair. 

Papers — (1) " On some points of difference between the 
English Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis) and a New Zealand one 
(Paranephrops setosus), by Charles Chilton, M.A. 

In this paper the structure of Pavancphrops setosus was described 
and compared with that of Astacus fluviatilis as described by Pro- 
fessor Huxley in " The Crayfish." The specimens used for 
dissection were obtained from the Rfver Avon, Christchurch. 
The various appendages were all fully described and figured, as 
well as the rostrum and the tetson. The respiratory organs are 
very different from those of Astacus, but nearly like those of Asta- 
copsis and Palinuvus. The circulatory and alimentary systems 
closely resemble those of Astacus ; but the Gastroliths or " Crab's 
Eyes " of Paranephrops do not appear to develop in the same way 
as those of Astacus. The nervous system is also much like that of 
Astacus, except that each joint of the exopodite of the antennule 


bears only one tuit of olfactory setae, instead of two tufts as in 
Astacus. The reproductive organs differ considerably from those 
of Astacus, but closely resemble those of Palinurus ; and this, taken 
with other points, shows that Paranephrops is more nearly allied to 
Palinurus than to Astacus, though much more like^the latter in general 
appearance — thus justifying Professor Huxley's classification, in 
which he placed the Palinuridm and the Pavasticidw together under 
thename^5^; while the Potamobiidce, Homaridce, &c, together 
formed the Stylophova. The paper was illustrated by three plates, 
giving figures of the appendages and various internal organs. 

3rd August, 1882. — R. W. Fereday, Esq., vice-president, in 
the chair. 

Several books, &c, presented to the Society, were laid on the 

(1.) The following paper was read: — " Notes on some Branchiate 
Gastropoda," b} Professor F. W. Hutton. This paper contains 
descriptions, with figures, of the dentition of fifty-nine New 
Zealand marine molluscs, as well as various other notes. Corio- 
cella ophione (Gray), is described, and is shown to be different from 
the animal mentioned under this name in the " Manual of New 
Zealand Mollusca," p. 59, for which the name Lamelloria cerebroides 
is proposed. Euthria striata (Hutton), formerly known only as a 
Wanganui fossil, is mentioned as living in Lyttelton Harbour. 
Trophon dubius (Hutton) is shown to belong to a new genus of 
Fusidae, for which the name Taron is proposed. 

Cominella maculosa (Martyn) is separated from C. testudinea 
(Chemnitz). Polytropa quoyi is shown to be a Trophon, and to be 
the same as P. retiaria (Hutton). Polytropa tristis is separated from 
P. scobina, and made a synonym of P. albomarginata (Deshayes). 
Attention is drawn to the similarities in the dentition of Nerita 
atrata and Chiton pellis-serpentis, indicating that the Rhipidoglossa 
may have sprung from the Polyplacophora. It is also pointed out 
that all the New Zealand species of Patella have the gills and 
mouth of Nacella, and that all have a small central plate on the 

The following new species is described : — Diloma plumbea 
(Hutton). Shell depressed by turbinate, imperforate, rough, with 
a few obsolete spinal ribs ; spine acute but usually eroded ; 
colour bluish-purple, the aperture margined with a black band. 

In the discussion that followed, Prof. Hutton stated that, in his 
opinion, the dentition of the Gastropoda is of very great 
taxonomic value ; far more so than the shell or the operculum. 
Like every other character, it is sometimes variable, but in most 
cases a knowledge of the dentition is necessary before the true 
position of a shell could be ascertained. 

(2.) Professor Hutton exhibited specimens of the rock from the 
Weka Pass cave, on which the paintings were drawn. These 
were shown under a lens, or still better under a microscope, to 
have a distinct coating of stalagmite, easily recognised by its 
texture and by the rock containing specs of a dark green mineral 
— glauconite, — which was absent in the stalagmitic coating. 

(3.) Mr. R. H. Webb asked Professor Hutton if he was satisfied 
that the fish caught in the Waimakariri, of which a drawing had 
been sent to Professor Baird in America for identification, was the 


true Californian salmon. Professor Hutton replied that it was 
undoubtedly a Californian salmon. This fish was very easily 
distinguished from all the different kinds of salmon that live in 
rivers running into the Atlantic, by having about 16 rays in its 
anal fin ; whereas in all the Atlantic salmons there were never 
more than n. More than a year ago Dr. Chilton, of Timaru, had 
sent him a description of a fish caught in a river in the south part 
of Canterbury, which was also a Californian salmon. 


The plan of holding courses of popular lectures similar to those 
given in England under the Cambridge Extension Scheme is now 
under trial in Dunedin, and is meeting with great success. The 
lectures are being held on Saturday evenings, in the lecture-room 
of the Museum, and are open to members of the Institute ; while 
a very small fee (2s. 6d. or 3s. per course) is charged to the general 
public, so as to cover merely necessary expenses. 

The first course was given by Prof. Parker, on the evenings of 
15th, 22nd, and 29th July, the subject being " Fermentation and 
Putrefaction." The lectures were illustrated practically by nume- 
rous specimens, drawings, and experiments, including a repetition 
of Tyndall's celebrated experiment disproving the theory of spon- 
taneous generation ; and the whole subject was treated ex- 
haustively. A detailed syllabus of the whole course was printed 
and distributed among the audience. 

Despite the wretched weather which has prevailed this winter, 
and which seems to have reserved its worst manifestations for 
successive Saturdays, the attendance at the lectures has been 
most encouraging, the lecture-room being filled to excess on the 
opening night. 

15th August, 1882. — W. Arthur, Esq., president, in the chair. 

New members — Messrs. David Cosgrove and E. Melland. 

Papers — (1.) "Notes on the New Zealand Sprat" (Clupea 
sprattus), by W. Arthur, Esq., C.E. The author gave a description of 
this fish, taken from two specimens caught at Oamaru in May, out 
of a large shoal which visited the coast. The fish is of rare 
occurrence. Specimens were obtained in 1872 in Foveaux Straits 
and near Wellington, and in 1874 ft was so ^ m some quantity in 
Dunedin. Since then it does not appear to have been seen 
on our coasts until May of this year, when a large shoal appeared 
near Oamaru for about a fortnight, but did not visit either 
Moeraki or Dunedin. 

An examination of the female fish led to the conclusion that it 
contained about 20,000,000 ova. From the minuteness and 
buoyancy of the ova it is inferred that, at whatever depth 
spawning may take place, the hatching probably occurs at the 
surface of the sea. The vast number of ova in this sprat is 
suggestive of a very high death rate, due to the species being 
probably the food of the seal, whale, and predatory fishes, as well 
as of marine birds. Its occasional occurrence on our coasts is 
perhaps due to variations in the ocean currents — a subject, how- 
ever, on which very little is known. 

(2.) " Diseased Trout in Lake Wakatipu," by W. Arthur, Esq., 


C.E. The occurrence of large trout — ranging from 2 to 15IDS. in 
weight — in Queenstown Bay, is familiar to visitors and residents 
of Queenstown. These fish, which are quiet and lazy in 
habit, and are apparently fat and well-fed, will not take bait. For 
some years past they have been subject to the attacks of a fungus, 
.which occasionally proves fatal to the very large ones. From 
examination made by the author, he concludes that about 25 per 
cent, of the fish seen by him in the bay were fungus-spotted. The 
examination of a specimen weighing 7^-lbs., which had just suc- 
cumbed to the disease, showed that, while the fungus was present 
on a great many portions of the fish, it was particularly abundant 
in the mouth — from out of which it hung in tufts — and in the 
gills, which appeared to be eaten away by the hyphce. The fungus 
is believed to be Saprohgnia fevax, which is to be found on most 
decaying animal matter in fresh water. The disease is probably 
due in part to the chemical composition of the water, which is 
very deficient in common (and perhaps in oxygen), and in 
part to the fact that the fish have been liberated from the Town 
Creek, a stream so small that they cannot ascend it when the 
spawning season comes on. The deep waters of the lake act as a 
barrier on the outside, and thus the fish are confined to a very 
limited extent of water, and their natural functions interfered 
with. The only remedy suggested as being of permanent value 
is the providing of suitable spawning beds in the Town Creek. 

(3) " Notes on the Anatomy and Embryology of ' Scymnus lickia," 
by Prof. T. J. Parker. The author stated that the usual range of 
this shark was the Mediterranean and neighbouring parts of the 
Atlantic, the specimen described being the first recorded beyond 
the normal range ; it was caught at the Otago Heads. The speci- 
men is an adult gravid female. Attention was directed to the 
following points, among others :— 1. The existence of a low ridge 
extending forwards for several inches from the anterior (pre-axial) 
border of the pelvic fin, and probably representing the posterior 
part of the ridge described by Balfour as connecting the pectoral 
and pelvic fins in the embryo. 2. The existence of a " lateral 
vein " having the same relations as that described by the author 
in the skate (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol xin.) ; it receives the veins of 
the pectoral and pelvic fins, and in the hinder part of its course 
runs in the ridge already mentioned. 3. The spiral valve is a very 
perfect example of the kind distinguished by the author as " type 
C" (Trans. Zool. Soc, 1880). It consists of 27 turns. The wall 
of the intestine exhibits a great thickening of the muscular coat, 
as described in Scyllium. 4. The oviducts have oviducal glands, 
the secretion of which was found in the uterus in the form of yel- 
lowish shreds ; the uteri are wide and their walls covered internally 
with vascular villi. 5. Ten embryos were found in the two uteri ; 
one corresponds in general form with Balfour's stage I, but in many 
respects is as far advanced as L ; another is intermediate between 
M and N ; while the remaining eight correspond pretty closely 
with stage O. 



Dunedin, 25th July, 1882. — Annual meeting. S. W. Fulton, 
Esq., in the chair. 

The annual report, read by the Hon. Secretary (Mr. Geo. M. 
Thomson), showed that the interest in the Club had flagged 
considerably during the past year. At the commencement of the 
season, the attendance at the excursions was very good, but it 
fell off materially afterwards. The offer also of numerous prizes 
for collections had failed to arouse competition. Individually, 
however, many of the members had been doing excellent work, 
and many specimens had been collected (including numerous 
interesting novelties) of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Arachnida, 
Crustacea, and Myriapoda. Only four flowering plants new to 
the district had been found during the year, one of them (Ptero- 
stylis aphylla) being new to the flora of New Zealand. It was 
recommended that, as no complete lists of the local species 
belonging to the foregoing groups had yet been compiled, publica- 
tion of the report be postponed till next year. 

The following gentlemen were elected office-bearers for the 
ensuing season : — President, Prof. T. J. Parker, B.Sc, Lond.; 
Hon Secretary, Mr. T. Chalmer ; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. P. J. 
Fulton ; Committee, Messrs. D. Petrie, B.A , Geo. Joachim, S. W. 
Fulton, Geo. M. Thomson, F.L.S., G. Anderson, H. Webb, and 
F. Deans. 


Invercargill, July 11, 1882. — Thos. Denniston, Esq., in the 

Paper read by Mr. J. T. Thomson, C.E., on " Self-regulating 
Windmills," illustrated by two models — the original, which had 
been at w r ork for six months, and an enlarged and improved form. 
Between the whips two sets of sails are placed, the larger or 
outer swung slightly out of balance, being governed by rods by 
the smaller or inner set, which in turn are attached by their inner 
edges by rods to a boss that slides on the axis of the wheel. To 
this boss is attached a weight by a cord passing over a wheel 
(pulley). The weight is calculated to equal the pressure of a 
breeze of given velocity. The rods of the inner sails have the 
appearance and action of the ribs of an umbrella. As the wind 
increases the pressure overcomes that of the weight and gradu- 
ally drives the sails back, until in a gale they merely present their 
edges, and the wheel comes to a stand still. By this ingenious 
improvement this windmill always works uniformly, and requires 
no one to attend to it. By means of a tail vane the sails are 
always exposed to the full force of the wind, and the wheel is 
kept at right angles to it. 

In the discussion which followed, the opinions expressed by 
many of the engineers and mechanics present were highly favour- 
able, on account of its simplicity and non-liability to get out of 
order. It will doubtless come into considerable use ere long. Mr. 
Thomson has patented his invention. 

8th August, 1882. — H. Carswell, Esq., in the chair. 

Paper — " On the use of the training-walls in deepening Inver- 


cargill Harbour," by Mr. J. T. Thomson. In this paper it was 
explained that the walls, on completion, would make the channel 
of the same width as that of the Tyne at Newcastle. When 
finished they will be 2,000 feet in length, and by harrowing down 
channel at half-tide, a depth of 11 feet will be obtained at the 
town, where it is 8 feet at present. Unless the materials became 
too heavy it will not be necessary to dredge. On formation ot 
the walls on the Bushy Point Flats, a depth of 15 feet will be 
obtained, which is the depth at present on the bar, and sufficient 
to allow of vessels of moderate size coming up to the jetty. The 
author strongly insisted on the tidal area above the town being 
strictly guarded from encroachment ; and as it is of considerable 
extent, the advantages in assisting the scour are enormous. 
Dunedin was pointed out as an instance of the fatal mistake made 
in not doing so ; hence the necessity of dredging off the bar the 
equivalent deposited at the town by reclamation works. The 
author also mentioned that he had never seen the New River bar 
in a worse condition than it is at present — his soundings showing 
only 15 feet ; whereas in 1858 they were 28 feet, and in 1851, by 
the Admiralty, 24 feet. There was a good attendance, and con- 
siderable discussion followed the reading of the paper. 


Sydney, 14th June, 1882. 

Paper— " Tropical Rains," by H. C. Russell, F.R.S. The 
paper was compiled from rain records collected in the colony for 
many years. Many of these records were from private individuals 
(some 270 observers forwarding their rain observations), and from 
wide-spread localities in Australia. After a detailed description 
of the great rain-storm of February of this year, and a comparison 
of the weather with that of the same month in former years, the 
author suggests that some outside cause becomes effective in 
inducing heavy rainfalls when the earth reaches this particular 
part of its orbit. This cause gives rise to a sudden fall of tem- 
perature in the Northern Hemisphere at that period of the year, 
a fact which is verified by all meteorological evidence — for in- 
stance, in the observations of the pupils of Galileo. These 
observations extend from 1655 to 1670, and show that the minimum 
was reached on February 12, and the author had before pointed 
out that the same remarkable phenomenon is observable in 
Australian registers. In searching for a cause several Continental 
astronomers have not hesitated to say that there is little doubt 
that it is the intervention between the sun and the earth of great 
numbers of meteors ; and the celebrated M. Erman pointed out 
that if the well-known meteor stream through which the earth 
passes in August is really a flat ring of meteors — as it probably is 
— revolving round the sun, then it would cross the ecliptic in such 
a position that part of it would be interposed between the sun and 
the earth from the 5th to the nth of February, and so partially 
eclipse the sun, cutting off from the earth his light and heat ; and 
Mr Erman considered himself justified by his investigations into 
meteorological records in saving that it did do so. The author 
has been for some years convinced that this is the only satisfactory 
explanation of the fall oi temperature in February, and that 


there is sufficient evidence to prove that we must take the inter- 
vention of meteors between the earth and the sun as the cause of 
many of the remarkable variations in the temperature which are 
so unaccountable, it we ignore the effects which may be produced 
in this way. 


The adjourned meeting of the Medical Section of the Royal 
Society was held in the society's house on Friday evening, 16th 
June. The discussion on Dr. Mackellar's paper " On the Etiology 
of Typhoid Fever " was resumed, and carried on with unabated 
interest, seven members speaking at some length before Dr. 
Mackellar delivered his reply. Concerning the practical points 
connected with the causation of this disease, very little, if any, 
difference of opinion existed, and it was agreed that in the vast 
majority of cases contaminated water supply was answerable for 
spreading the infecting germ ; in rarer instances the specific 
poison may be introduced into the system m other ways. That 
the possibility of the origination of typhoid fever de novo existed 
was not denied, but no case has yet arisen in which a careful 
inquiry into the circumstances surrounding it has not revealed 
some unsuspected channel by which the matevies morbi may have 
been conveyed to the sufferer. 

Sydney, 5th July, 1882.— H. C. Russell, Esq., B.A., vice-presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New members — Dr. C. U. Carruthers, Dr. A. Diickershoff, Dr. 
G. Hurst, Dr. P. H. M'Gillivray, M.A. (Sandhurst, Victoria), Dr. 
E. Sinclair, Messrs. Sydney Moss, D. Porter, W. H. Rothe, H. 
E. Russell, and the Rev. William Webster, of Wilcannia. 

The Chairman exhibited a new eye-piece which he had de- 
signed for the observation of the transit of Venus, which afforded 
the observer a number of lines for reference ; so that practically 
he was enabled to see the transit several times instead of once. 
This was accomplished by having microscopic lines placed in the 
eye-piece at fixed distances. One of these was kept tangential to 
the sun's edge, and during the time that Venus passes each of the 
lines was to be noticed by the observer. 

A short paper " On the Orbit of the present Comet " was read 
by Mr. G. Butterfield. 

Numerous interesting exhibits were shown by various gentle- 
men, including Swan, Maxim, and Fox-Lane incandescent lamps, 
by Mr. W. Macdonnell. The same gentleman also exhibited 
De la Rive's experiment, showing the rotation of the voltaic arc 
round an electro-magnet. Dr. H. C. Wright exhibited one of 
Tolles' erecting stereoscopic binocular eye-pieces. Mr. G. D. 
Hirst exhibited Abbe's diffraction plate, and explained the 
phenomena of refracted images, as seen through microscopic 


Sydney, 28th June, 188?. — Dr. James C. Cox, president, in the 

New member — Rev. Joseph Campbell, M.A. 
Several donations to the Society were announced. 


Papers— (1) " Half Century of Plants new to South Queens- 
land," Rev. C. Scortechini. This paper was to some extent a con- 
tinuation of a previous paper by the same author, and contained 
the results of further researches on the flora of that part of the 
country. Among the plants enumerated were many hitherto 
regarded as strictly tropical, while others had not previously been 
observed in such warm latitudes. 

(2) " Contribution to a Knowledge of the Fishes of New 
Guinea," by the Hon. William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. This paper 
gives a list of 120 species of Percoid fishes collected by Mr. Andrew 
Goldie at Port Moresby and Cuppa Cuppa, in New Guinea. They 
are, with few exceptions, species which have been described by 
Dr. Bleeker as being found on the northern shores of that island 
and throughout the Netherlands India Archipelago generally. 
The new species described are Servanus Goldiei, Servanus magnificus, 
Genyoroge bidens, Mesopvion rubens, M. parvidens, M. Goldiei, Diagramma 
Papuense, Lethvinus auvolineatus. The remainder of Mr. Goldie's 
collection is to form the subject of a tuture paper. 

(3.) "A Monograph of the Australian Aphroditacean Annelids," 
Mr. W. A. Haswell, M.A., B.Sc. The first part of the paper was 
occupied by an account of various points in the anatomy and 
physiology of the group, the chief being a description of the struc- 
ture of the elytra, the demonstration thai the structures described 
by Ehlers and Williams as segmental organs are portions of the 
intestinal caeca, and the description of a psuedohaemal system in 
various species of Polynoidae, in which family it had previously 
been supposed to be absent. The second part contained a de- 
scription of thirty-two species, most of them new, from tropical 
Queensland, Port Jackson, and Victoria. 

(4) Two papers by Mr. E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S., Curator of the 
Australian Museum, one containing a description of a new species 
of Phlogcenas (P. Salamonis) and of a new species of Dicrurus (pro- 
posed to be called D. longirostris), from the Solomon Islands ; the 
other containing a description of a new species of Coris from Lord 
Howe's Island. Specimens of both birds, collected by Mr. John 
Stephen, oi Ugi, were exhibited. 

The Hon. W. Macleay exhibited a specimen of Chevsydvus annu- 
latus of Gray. He said that he was indebted to Mr. De Vis, of the 
Queensland Museum, for this specimen, which was the first he had 
ever seen of the kind. It is a freshwater snake, found in the rivers 
of India, Sumatra, and New Guinea, but never hitherto known as 
an inhabitant of Australia. The present specimen came from 

Dr. Thomas Dixon exhibited, under the microscope, prepara- 
tions made by himself of the Bacillus described by Ebert as peculiar 
to typhoid fever. Other preparations were exhibited showing the 
occurrence of germs, very like typhoid germs, in a cesspit, but the 
absence of any such in diarrhoea. 

Professor W. J. Stephens exhibited a few specimens of a lost 
Eucalyptus which had been lately re-discovered by his brother, 
Mr. T. Stephens, in the immediate neighbourhood^of Hobart. 
He stated that the plant (Eucalyptus cordata) had only once been 
seen by botanists since the expedition of d'Entrecasteaux, and 
then only in two isolated and remote spots. Perhaps some now 
present would recollect an old gum tree, near the present entrance 


from the Botanical Gardens to the Garden Palace, with remarkably 
glaucous foliage, and papery bark like some Melaleucas. This was 
a specimen of Eucalyptus cor data, which must have been brought 
here, long since, either as a seed or as a young plant, from Tas- 
mania, and which survived until a short time back. At present 
there was no example of the plant in our collections. In closing 
his notice Professor Stephens expressed the hope that this 
re-discovery might be suggestive to collectors that their own 
immediate neighbourhood may probably furnish facts new or 
unexpected, remarking how forty years of oblivion had given a 
curious dignity to the otherwise not very attractive specimens 
that he now laid before the Society. 

Other interesting exhibits were shown by Dr. W. D. C. 
Williams and Mr. E. P. Ramsay. 

Sydney, 26th July, 1882. — Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S., presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New members of the Society — Edwin Daintrey, Sydney ; 
Thomas R. M'Dougall, Baan Baa, Narrabri ; Edwin Haviland, 
Redfern ; Dr. George Hurst, Oxford street. It was announced 
that the Council had elected Mr. Edgar A. Smith, F.Z S., of the 
British Museum, and Mr. Chas. W. De Vis, Curator of the 
Queensland Museum, corresponding members. 

Several donations were announced. 

Papers — (1.) " Botanical Notes in Queensland, part 3," by the 
Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S. This paper contained 
the results of the author's observations on the Mulgrave River, 
with a list of the species collected by him in that district. 

(2.) " On the Forage Plants indigenous to New South Wales," 
by Dr. Woolls, F.L.S. The author gave an account of the 
principal native plants upon which stock depend in this country, 
including various kinds of Salt Bush and Winter Herbage. Mr. 
Wilkinson observed that one valuable grass, which was not men- 
tioned as indigenous in Dr. Woolls' paper, had been described by 
Dr. Schomburgh from South Australia, and pronounced to be one 
of the best fodder grasses to stand years of drought. This is 
Panicum spectabile, which, whether indigenous or not, has been 
successfully grown on the Talbragar River, fifteen miles from 
Dubbo, one of the hottest localities in New South W r ales. The 
jointed stem of this grass runs along about six inches beneath the 
surface of the ground. 

(3.) " Descriptions of three new Fishes of Queensland," by 
Chas. W. de Vis, B.A. The species described are — 1. Oligorus 
Goliath, taken in Moreton Bay, a fish of gigantic size, seven feet 
lorg and two feet high ; 2. Synaptura Fitzroiensis, from Rock- 
hampton ; and 3. Engraulis Carpentevicd, from the Norman 

(4.) " Description of a species of Squill {Lysiosquilla Miersii), 
from Moreton Bay," by Chas. W. De Vis, B.A. This Crustacean, 
which is found in Moreton Bay, differs materially from the two 
species of the same genus recorded in Mr. Haswell's catalogue, 
which belong to Mr. Miers' second section of the genus, while the 
present species agrees with his first section. 

(5.) " On Cyprcea citrina (Gray), from Rowley Shoals, North- 
West Australia," by John Brazier, C.M.Z.S. 


(6.) " On a variety of Ovuhtm depvessum, from the Loyalty- 
Islands," by Mr. R. C. Rossiter. 

(7.) " Notes on the nidification of the Spoon-bill, the Heron, 
and the Night Heron," by K. H. Bennett, Esq. In this paper an 
intertsting account of visits to the breeding places of the above- 
mentioned birds is given. 

A number of interesting exhibits were shown by various 


"Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
New South Wales, 1881," Vol. XV. Edited by Pro- 
fessor A. Leversidge. 

In a review in a recent issue of this journal of the " Cata- 
logue of Australian Crustacea," lately published by the Trustees 
of the Australian Museum, attention was called to the immense 
impetus which scientific work had received of late in the sister 
colonies. The volume before us is another indication of this 
increased activity. The anniversary address of the late presi- 
dent, the Hon. Professor Smith, delivered on 4th May of .last 
year, gives an interesting account of the early struggles of the 
Philosophical Society (the predecessor of the present Society), 
and of the narrow escape it had from total collapse in 1866. In 
that year a change in the constitution was made along with the 
change of name, and affairs for a time were considerably 
improved. It was not, however, till 1 875, when the Society took 
possession of their new hall in Elizabeth street, and appointed 
Professor Liversidge and Dr. Leibius to the joint-secretaryship, 
that the recent increased activity began to manifest itself. A 
well-merited encomium is passed upon both these gentlemen for 
their " enlightened zeal and indefatigable labours." 

The present volume contains eleven papers, all of which are 
valuable additions to the scientific records of Australia. Of 
these, Mr. H. C. Russell, Government astronomer, contributes 
three — viz., " The Spectrum and appearance of the recent 
Comet"; "Transit of Mercury, Nov. 8th, 1881 "; and " New- 
Double Stars, and measures of some of those found by Sir 
John Herschel." The last-mentioned paper will be found of 
great value to astronomers working in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, as it records the re-measurements of about 746 of 
Herschel's stars — some of them many times over, — and the 
discovery of 350 new double stars. As Mr. Russell's object was 
to re-measure all Herschel's close stars south of 34 south 
declination, he points out that the number of new stars might 
easily have been doubled had he devoted his attention to this 
work, and extended his limits of observation. Many of the 
stars (forty-six in number) in the Cape list could not be found. 
Mr. Russell considers that, while some may have been over- 
looked from changed magnitudes and other causes, most are the 


results of clerical errors in drawing up the list. The only other 
paper dealing strictly with astronomy is Mr. Tebbutt's deter- 
mination of the orbit of the comet of 1 88 1. A paper by the 
Rev. P. MacPherson on the " Astronomy of the Australian 
Aborigines," is chiefly of interest to the student of Anthropology. 
The coincidence of certain terms used by the Australians with 
others of Aryan origin is pointed out, and in regard to one root 
arguil, some ground exists for believing that the root is the same 
as the Latin aquila. Without attempting to found any theory 
on such a slender basis, the author concludes that " the root may 
take its place with such others as have been pointed out from 
time to time, and some future inquirer, on a wider basis of in- 
duction, may be in a position to decide how far such words are 
mere coincidences, or how far they prove that the ancestors of 
the aborigines were one with those whose descendants have spread 
over Asia and Europe." 

Mr. W. E. Abbott's "Notes of a Journey on the Darling" 
form probably the most interesting reading in the journal, as they 
are those of an observant traveller. His remarks on the water- 
supply of the Western Plains are very valuable, as they refer to 
a matter which is of the most vital importance to the interior of 
Australia. The theory advanced for the general dryness of 
these plains is that there are two water-systems, " one on the 
surface of the land, carrying away to the sea a certain part of 
the annual rainfall, and one underground, possibly an ancient 
river system, carrying off by far the larger portion." " When 
Mr. Russell first put forward the theory of an underground 
drainage system to explain the great disparity between the 
rainfall in the watershed of the Darling and the outflow of that 
river, one of the difficulties which occurred to me was that if 
such a thing were in existence the surface rivers crossing the 
underground channels in all directions would in many places 
cut through the clay beds and form communications with the 
underground water, so that strong springs would be numerous 
in the Darling and its tributaries ; but, when one has examined 
the Darling and its tributaries, this difficulty disappears at once. 
The clay soil, which is almost perfectly impervious to water, has 
been deposited evenly over the whole country. There is no 
tilting up of the strata anywhere that I have seen which would 
cause the rivers to cut across and expose the edges, and the 
rivers themselves are little better than shallow gutters cut in 
the clay." Mr. Abbott recommends the use of tube-wells to 
obviate the influx of mud and sand which so often chokes open 
wells in this part of Australia. 

Mr. W. A. Dixon contributes a short paper "On the inorganic 
constituents of some epiphytic ferns," which throws a good deal 
of light on the sources from whence these aerial-rooted plants 
obtain the mineral matter present in their food. 

The most elaborate paper in the volume is a " Census of the 
genera of plants hitherto known as indigenous to Australia," by 
Baron Ferd. von Mueller. To the non-botanical reader this will 


be looked upon as a mere list of long names. It is, however, a 
contribution of great value, both for historical information as to 
the founders of the genera, and also as a reference catalogue 
and a bibliography combined. Bulky as the paper is, it cannot 
convey to any but a practical botanist an idea of the immense 
labour of research which must have been devoted to its prepara- 
tion. It forms an important and necessary appendix to the 
otherwise incomplete " Flora Australiensis." 



(To the Editor N.Z. Journal of Science.) 

Sir, — Our late illustrious master, in his valuable work on 
"Vegetable Mould," states (p. 146) — "Worms appear to act in 
the same manner in New Zealand as in Europe ; for Prof. J. von 
Haast has described a section near the coast " (" Trans. N.Z. 
Inst," vol. XII., p. 152). As no further mention is made of our 
earth-worms, a few observations may not be without some 

In October, 1875, I dug a trench in some newly-cleared 
land — a raised beach, Manukau Harbour. The section showed 
about 4^ inches of black mould, and a horizontal layer, 1 inch 
thick, of burnt clay, wood ashes, small stones, and pumice, lying 
on brownish-green arenaceous clay. The vegetation cleared was 
the growth of about 30 years. A portion of the land was left 
undisturbed. Measurements taken a few days ago give an 
average of 1% inches turf, 5^ inches black mould ; there was 
no perceptible difference in the layer of ashes. An angular 
block of Trachyte — about 25IDS., — placed in May, 1875, has 
sunk 1 inch, allowing for the turf. After reading Darwin's 
work on " V.M.," I made some systematic estimates of the 
number of worms per acre ; and I have taken advantage of the 
recent heavy rains of again making an approximate estimate. 
The results are considerably higher than Henson's, and I should 
have hesitated to publish them had I not been in a position to 
prove my assertions. Henson (" V.M.," p. 158) calculates there 
are 53,767 worms per acre in garden mould; about half that 
number in corn-fields. My estimates, founded on digging about 
Y^ acre, and a large number of tests in various parts of the 
fields — some in pasture for upwards of 16 years — gave from 4 to 
26 worms per square foot. The alluvial flats, slopes, and richer 
portions of the upper lands would certainly average 8 per square 
foot, or 348,480 per acre ; about half that number in the inferior 
grass lands. In uncultivated fern lands worms are scarce, but 
they affect the edges of swamps in considerable numbers, and 
contribute largely in forming the good soil generally found 
there, working backwards year by year up the ridges when the 


conditions are favourable. Although Gilbert White and Darwin 
pointed out years ago that worms left their burrows, it has been 
maintained by some authorities that healthy worms never or 
rarely do so. Worms not only leave their burrows, but climb 
trees in search of food. I have seen them in considerable num- 
bers, as late as half-past seven on a warm, wet morning in June, 
gliding with the greatest ease about the trunks of gum trees 
{Eucalyptus), vigorously searching for animal matter. 

As the habits of our northern worms differ slightly from 
those of Europe, it would be of considerable interest if some ot 
your subscribers in the colder portions of Otago would give the 
average weight of dried casts, and state if worms in their 
districts habitually plug the mouth of their burrows ; whether 
the burrows and chambers are lined with other materials be- 
sides the usual viscid earth ; depth of them ; and whether they 
branch, forming two chambers, in solid ground. The branching 
in solid ground has not been observed by Darwin, but I have 
met with several instances. 

Trusting that I have not trespassed too much on your 
valuable space — I am, &c, A. T. Urquhart. 

Karaka, Auckland. 


Sir, — I notice in your review of the " Trans. N.Z. Institute,'' 
published in the last issue of the N.Z. JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 
that you take exception to the system of notation I have adopted 
in my. paper on the mineralogy of New Zealand. The notation 
employed has a conventional meaning amongst mineralogists, 
to whom my paper is addressed, as may be seen by reference to 
any standard work on mineralogy, such as Dana's, Nicol's, or 
Bristow's. The instance you cite will be found on page 255 of 
the second edition of Nicol's " Mineralogy," printed in the form 

1 adopted and giving the equivalent in chemical notation, thus — 

2 Fe" + 3 ii = [2 Fe 2 3 3 H z O].— I am, &c, 

S. Herbert Cox. 

[We must apologise to Mr. Cox for what may appear to him 
unjust fault-finding in our last number. We are aware that the 
notation alluded to is that conventionally used among mineralo- 
gists, and in that sense Mr. Cox is perfectly justified in using it. 
What we do object to is, however, that mineralogists should 
employ such a notation in place of the expressive notation 
adopted by chemists. For one person who can at sight under- 
stand the former, fifty can read the latter. The very printers 
cannot set up mineralogical notation for want of special type, 
which is itself a good argument for its abolition. — Ed.] 


Sir, — I believe that I am responsible for Mr. Maskell's 
remark that the paintings in the Weka Pass cave " rest on a coat- 


ing of stalagmite, covering the rock," which Dr. von Haast, in 
your last number, calls " simply nonsense." This is a sweeping 
criticism, but I do not see much force in it, nor do I see how it 
can get over the indubitable and easily proved fact that the 
paintings are on stalagmite. The learned doctor goes on to say, 
" In the first place the rock is perfectly dry," — here I would 
remind him that the deposition of stalagmite is due to evapora- 
tion, and can only take place on highly inclined surfaces, when 
they are sometimes wet and sometimes dry, as no doubt is the 
case with the wall of the cave in question ; he proceeds, "and no 
stalagmite has ever been found there." With all due deference 
to his superior knowledge of the locality, I am bound to say that 
I have in my possession specimens of stalagmite which I collected 
myself from the identical spot, and to prove to others the truth 
of my statement, I will exhibit these specimens at the next 
meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. The layer 
of stalagmite is about "02 inch in thickness, and in one case — 
from another cave in the neighbourhood — a considerable thick- 
ness of it overlies the red paint. 

Dr. von Haast still proceeds, " But the weathering of the 
rock has caused this peculiar scaling of the surface, so well known 
to geologists." I have seen a good deal of weathered limestone 
in different parts of the world, but I have never seen the surface 
scale off in this way except where covered with stalagmite ; 
under other circumstances the rock crumbles into powder, and 
the surface often becomes honey-combed. I am not surprised 
that Dr. von Haast failed to notice the stalagmite in his early 
visits to the cave, but that he should have re-examined the place 
after the occurrence of stalagmite had been pointed out to -him, 
and that he should then have denied its existence, is indeed 
astonishing. It is not Mr. Maskell who has " misunderstood 
some of our party conversant with geological evidence," but Dr. 
von Haast himself who has misunderstood the geological 
evidence. — I am, &c, 

Christchurch, 20th July, 1882. 

Sir, — Will you allow me to explain that my remarks on the 
un-Maori-like character of the Weka Pass drawings, quoted by 
Mr. Maskell on page 66 of the N. Z. Journal of Science, 
were never meant to apply to all the drawings on the rock- 
shelter, though I omitted, in the brief note referred to, to limit 
their application. I ought at the time to have specified figures 
4, 14, and 27, and some of the smaller designs on Mr. Cousin's 
plan accompanying Dr. von Haast's paper. I cannot believe 
those figures to have been the production of any unaided Maori 

Having seen the original drawings shortly after Mr. Cousin's 
visit, I think it is only fair to him to state that I was surprised 
to find how accurately he had copied the figures selected for 


With reference to the controversy regarding the origin of these 
drawings, and the date of their execution, it is satisfactory to 
find such competent judges as Mr. Maskell and the gentlemen 
who accompanied him — after a careful examination of the 
drawings on the rocks — arriving at the conclusion that they 
were " undoubtedly older than European settlement here." 

The Maori evidence removes them a stage further back, to a 
period antecedent to the Ngai Tahu occupation of this island. 
How much older they may be remains a fair subject for specu- 
lation. — I am, &c, James W. Stack. 

Duvanchelle's Bay, August 10, 1882. 


Sir, — My name is mentioned in No. 4, vol. 1., page 177, as a 
worker on New Zealand Micro-lepidopterdi. 

Since Mr. Meyrick has come to Christchurch, and so ably 
taken up the investigation of the New Zealand Micro-lepi- 
doptera, I have abandoned it for the present, and now confine 
myself to the Mac7'o-\epidoptera. 

I may explain, for the benefit of the uninitiated, that the 
Micro-lepidoptera are the very small moths, the Macro- 
lepidoptera being the larger moths and the butterflies. 

Mr. Meyrick has therefore the greater claim to contributions 
of the smaller moths ; but I shall nevertheless be glad to receive 
any that may be sent me, and they shall have my attention. 

Will you kindly make this known in your next publication ? 
— I am, &c, Rich. Wm. Fereday. 

Christchurch, August 16, 1882. 


As several communications have been addressed to the 
Editor suggesting the desirability of opening a column in the 
Journal under the above head, it has been resolved to offer 
every facility to those who may desire to ask questions on 
scientific subjects through this medium. As, however, it is 
always much easier to ask than to answer questions, the 
Editor invites the co-operation of specialists throughout the 
colony, and will, as occasion offers, refer to them for replies. 





By various Makers, 


Booksellers aufc stationers, 



J". WILLIE & OO., 



NOVEMBER, 1882.] 

[No. 6, Vol. I. 




\J A 


Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si falsum est, adcingere contra. 



An Observatory for New Zealand. Prof. Cook 247 

Proofs of the Subsidence of a Southern Continent during recent Geological Epochs. 

M. Emile Blanchard 251 

Geological and Zoological Relations of Campbell Island with the neighbouring 

Southern Lands. M. H. Filhol 259 

HuiaEggs. T. W. Kirk 262 

The Stalk-eyed Crustacea of New Zealand. Prof. F. W. Hutton ... .. 263 

The Late Protessor F. M. Balfour. Prof. T. J. Parker 265 

Correspondence - ... .. ... 266 

Mr. Buchanan's Criticisms — Weka Pass Rock- paintings. 

Meetings of Societies — 271 

Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute — Royal Society of New South Wa'es— Linnean Society of 
New South Wales— Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Auckland Institute — Southland 

General Notes — 286 

Mr. J. T. Thomson's New Windmill— New Zeaiand Fern Exchange — Linnean Society of New 
South Wales— Erratum. 

On new New Zealand Coleoptera. Capt. T. Broun 287 






Vol, I., No. 6, NOVEMBER, 1882] 



In one of the earlier numbers of this journal an article was 
written by the Rev. Dr. Roseby, entitled " A Plea for the Stars." 
The article pointed out some of the inducements to the study of 
astronomy, and suggested some of the kinds of work which 
might be advantageously undertaken by an amateur. It is in- 
deed matter for sincere regret that the study of this ennobling 
subject is pursued by so few, for here in the southern hemisphere 
much remains to be done which has already been well done for 
the northern hemisphere. But although the northern stars have 
been watched and studied for so long a time, enthusiastic ama- 
teurs still find plenty to engage their attention in noting their pecu- 
liarities and observing their movements. Here we have very few 
amateurs and but little enthusiasm, at least that kind of abid- 
ing enthusiasm which brings forth the fruit of patient work. True 
it is that, when Mr. Proctor was here a little while ago, everybody 
was for the time being very much interested in his subject ; but 
it would appear that his numerous hearers went to be amused 
rather than instructed, to listen to the popular lecturer and to be 
astonished at the wonders which he had to relate, rather than to 
gain information. At any rate it is quite certain that no endur- 
ing interest in astronomy has ever been excited here. 

But though isolated individuals may do good work in cer- 
tain directions, astronomical science will never make much head- 
way in this colony until we have in it a properly equipped 
colonial observatory. At such an institution systematic and 
regular work would be done by trained observers ; work which 
would be out of the province of an amateur, and indeed beyond 
his reach. The results of the observations would be published 
from time to time, papers would be read by the observers before 
the New Zealand Institute, and in this way an interest in the 
subject would be excited in the minds of very many. If any of 
those were tempted to study the subject on their own account, 
and to try to apply their knowledge to the making of observa- 
tions for themselves, it would be to the official staff of the obser- 
vatory that they would naturally turn for guidance and assistance. 
There is not much reason in the nature of things why this colony 
should not be as distinguished for the pursuit of astronomy as it 
is for that of natural science. But every provision has been made 
for, and every encouragement given to, the study of natural 
science ; there are excellent museums at Wellington, Christ- 
church, and Dunedin, and at each of these places there is a 
certain scientific staff ; at Auckland too there is a museum, and 


there may be such institutions at other places within the colony. 
All of thc>c serve as active centres of intellectual life ; they spread 
abroad a taste for the study of natural science, and they largely 
furnish the means for gratifying and cultivating that taste. Any- 
body who is acquainted with the growth of these institutions 
must recognise how large a share they have had in turning the 
scientific attention of the people of the colony into a particular 
direction. The kind of work which the museums have done for 
natural science, we might expect that an observatory would do 
for astronomy. It is quite true that causes other than the one 
mentioned have contributed to the advancement of natural 
science ; a new country, and one whose flora and fauna are so 
peculiar as those of New Zealand, must always excite attention 
and have special charms for the naturalist. But have we not 
here also new star-fields to explore, and new constellations to 
examine ? 

It is really a very curious fact that this colony should have 
provided itself so well with museums, and that it should be with- 
out an efficient observatory. We of course expect to find both 
kinds of institution in the older countries of Europe. But, 
whatever may have been done for museums in newer countries, 
it is quite certain that in most of them observatories have not 
been forgotten. There are at least twelve in the United States, 
there is at least one in Canada, there is one at the Cape of 
Good Hope, one at Sydney, one at Melbourne, and one at Ade- 
laide. Thus it appears that New Zealand is the only considerable 
British colony without an observatory. And these colonial ob- 
servatories were established in the early days of their respective 
colonies, and they have all done signal service to the cause of 
astronomy. That at the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 
the year 1820, and it was from observations made there in 1832 
and 1833 that the distance of Centauri, the nearest of the few stars 
whose distances have been even roughly ascertained, was deter- 
mined. It was to the Cape of Good Hope that Sir John Her- 
schel w r ent in 1835, for the purpose of observing the southern 
nebulae ; and it was whilst there that he closely observed the 
curious changes which took place in Halley's comet after it had 
passed perihelion, and after it had become invisible in the north. 
The Sydney observatory sprang out of one which was originally 
founded at Paramatta, in 1 821, by Sir Thomas Brisbane, who 
was at that time Governor of New South Wales. He furnished 
it with excellent instruments, and " in the same noble spirit of 
disinterested liberality he employed, at his own expense, two quali- 
fied assistants to aid him in his astronomical labours."* From ob- 
servationsmadehere.two catalogues, each containing several thou- 
sands of stars, were published. It was here also that Rumkcr, one 
of the assistants above alluded to, observed the return of Enke's 
comet, in 1822 ; this was the first return of the comet after it 

Grant' History of Physical Astronomy. 


had been ascertained to be periodic, it was therefore of great 
importance that good observations of it should be secured, and 
the comet was not visible in Europe. The Melbourne observa- 
tory was founded in 1853, but it was not till some years later 
that the buildings at present in use were erected and the obser- 
vatory put into a thoroughly efficient state. Still it speaks well 
for the people of Victoria that, at a time when the gold fever 
was at its height, such an institution was thought of. It is 
worthy of remark that about the same time the Melbourne Uni- 
versity and the Public Library were founded. Excellent work 
has on several occasions been done at the Melbourne Observa- 
tory ; notably, it was the observations there made on Mars, at 
his near approach to the earth in 1862, used in conjunction with 
those made at Greenwich, that gave the best determination which 
up to that time had been arrived at of the sun's distance from 
the earth. These points in connection with these southern 
colonial observatories have been mentioned to show that they 
were established on a good footing in the early days of the 
colonies to which they belong, and that they have on important 
occasions been able to do work which could not have been fore- 
gone without very serious loss. 

Some few years ago an attempt was made in Canterbury to 
found an observatory, and about ,£250 was collected by private 
subscription towards the purchase of instruments. Nothing 
further was done in the matter because Sir George Airy, the 
then Astronomer - Royal, who had been written to on the 
subject, threw cold water on the scheme, and seemed to think 
that observatories other than the splendid institution over which 
he presided were not necessary. But it is abundantly evident 
that in his opinion he is altogether singular ; the great multi- 
plication oi observatories in the northern hemisphere conclusively 
proves that. If they are necessary for the one hemisphere, they 
are equally so for the other ; indeed it may be said that their 
increase in the south is indispensable to the due progress of 
astronomy. In the list of observatories published in the Nau- 
tical Almanac, out of a total of ninety-five, there are only eight 
in southern latitudes. And that observations in the neighbour- 
hood of New Zealand are often absolutely essential, is evident 
from the fact that England and other nations have so frequently 
been compelled to send parties of observers here. At the transit 
of Venus in December, 1874, several such parties visited us, and 
when a similar event happens again at the end of this year we 
shall again have our scientific work done for us. A few 
years ago when search was being made for the supposed intra- 
Mercurial planet Vulcan, Sir George Airy, though he had done 
his best to prevent the establishment of an observatory at Christ- 
church, did not omit to telegraph here asking that a watch for 
the transit of the planet might be kept. Had it not been for the 
existence of a sufficiently good instrument in private hands his 
request could not have been complied with. In Victoria and 


New South Wales not only is work of this kind done at the 
observatories as a matter of course, but when an important 
astronomical event occurs — e.g. an eclipse of the sun — they 
are able to organise parties to occupy different stations whence 
it will be visible, so as to secure if possible a good observation 
and record of the event. 

The cost of building, equipping, and maintaining an obser- 
vatory, though it would be small, would yet necessitate a grant 
of money from Parliament. The question might, therefore, be 
asked, " What is the good of an observatory ; what useful work 
would it do ?" The reply to that is that an astronomical obser- 
vatory is a scientific institution, and that the first object which 
science has in view is the discovery of truth, and not practical 
utility. It is quite true that the discoveries of science have, more 
than anything else, made this age what it is, that they have been 
the main cause which has procured for us so much ease and 
comfort ; but science does not usually disclose her secrets to 
those unworthy worshippers who follow her for what they can 
get out of her. A successful cultivator of science must do pure- 
hearted service. The practical applications will most certainly 
come, but they must not be the first object ; indeed, these appli- 
cations are very often not made by the discoverers of the scien- 
tific principles on which they depend. The history of science 
has shown us again and again that this is the case, and that 
truths patiently worked out, without any motive other than the 
advancement of knowledge, have ultimately yielded the most 
important practical results. Thus the habits and organisation 
of the lowest animals and plants were originally studied by 
naturalists merely because they were beings endowed with life, 
and because there was something fresh to be learned about them. 
Gradually it has come to be known that some of them play a 
very active part in causing decay and disease, and the whole 
world gains by the information which had previously been 
arrived at. In the same way the motions of the heavenly bodies 
have been watched with interest for thousands of years, for we 
have records reaching back to B.C. 2000 ; but it is only within 
comparatively recent times, since the days of Newton, that 
astronomy has been an exact science. Since then it has made 
enormous strides, and its practical applications have been of in- 
calculable benefit. On it we depend for all our exact ideas of 
time, and without astronomical observations our watches and 
clocks would soon be hopelessly wrong. Again, the art of navi- 
gation is one application of the results of astronomy; that of 
accurate surveying another. 

Since then the practical applications of astronomy to every- 
day life are so important that it is the plain duty of every 
civilised country to aid in its advancement. This is a view of 
the case which is universally taken, and the result is that in most 
countries this science is being eagerly studied, and that observa- 
tories are springing up rapidly. Professor Loomis, writing in 


1879, says : "It is less than twenty-five years since the first re- 
fracting telescope, exceeding those of a portable size, was im- 
ported into the United States, and the introduction of meridional 
instruments of a large class is of still more recent date." Yet 
we have seen that at the present time the same country boasts 
not less than twelve observatories. Some of these are probably 
not by any means completely equipped, but others are of the 
first rank. Nor is it to be expected that here a perfect institu- 
tion could at once be called into existence, but a beginning 
might be made ; at the same time every instrument purchased 
should be sufficiently good to allow of thoroughly reliable work 
being done with it. The instruments which are absolutely indis- 
pensable in an observatory are a transit circle and a good clock, 
but an equatorial and a second clock are only a degree less 
essential. Probably for ;£i6oo all of these instruments could be 
purchased, together with those which would be required for 
systematic magnetic observations (for these latter could be con- 
veniently made at an astronomical observatory, and would be 
of great value). Nor would the cost of the necessary buildings 
be at all great, as only four or five rooms would be necessary ; 
but they would have to be substantially built, and above all the 
foundations of the piers for the instruments would have to be 
very carefully attended to. The whole cost, then, of equipping 
an observatory sufficiently well to enable it to do good work 
would be comparatively trifling, and it will not be to our credit 
if we allow ourselves to lie under the reproach of being behind 
the other British Colonies in this respect, and even behind the 
semi-barbarous countries of South America. 



(Read before l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 13th Feb., 1882.) 
During last century geographers and navigators were con- 
vinced of the existence of a continental region in the Southern 
Hemisphere, which extended between Australia and America. 
It was believed that the existence of this continent was indispen- 
sable to the equilibrium of the globe. When on the evening of 
7th October, 1769, Captain Cook cast anchor in a bay of that 
land which had been seen by the Dutchman, Abel Tasman, one 
hundred and twenty-seven years before, the commander, his staff 
of officers, the naturalists Banks and Solander, and the astrono- 
mer Charles Green, standing on the deck of the celebrated ship 
" Endeavour," all agitated by surprise and uncertainty, flattered 

* Abstract by the author in " Comptes Rendus." 


themselves that they were at last in presence of the famous Terra 
Austral is incognita. If, on afterwards finding two large and a 
number of small islands, which together they named New Zea- 
land, they experienced a certain amount of disappointment, the 
glory of the discovery made them forget it. Captain Marion du 
Fresne had, in 1772, conducted two French vessels, the " Mas- 
carin " and the " Marquis-de-Castries," to the Bay of Islands, 
and Crozet, the historian of the voyage and the narrator 
of the massacre of Marion and his convoy, had declared 
that New Zealand appeared to him like a large mountain which 
had formerly been part of a vast continent. This was the simple 
impression of a sailor who was gifted with observational powers. 
No one, it appears, has since given a thought to it. Now, how- 
ever, it is no longer a question of more or less correct impres- 
sions ; very positive ideas must lead us to results of a purely 
scientific character, and to strictly rigorous demonstrations. 
Nature herself furnishes us with abundant proofs that in recent 
ages of the earth, perhaps even at a period not very remote from 
the present, there existed a true continent in the southern por- 
tions of the Pacific Ocean, of which New Zealand and the small 
adjacent islands are the remains. 

" On arriving in New Zealand," says Sir Joseph Hooker, "we 
find ourselves surrounded by a vegetation which is almost new. 
In addition to this peculiar vegetation, however, plants belonging 
to Australia and America occur in considerable abundance." 

While New Zealand was still in its original state, before 
being invaded by Europeans, the traveller was struck with the 
abundance of its ferns. His admiration was called forth by the 
tree-ferns (Cyathed) which crowned the summits of the hills ; by 
the occurrence in many places of Lycopods, which are the largest 
among all now existing species, and the nearest allies of those 
which flourished in the carboniferous period ; and by a graceful 
palm (Areca sat>idd) ; various plants of the lily family appeared 
to be characteristic of the region, such as the famous Phorminm, 
and several species of Cordyline. 

In this part of the world the forests, which are now very 
much destroyed, have a grand appearance, which is due to the 
occurrence of superb coniferous trees ; Red Pine and Totara 
{Podocarpus ferruginea and P. totara), some kinds allied to 
Cedars (genus Libocedrus), a kind of Thuja with pale foliage 
(Dacrydium ciipressifoliuui) ; and under the milder climate of the 
northern portions of the islands, towering above all by its colos- 
sal proportions and distinguished by its beauty, the Kauri Pine 
{Dammara attstra/is). Mingled with these occur species of Pro- 
teaceae (Knightia), of Rhamnaceae {Pomaderris), and elegant 
Myrtles {Leptospermum and Metrosideros). 

On the west coast of the South Island the forests are chiefly 
composed of conifers, together with some leguminous plants 
(CarmicJuelia sp. and Sophora teti'aptej'd), liliaceous plants (genus 
Elceocarptts), and Myrtles (Metrosideros lucida, etc.). In the 


central and eastern portions where the forests have been burned, 
there occur, in somewhat dense masses, various Veronicas and 
Campanulas ( Wahlenbergia saxicold), Gentians of different kinds, 
beautiful Ranunculuses, and numerous species of Composites 
{Craspedia and Celmisia). 

Towards the south, and also in the Auckland and Campbell 
Islands, Heaths (genus Dracophylluni), Rubiaceous plants [Co- 
prosma), and species of Araliaceae {Aralia and Panax) become 
more abundant, and Violets, Epilobiums, Euphrasias, and Gna- 
p/ialium are met with there, as well as in the Alpine zones. 

The Fauna of New Zealand is characteristic in the highest 
degree of an independent region, and is of a very peculiar nature. 
The insects constitute one of its most interesting features. Our 
first impulse is to contrast them with those of the lands most 
adjacent, and to compare the species with those of Tasmania and 
the southern portions of Australia, but the resemblances are few. 
We are, in fact, in a different world. We do not meet with 
Australian or American species, as is the case with the plants, 
with the exception of three or four species of Lepidoptera, The 
differences also in the distribution of plants whose seeds can be 
carried a considerable distance, and of the animals indigenous 
to the soil, are very considerable, and it is necessary in our 
researches to take these into account. 

Some New Zealand insects are related to peculiar genera, 
which have a certain affinity with types represented either in 
Australia or in the islands of the Pacific* ; but the greater num- 
ber are allied to genera which have representatives in the nor- 
thern hemisphere. The insects and arachnids, on the whole, are 
such as occur in very temperate or even cold climates, and have 
in general the sombre aspect of central-European species. The 
most remarkable forms of the families Cerambycidce and Scara- 
beidce disappear towards the south ; where, on the other hand, 
the weevils, and particularly the carniverous coleoptera (Cara- 
bid<e) predominate. The insects of Stewart Island, and particu- 
larly of the Auckland Islands, remind us in their general 
appearance of Scandinavian or even of Lapland species. 

New Zealand possesses no terrestrial mammals. The existence 
of an indigenous rat was formerly spoken of, but it does not 
occur now. Of bats there are only two species. On the other 
hand the birds are of the highest importance as one of the fea- 
tures of the fauna, and at no very remote period this importance 
was even greater than it is at the present day. 

Some species of rails and water-fowl are singularly character- 
istic. One of the most magnificent of these appears to be extinct 
(Notomis mantelli). The Gallidse have only a single represen- 
tative, a quail ( Coturuix Novcz Zealaudice), whose early extinction 
appears probable. A very fine pigeon (Carpophaga Novce- 
Zealaiidice),\s, characteristic of the region. The Fringillidse, which 

*The genera Prionoplus, Coptamma, Navomorpha, Dorcadida, Xylotoles (fam. 
Cerambycidce) ; Pyronota (fam. Scardbeidce) ; Dinarida U~am. Locustidce. ) 


are somewhat numerous, have species which are allied to the 
crows, starlings, tits, honey-birds, thrushes, and especially to the 
warblers. The greater number of these are peculiar to the 
country, but many can be named which are also found in 
Australia or in Polynesia. One bird (Hetevolocha acutivostvis) is 
of a type quite peculiar to New Zealand, and has no near resem- 
blance to any other known form. 

In this fauna parrots of different genera occur, namely, one 
parroquet ( Pldfycercus Novce-Zealandice and its variety P. auviceps) ; 
the nestors, birds of a very characteristic type, confined to New 
Zealand and Norfolk Island ; and, strangest of all the psittacidse, 
the great nocturnal parrot (Strigops habroptilus). 

Of the cursorial birds (Stmthionidce), the apteryx with absolutely 
rudimentary wings and a long 'curved beak, is still extant. But 
the most remarkable New Zealand birds are now extinct ; these 
were allied to the ostrich and cassowary, and were as tall as a 
giraffe. The first inhabitants of New Zealand knew them and 
called them Moas ; traditions have preserved the memory of 
these extraordinary creatures, and their name still lives in the 
Maori language. Some forty years ago a number of bones of 
these gigantic birds, collected from caverns, river-beds, and 
swamps, were taken to London, and from these materials Prof. 
R. Owen was enabled to build up the skeletons of several spe- 
cies, which he classed under the genera Dinomis and Palapteryx. 
Subsequent researches have brought to light considerable quan- 
tities of the bones of these birds from nearly all parts of New 
Zealand. From an excavation in the Glenmark swamp, near 
the Waipara river, in Wellington Province, Prof. Julius von 
Haast obtained the bones of 171 individuals. P^eathers, tendons, 
and fragments of the skin of Dinomis have also been met with ; 
so that there is reason to believe that the extinction of these 
birds is very recent. The hope of finding living specimens of 
Dinomis or Palapteryx in some isolated locality still exists among 
naturalists. During the time that these gigantic birds were so 
prevalent in these lands there lived also a bird-of-prey of colossal 
proportions (Harpagomis moorei, Haast). 

The Auckland Islands appear, both by their flora and fauna, 
to be absolutely inseparable from the southern part of New Zea- 
land. In spite of its inhospitable climate, the storm-beaten 
Macquarrie Island is inhabited by the New Zealand parroquet. 
It is difficult to imagine that a bird so sedentary in its habits 
had ever crossed the sea, a distance of 500 or 600 miles, to alight 
upon one of the most desolate spots in the world. In Campbell 
Island, though less visited by icebergs, there are neither parrots 
nor any other terrestrial birds, but the vegetation offers a close 
resemblance to the Auckland Islands and the colder parts of 
New Zealand, while possessing some peculiarities of its own. 
We have little information regarding the life upon either Bounty 
or Antipodes Islands, but we know that on the latter Phormium 


and some other New Zealand plants grow, and that the parroquet 
is also found there. 

With regard to the Chatham Islands, which have been more 
completely explored than the scattered islets lying at a greater 
or less distance from the main islands, the vegetation both on 
the low and high lands is found to be nearly identical with that 
of those parts of New Zealand which are situated at the same 
latitudes. Only two or three plants peculiar to the country are 
met with * New Zealand birds abound there. Leaving out of 
account those species which are capable of a sustained flight, we 
find in the occurrence of certain other species a well-demonstrated 
proof of an isolation which occurred at no very distant period. 
One of these species which is found in the Chatham Islands is 
the southern rail (Ocydvomus australis), a running bird, with rudi- 
mentary wings. We also meet with the big night-parrot (Strigops 
habroptilus), whose wings are not strong enough to enable the bird 
to fly. The insects which have been observed are similar to 
those of New Zealand. 

In Norfolk Island, situated about 5deg. lat. north of New 
Zealand, tropical forms make their appearance in the fauna and 
flora, and yet the resemblance between the plants and animals 
of these two regions is sufficiently striking. The vegetation, 
like that of New Zealand, is characterised by the abundance of 
its ferns. On its little archipelago we notice the same tree-fern 
(CvMea medullaris), the same palm, the same liliaceous plants 
(Phormium, Cordyline austmlis, and Dianella intermedia), and the same 
pepper-trees {Piperomia urvilleana and Piper excels.i). More remark- 
able still, we there meet with the parrots of the genus Nestor, 
a remarkable type of birds, and very characteristic of New 

The Kermadec Islands, lying to the east of the Norfolk 
Islands, are still less known to us ; however, a collection of their 
plants shows that a remarkable analogy exists in the flora of 
these islands with those of Norfolk Island and New Zealand. 

Thus all the natural phenomena go to show that New Zea- 
land, with the multitude of islets situated at a greater or less 
distance from its shores, the Auckland and Macquarrie Islands 
to the south-west, Chatham, Antipodes, and Bounty Islands to 
the east, have been separated at a recent period, at a time when 
the plants and animals were found associated in the conditions 
under which they still live upon the debris of a continent or of a 
vast tract of land now, in great measure, sunk beneath the 
waves. Campbell Island, by turns submerged and elevated 
during geological epochs, was to all appearance greatly spread 
out towards New Zealand, and perhaps was united to it during 
some centuries of the present period. In this respect we should 
not be much longer in doubt, if the entomological fauna of New 
Zealand were fully studied in its relations to that of the Auck- 

* The Chatham Islands do not possess the Pittosporece, Metrosideros or Cordyline 
of New Zealand. 


land and Stewart Islands.* On the north, Norfolk and Kerma- 
dec Islands appear to be equally closely related to New Zealand, 
if not dependent on it. As soon as all the delails of the flora 
and fauna of these little groups can be fully compared, certainty 
on these points will be arrived at. 

What we now know without doubt, is the existence, in recent 
ages of the globe, perhaps even at an epoch not very far distant 
from the present, of a vast land of which New Zealand and the 
surrounding islands are the vestiges. The conditions of the 
actual faunas and floras furnish positive proofs of this, and in 
addition to these another may be added. If we examine charts 
in which the depths of the sea are indicated, we must be struck 
with the fact that in all the maritime region which embraces 
those lands which we regard as the remains of a continent, the 
depth of the water is not very great. Beyond the limits of this 
region the depths are profound. The ancient Terra Australis has 
been submerged, but it has not been swallowed up in an abyss. 
Upheavals may perhaps elevate it some day, either in whole or 
part, above the waters. 

In considering the accumulations of Moa bones observed 
over such wide extents of country, we can figure to ourselves the 
enormous numbers of these gigantic birds which must have 
existed on the plateaux or in the plains of New Zealand, at a 
date doubtless not far distant. It is difficult to believe that the 
total destruction of these remarkable creatures was accomplished 
by the Maoris, who were always somewhat thinly scattered along 
the sea coasts of the South Island. It is almost certain that 
physical occurrences were the first cause of this destruction. 
Dispersed over a vast land, the Moas had an easy existence ; 
but as the land became gradually submerged, they were com- 
pelled to take refuge on those portions which remained. . Under 
these new conditions the Moas would perish by hundreds in 
those localities where they were crowded together in great num- 
bers. The extinction of these gigantic birds furnishes thus a 
new proof of the submergence of the Southern Continent. 

At the present time a vast deal of information is still wanted 
concerning the floras of the small groups of islands, and in par- 
ticular more precise knowledge of the entomological fauna of all 
the smaller islands. For the further pursuit of these researches 
I would address a pressing appeal to the naturalists of New 
Zealand. In that country during the last score of years, several 
investigators have distinguished themselves by researches of sur- 
passing interest. It is by them, or by their pupils, that a com- 
plete exploration of the islands which surround New Zealand 
must be made. We must not forget that the most insignificant 
plants or the most pitiful-looking insects become the signs from 

* M. Henri Filhol, attached to the Transit of Venus expedition in 1874, having 
made a careful study of the soil (rocks) of Campbell Island, believes that it has been 
separated from New Zealand since the middle tertiary epoch. The absence of 
parrots and other terrestrial birds seems to justify this opinion. Other facts appear 
to contradict it. 


which those who set themselves to understand the history of the 
physical world would draw their conclusions. 

M. Alph. Milne Edwards, in reply to the communication of 
M. Em. Blanchard, made the following observations : — 

" New Zealand, from the point of view of its fauna, offers 
real analogies with certain other lands which are, however, geo- 
graphically very far distant ; these are the Mascarene Islands.- 
In Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez, as in New Zealand, there 
were formerly no terrestrial mammals, with the exception of 
some bats ; all those which are now found there having been 
transported by human agencies. They had a varied population 
of autochthonous birds incapable of flight, among which the 
most remarkable were the Dodo, the Solitaire, the Giant (? le 
Giant), the Blue-bird, and several species belonging to the curious 
type of the Ocydromidse, of which our learned colleague has just 
been speaking. It was after a study of this ancient avi-fauna, 
which is absolutely extinct at the present day, that I spoke as 
follows in the Academy in 1867 : — ' It is difficult to believe that 
islands so small, and apparently so little favourable to the pros- 
perity of their respective faunas, should each have been the birth- 
place of species which are so distinctly characterised and so 
different from all other existing forms. It appears to me more 
probable that each of the volcanic cones which constitute the 
nucleus of those islets now scattered over a wide extent of ocean, 
existed previous to the subsidence of widely-extended lands, and 
that each served as a final refuge for the zoological population 
of the circumjacent regions which in our day lie deeply sub- 
merged.' Some years later, after renewed researches, I added 
that this fauna, while quite different from that of Madagascar, 
Africa, India, or of Australia, had yet such points of resemblance 
with the New Zealand fauna that we could not hesitate to class 
it among the southern faunae. It is therefore possible that it 
extended much further to the south, and thus the idea is sug- 
gested of a great land which existed in that part of the Atlantic 
Ocean which, at the present day, we find occupied with immense 
banks of marine plants known by the common name of kelp. 

" The absence of mammalia from any particular region does 
not of necessity imply that the country is one unsuitable for 
them to live in, but that it has been separated from the rest of 
the globe since before the advent of mammals. 

" This is what has taken place in the Mascarene Islands, in 
New Zealand, and many islands in Polynesia. I had the oppor- 
tunity of working out the idea in a long research on the fauna of 
the southern regions, which gained the Bordin prize in 1874 and 
which was analysed by our regretted colleague, M. Roulin, in a 
report read before the Academy. I then sought to utilize the 
information furnished by the study of the New Zealand fauna, 
to show the relations which formerly existed between this great 


land and the islands, now widely separated, which surround it * 

11 Chatham, Norfolk, and Lord Howe's Islands are only the 
remnants of a more extended continent, and from this point of 
view my researches accord with those of Captain Hutton, Mr. 
Wallace, and those which M. Blanchard has just made known to 
us. There is one point, however, on which I do not agree with 
my learned teacher. I do not think that the Antarctic islands 
such as the Aucklands, Campbell, and Macquarrie have in former 
periods been united to New Zealand. If we find in the Auck- 
land Islands certain birds identical with those of the latter 
country, it is to be observed that they are species provided with 
powerful wings, such as the parroquets of the genus Cyanoramphus, 
which occur with almost insignificant variations of size and 
plumage from New Caledonia (C. saisetti) to Macquarrie Island 
(C. erythrotis) ; their presence can therefore be explained by their 
transport across considerable extents of ocean. In the Auck- 
land Islands we find certain special ornithological forms which 
have never been described from New Zealand or elsewhere ; for 
example a duck and a puffin ? (un Harle). None of the flight- 
less birds which are so characteristic of New Zealand, such 
as the Apteryx, Dinornis, Notornis, Ocydromus or Strigops, have 
ever been found either in the fossil or in the living state in 
the Auckland, Campbell,*)- or Macquarrie Islands. 

"In researches on geographical zoology, very great importance 
must be attached to the means by which animals are enabled to 
find their way from one point to another, and the presence or 
absence of a certain species may be of far greater importance 
than the presence or absence of a very great number of other 
species. From this point of view the coefficient of importance 
of Ocydromus, Apteryx, or Strigops ought to be very high, while 
that of Parrots with long wings, or of little Passerine birds ought 
to remain very low. It is from considerations of this nature 
that I am disposed to think that the Auckland, Campbell, and 
Macquarrie Islands have not formed part of the New Zealand 
continent, to which, on the other hand, Lord Howe and Norfolk 
Islands on the north-west, and Chatham Island on the east, 
appear to have been joined." 

M. E. Blanchard replied to these verbal observations as fol- 
fows : — " In recalling to our recollection his researches on the 

* He (AI. A. Milne Edwards) h?s called attention to certain facts which appea r 
to him to show that at an epoch not far distant from the present time, not only were 
the three portions of New Zealand in actual communication, but that regions which 
have since disappeared from sight united them more or less distinctly to certain 
islands of Polynesia ; whereas no connection of this kind appears to have existed 
between New Zealand and Australia, America, or the ancient continents, since the 
period when mammalia first came into existence in these different parts of the world. 
(Report presented to the Acadamy, 24th November, 1874, by M. Roulin, in the 
name of the Commission appointed to award the Bordin prize.) 

t The researches made at Campbell Island by M. H. Filhol, during the Transit 
of Venus Expedition, have furnished us with very complete details of the fauna of 
this island. 


extinct birds of the Mascarene Islands M. Alph. Milne Edwards 
treats of a subject which has no connection with that which I 
have brought before the Academy. I published about ten years 
ago a work on Madagascar, in which I compared the flora and 
fauna of that great island with those of other lands ; but I never 
conceived the idea of uniting the Mascarene Islands to Mada- 
gascar. It is easy to satisfy oneself on that point. 

" I am astonished at the idea of a comparison between the 
Mascarene Islands and New Zealand. Taken as a whole, the 
floras and faunas of these regions are as dissimilar as it is pos- 
sible to imagine. There certainly exist on both birds belonging 
to the Ocydromidce (of very different species, however), but this is 
only one of those points of analogy, of which examples occur by 
hundreds and thousands, where certain genera are represented 
in parts of the world which have a totally different general cha- 
racter, by species more or less closely related. 

" With regard to the remarks which he has made touching the 
distinction to be drawn between beings which are absolutely 
confined to the regions where they have been born and those 
which are furnished with active means of locomotion, I have not 
been behindhand in proclaiming the necessity of this distinction. 
The Academy can judge, even in the case before us, with what 
care I have endeavoured to take as characteristic forms those 
species which are incapable of accomplishing long voyages. 
With regard to the forms of life in the Auckland Islands and 
New Zealand, the differences are only of such a kind as are to be 
observed in every country which extends under latitudes where 
the climate changes in a very sensible degree. As regards the 
New Zealand parroquet, it is not very credible that bands of a 
bird of this type, setting out from New Zealand should have suc- 
ceeded in crossing over 200 or 300 leagues of ocean in order to 
breed in the desolate Macquarrie Island. Besides this, certain 
other considerations lead to the belief that Macquarrie Island is 
one of the remaining vestiges of that Terra Australis which has 
disappeared beneath the sea. There can be no doubt that all 
the researches which I lay claim to, and those which I hope to 
undertake shortly, will carry with them a triumphant confirma- 
tion of the facts which have already been revealed to us by 
manifest proofs." 



(Read before l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 27th February, 1882.) 

The long residence which I made in 1874 on Campbell 
Island, when I accompanied the expedition entrusted with the 


observation of the Transit of Venus, enabled me to ascertain in a 
very exact manner, all the geological, botanical, and zoological 
features peculiar to this little southern land. The study of the 
collections formed at this time, and which I have now nearly 
brought to an end, enables me to introduce some new elements 
into the discussion relating to the geographical extensions which 
New Zealand seems to have possessed during different geolo- 
logical periods. 

In 1872, Captain Hutton, in a paper in the " Transactions of 
the New Zealand Institute," basing his observations as well on 
the geological structure as on the geographical distribution of 
the species of animals, first drew attention to a series of move- 
ments of elevation and depression which New Zealand had 
undergone. The last great continental period of this land 
appears to have existed, according to him, at the commencement 
of the pliocene, and it appears to have come to an end about the 
middle of that geological period. It was then, according 
to the learned professor of Canterbury College, that the Moas, 
hitherto spread abroad over the great extent of land, took refuge 
as it became submerged on the portions which remained above 
water, where they rapidly succumbed in very considerable num- 
bers, in consequence of the struggle for existence which arose 
among them. In 1873, M. A. Milne Edwards, in his work on 
the southern faunas, was led, on his part, to call the attention of 
naturalists to certain zoological facts which seemed to show that 
at an epoch probably not far distant from our own New Zealand 
was united to different islands of Polynesia. In the following 
year (1874), Wallace, in his work on " The Geographical Distri- 
bution of Animals," discussed Prof. Hutton's conclusions, and 
was led to admit with that learned naturalist, the existence, at a 
geologically recent period, of a New Zealand possessing a geo- 
graphical extension much greater than that of the present day. 
At that epoch, he says, Norfolk Island on the north, the 
Chathams on the east, and Auckland and Macquarrie Islands 
on the south, were united to it. It is this great Austral land, 
thus acknowledged and limited by M.M. Hutton, Milne Edwards, 
and Wallace, of which M. Blanchard has recently taken up the 
study again. 

Has Campbell Island ever formed part of this pliocene 
New Zealand continent ? This is the question which I have 
endeavoured to solve. 

In all such discussions bearing upon the probable extensions 
of certain lands, one of the most important elements to ascertain 
is that relating to the geology of the regions studied. Campbell 
Island presents a structure quite peculiar. A close examination 
of the relations existing between the rocks which constitute it, 
and the micrographic study of the lavas which cover it, have led 
me to modify completely the opinions which I expressed im- 
mediately after my return, upon its geological age, which I then 
founded solely upon external characters. 


Campbell Island is formed of two chief elements — viz, 1st, 
by a band of limestone ; and, 2ndly, lavas. The limestone band 
is jammed between two volcanic dykes, the overflows from which 
have partly covered it ; as a formation it is, therefore, anterior 
to them. This layer, the thickness of which is about 70 metres, 
has evidently been formed in a very deep sea. Fossils are abso- 
lutely wanting in it, and micrographic sections have only enabled 
me to note the presence of globigerina. This limestone, which 
is of a yellowish colour and of a very characteristic appearance, 
is not met with again in any part of New Zealand. Its upper 
surface, at those parts where it is not covered by the lava, is not 
overlaid by any other terrestrial deposit. Consequently the 
position of this calcareous layer, in relation to the eruptive pro- 
ducts, can only be explained in one of two different ways : either 
it has been carried up to the surface of the sea after having been 
grasped (pineee) between the volcanic dykes which enclose it ; or 
perhaps it corresponds to the margins of the fracture which has 
formed the passage for the lava. Whichever of these two suppo- 
sitions is admitted, it is perfectly certain that the geological age 
of the island, constituted as we now see it, corresponds to the 
epoch of the appearance of the volcanic eruptions. In order to 
determine the date of these eruptions, I have endeavoured to 
seek a point of comparison in those which have taken place in 
New Zealand during well-known geological periods. In the 
prosecution of this delicate research, M. Fouque has very kindly 
given me his assistance, and in consequence the determinations 
made at the College de France are quite trustworthy. All the 
New Zealand lavas of the eocene, miocene, and commencement 
of the pliocene periods are absolutely different from those of 
Campbell Island. These last contain the mineral Anorthite, 
which is not met with in any other of the New Zealand eruptive 
products up to the geological epochs just spoken of. They are 
therefore much more basic. On the other hand, we know that 
lavas containing Anorthite have up to the present time only been 
found in post-pliocene formations ; for example, in Ireland, or in 
St. Paul and Reunion, as has recently been shown by M. Velain. 
It follows from this, that the limestone which the eruptions of 
Campbell Island have brought up, or which perhaps by its frac- 
ture has formed a passage for the lava, must have been formed 
during post-pliocene periods, that is to say, in the epoch during 
which New Zealand possessed its last great geographical exten- 
sion. It was not therefore before the very end of the pliocene 
that Campbell Island, as it now exists, appeared above the sur- 
face of the sea. 

Again, I would call attention to some facts which tend to 
show that Campbell Island has never been in connection with 
New Zealand. Throughout the whole extent of the three 
islands forming that country lizards exist, but none of their 
species are to be met with in Campbell Island. Similarly in 
none of the recent deposits of this island are the remains of moas 


to be found, whereas these occupied New Zealand during the 
whole of its last great geographical extension. The quantity of 
turf which was removed in Campbell Island in consequence of our 
excavations (for suitable positions for the instruments used in 
observing the transit) was enormous, and yet no remains were 
ever discovered except those of seals. In addition to this, all 
the other New Zealand birds which either are destitute of wings 
or have them in an atrophied condition, such as the Apteryx, 
Strigops, Notornis, and Ocydromus, are absolutely wanting in 
Campbell Island. In the last place, I would point out that it 
does not possess a single terrestrial land bird. Campbell Island 
appears, therefore, as much from a geological as from a zoologi- 
cal point of view, to be a land of recent and independent origin. 



Very little is at present known of the nesting habits of the 
Huia (Heterolocka acutirostris), and indeed, until a few years ago 
its egg was quite unknown. The information now possessed is 
extremely meagre, and the details somewhat conflicting. It 
may therefore be interesting to many persons occupied with 
zoological studies to peruse the descriptions of several eggs sup- 
posed to have been produced by this interesting bird ; there are 
now three specimens, differing so much in form and colouring 
as to cause grave doubts of their identity. 

i. The first example was brought to the Museum on 20th 
October, 1875, by a Maori, who stated that having seen a pair 
of adult Huia passing in and out of a hollow tree, he had 
examined the hole and found the egg in question, which con- 
tained a young bird. Both egg and chick were submitted to Dr. 
Buller, who described them as follows : — " The egg contained a 
young bird, apparently ready for extrusion, and both embryo 
and shell are now in the collection of the Colonial Museum. 
The egg is ovoido-conical, measuring 1*45 by 1*05 inches, and is 
of a pale stone-grey, irregularly stained, freckled and speckled 
with purplish-grey, the markings in some places running into 
dark wavy lines. The chick is apparently a male ; the bill being 
very stout, with caruncles at the angles of the mouth well deve- 
loped, and of a flesh-white colour. The whole of the body is 
bare, with the exception of what appear to be strips of coarse 
hair-like filaments, from one-half to three-quarters of an inch in 
length, and perfectly black, but which are in reality tufts of ex- 
tremely fine downy feathers, A strip of these filaments encircles 
the crown, a line passes down the course of the spine, and there 
is another along the outer edge of each wing and behind each 
thigh."— (Trans. N.Z. Inst., VIII., p. 192.) 


2. On the nth October, 1877, Dr Buller purchased from the 
same Maori another egg, stated by him to have been taken from 
the ovary of the bird. The following is Dr Buller's descrip- 
tion : — " The present specimen is more elliptical in form, measur- 
ing 1 '8 inches in length by it in its widest diameter. It is of a 
very delicate stone-grey, inclining to greyish-white, without any 
markings except at the larger end, where there are, chiefly on 
one side, some scattered rounded spots and dots of dark purple- 
grey and brown. Towards the small end there are some obso- 
lete specks, but over the greater portion of the surface the shell 
is quite plain." 

3. An egg having a beautifully fine and delicate structure, 
has just been presented to the Museum by Mr G. M. Hewson, 
who obtained it at Murimutu from the Maoris, who assured him 
it was the egg of the Huia. It measures 1*45 inches in length 
by it in its widest diameter, and is pure white without any 
trace of markings whatever. 

The points of difference presented by these three eggs are 
sufficient to cause considerable doubt as to their having been 
produced by the same species of bird ; and, indeed, the close re- 
semblance which No. 1 bears to the egg of the Kokako, and the 
striking similarity of the supposed Huia chick to the chicks of 
the Kokako, leave but little doubt that this is indeed the egg of 
the last-mentioned bird and not of the Huia, and that the 
Maori, Mikaera, was, for the sake of gain, in this instance at 
least, " treating the truth with very distant respect." 



Mr. E. J. Mier's catalogue of the Stalk- and Sessile-eyed 
Crustacea of New Zealand is a most admirable compilation, 
containing all that was known about the New Zealand Malacos- 
traca when it was published (1876) ; but it contains many species 
which do not really inhabit New Zealand. This, of course, was 
not the fault of Mr Miers ; he was bound to include everything 
that had been reported to come from New Zealand. The fault rests 
on the collectors, who have mixed up localities, and so led others 
into error. The purification of our lists can only be done in 
New Zealand, and must be the work of time, because it is gene- 
rally necessary to hesitate long before deciding to dismiss a 
name which has been once introduced. A beginning, however, 
should be made, and as I have collected, to some extent, these 
animals in many parts of New Zealand, it may perhaps be per- 
missible for me to point out what names among the stalk-eyed 
Crustacea should, in my opinion, be struck out of our list, or be 
regarded as doubtful. 


The following four species may be at once dismissed, as the 
collector states Raffles Bay to be the locality, which is in Nor- 
thern Australia and not in New Zealand, viz. Lambnis nodosus, 
Pinnotheres laticeps, Reniipcs marmoratus, and Pagurus imbricatus. Also 
Atya pilipes is said to come from Apia, Upola, which is not in New 
Zealand but in the Samoan Islands. Then I think, we may 
safely strike out the following eleven species, introduced on the 
authority of the collectors of the Novara Expedition, all of which 
are large and conspicuous, typical forms certainly not from New 
Zealand — one being the land crab of the Fiji Islands. I have 
the less hesitation in striking out these names, because the list 
of New Zealand mollusca collected by the same expedition is 
full of mistakes. These are the species I refer to — Daiva perlata, 
NepUinus sanguinolentus, Scylla serrata, Thalamita dance, Heterograpsus 
sanguineus, Heterograpsus maculatus, Varuna litterata. Cardisoma hirtipes, 
Calappahepatica, Aniculus typicus, and Paicemon omatus. The following 
three species may also I think be omitted, Neptunus pelagicus, 
Grapsus pictus, and Palinurus lalandii. 

I now give a list of seventeen species which I consider very 
doubtful, but which I am not yet prepared to dismiss — Huenia 
bifurcata, Hiastenus diacanthus, Pammithrax sternocostulatus, Micippa 
spinosa, Actcea granulata, Leptodius nudipes, Pilumnus vespertilio, Pilum- 
' nopedus serratifrons , Ozius truncatus, Neptunus sayi, Thalamita sima, Heloe- 
cius cordifonnis, Chasmagnathus subquadratus, Chasmagnathus Icevis, Leio- 
lophus planissimus, Leander natator, and Squilla nepa. 

The following possibly belong to New Zealand, but are not 
yet, so far as I know, represented in any collection in the colony 

— Leptomithrax australis, Leptodius endonis, Eudora tetraodon, Rupellioides 
convexus, N ectocarcinus integrifrms, Planes minutus, Helice lucasi, Elam- 
ena whitei, Elamena quoyi, Phlyxm losvis, Cryptodromia lateralis, Eupa. 
gurus cristatus, Clibanarius cruentatus. Clibanarius barbatus, Rhynchocinetes 
typus, Caridinia cuvvirostris, Virbiusbifidirostris, Alphaus socialis,Alph(sus 
nova zealandice, and Gonodactylus trispinosus. 

If these were taken off the list only 39 of Mr. Miers' 95 
species would remain as undoubtedly from New Zealand. To 
these must be added several species which have been since de- 
scribed in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, and 
the two following in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zo- 
ologie, series 6, Vol. iv. (1876), viz. Trichopatus huttoni (probably 
the same as Halimus hectori) and Acanthophrys Jilholi, both of which 
are represented in the Otago Museum. Stenorhynchus fissifrons is 
also described from Auckland, New Zealand, by Mr. Haswell in 
the Proceedings Linn. Soc. of N. S. Wales, iii., p. 409 (1879) 5 
and Mr. Wood-Mason, in the Ann. Mag. of Nat. Hist., series 4, 
Vol. xvii., p. 263, gives New Zealand as a locality for Coronis 

Remains of crabs are found fossil at Wanganui, Oamaru, and 
perhaps other places. Harpactocarcinus tumidus (H. Woodward, 
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1876) is an eocene form from Double 
Corner, on the West Coast of the South Island. 




If I had been asked two months ago to name the man whose 
death would be the greatest loss to biological science, I should 
unhesitatingly have said, Francis Balfour. Not because his was 
the greatest name — there are living biologists whose fame his 
would certainly not have surpassed, hardly, perhaps, have 
equalled ; but because, while their work was largely, if not mainly, 
already done, his, we all hoped, was mainly to come, and with 
such results as he had achieved from twenty-two to thirty what 
might we not have looked for from thirty to sixty ? The man 
who could write the " Treatise on Comparative Embryology " 
in his sixth lustre, could scarcely have failed but for that terrible 
accident on Mont Blanc, to have made a reputation of the high- 
est order. As it is he has won a place by the side of Rathke, 
Johannes Miiller, and von Baer. 

What struck me most forcibly on meeting Balfour, next to 
the charm of his face and manner, was the singular absence of 
all those faults which may be summed up in the one word 
"young-mannishness." Even many years ago he had that maturity 
of judgment, that respect for the opinions of others without any 
yielding of his own convictions, which most men only acquire 
in middle life, if then. The wonderful completeness of his nature 
is in nothing better shown than in the circumstance that while en- 
gaged in absorbing original investigations of his own, he not only 
performed all the duties of a college lecturer, but guided the re- 
searches of his advanced pupils so systematically and so 
thoroughly that he would never allow a single figure to pass of 
which he would not give a complete account. It was this power 
of entering into the work of others without injury to his own 
which fitted him so eminently for his position at Cambridge, and 
which has made the first Professor of Animal Morphology co- 
equal with the first Trinity Praelector in Physiology* in the glory 
of founding a true school of biology in an English University. 

A glance through the bibliography of the last few years will 
show how varied and how important his original work has been, 
many of his researches marking distinct epochs in the history of 
embryology. His power of estimating the true value of his own 
and others' work, and of forming a clear and impartial opinion 
on disputed questions, is shown again and again in his great 
work on Comparative Embryology — the first attempt at a com- 
plete treatise on the subject, and one of the very few thoroughly 
satisfactory biological text books in the English language, a 
book in which exhaustive knowledge of all aspects of the science 

* Dr. Michael Foster. 


and great generalizing powers are supplemented by clear treat- 
ment, orderly arrangement, and judicial fairness in the discussion 
of all matters of theory ; in which, further, the author has evi- 
dently given to the illustrations the same care he has bestowed 
upon the text — a rare virtue in the writer of a text-book. 

Those who wish to form some slight estimate of the loss his 
death has been to his friends and to Cambridge, should read Dr. 
Foster's article in " Nature," or the " British Medical Journal," or 
Mr. J. W. Clark's in the " Academy." I, who knew him, alas, 
but slightly, feel rather as if I had lost a dear friend. I never 
had an acquaintance whom I so desired to know intimately ; 
never a contemporary for whom I felt such veneration. He was 
almost the only man of whom I never heard a disparaging re- 
mark. Everyone seemed to feel that there was something in 
Balfour which raised him far above the men with whom he would 
naturally be compared. He was a man for whom another 
" In Memoriam " might well be written. 



SIR, — I must request you to allow me space for a reply to 
the remarkable assertions of Mr. Buchanan, at p. 182 of your 
last issue. 

Agrostis muscoides. 

I described this species in Vol. XIII., Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 
385, and pointed out that Mr. Buchanan had confused it with 
A. subulata, Hook f., a very different plant. Mr. Buchanan does 
not explicitly deny having fallen into this error, but states, " it is 
evident that Mr. Kirk has missed the intention of Hooker to 
abandon this antarctic grass as a species, having proved it to be 
only a variety of A. muelleri." He further adds, "the specific 
name subulata being thus open to use was adopted in the ' Hand- 
book of N.Z. Flora' as Agrostis canina var. subulata." The last 
sentence is substantially correct ; but most unfortunately for Mr. 
Buchanan's view of the case it does not apply to A . muelleri, as 
his statement would lead one to believe, but to the original 
A . subulata. There is not the slightest evidence of any intention 
on the part of Sir Joseph Hooker to regard A . subulata as a variety 
of A. muelleri. On the contrary, the two plants are kept distinct 
as varieties, which may possess claim to specific rank. In fact 
the true A . subulata differs from A . muelleri to a much greater ex- 
tent than that species differs from A. canina. It is evident that 
Mr. Buchanan has never seen the true A. subulata, and is not 
aware that it is found in the South Island. 

It is singular that Mr. Buchanan makes no mention of this 
supposed intention of Sir Joseph Hooker to regard A. subulata as 


a variety of A. muslleri, either in the " Indigenous Grasses of New 
Zealand " or in the " Manual." 

Triodia exigua. 

Mr Buchanan contends that this is the Danthonia pauciflora of R. 
Br., and consequently not a Triodia. He asserts that " all species 
of Triodia have the generic 3 teeth equal in size," and that cilated 
lodicules afford " the best generic character in Danthonia, and 
never absent." I will only remark that both these statements 
are incorrect. In several species of Triodia the teeth of the 
flowering glume, which I presume are those referred to by Mr. 
Buchanan as the "generic 3 teeth," are very unequal, and several 
species of Danthonia have non-ciliated lodicules, amongst the 
latter D pauciflora, vvhich it is evident Mr. Buchanan has never 
seen. Happily he can satisfy himself that he is mistaken in this 
matter with but little trouble. An excellent drawing of the true 
plant is given by Hooker in " Flora Tasmannise," t. 162. This 
represents a plant with keeled leaves, and a branched, nodding 
panicle.* The dissections show the lodicules, much larger than 
in our plant, of a totally different shape, and not ciliated. I may 
add that both flowering glume and pale differ widely from those 
of Triodia exigua. 

An examination of fresh specimens will, I doubt not, satisfy 
Mr. Buchanan that the supposed awn is a minute middle tooth, 
so that the plant must be referred to Triodia, an opinion that was 
held by the late General Munro, as I am informed by the late 
Sir Joseph Hooker. 

Hierochloe alpina var. suh-mutica. 

Mr. Buchanan admits having figured this species in mistake 
for Danthonia Buchanani ; but it is a matter for regret that the 
admission is not made in a more graceful manner. 

Olea Cunninghamii — Santalum Cunninghamii. 

Mr. Buchanan does not deny my statement as to his having 
mistaken Olea Cunninghamii for tantalum, but terms it " doubtful." 
In the Canterbury and Otago Museums he will find specimens 
of the Olive, mis-named Santalum, in both cases obtained from 
the Colonial Museum. He asserts, however, that " at the time 
referred to — 12 years ago — Mr. Kirk knew as little about our 
native olives as Buchanan did, neither flowers nor fruit of any of 
the species having then been seen." Had this statement been 
true as regards myself, Mr. Buchanan could not possibly have 
known it ; it is simply a gross misstatement. Not to mention 
that fruit and flowers of these species of olive are described in 
"Flora Novae-Zealandiae," published thirty years ago, specimens of 
the flowers and fruit of two species were collected by me in 1863, 
the year of my arrival in the Colony. Even as far back as 1 867, 

* By a clerical error " many " was written for " few " in my reference to this 
plant, p. 379 "Trans. N.Z. Inst.. XIV." To this extent, but no further, Mr. 
Buchanan may fairly object to my description. 


fifteen years ago, flowering specimens of two species collected by 
me on the Great Barrier Island were forwarded to the Colonial 
Museum, with flowering specimens of Santalum — see " Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., I., pp. 148 and 151." Some time afterwards I came to 
reside in Wellington (1874). Having occasion to refer to the olives 
in the herbarium of the Colonial Museum, I found all the species, 
whether in flower or fruit, mixed with each other, as well as with 
Santalum, and, at Mr. Buchanan's request, arranged them cor- 
rectly. I mention these small personal matters with extreme 
reluctance, and simply because Mr. Buchanan's reckless asser- 
tion leaves me no alternative. 

Stilbocarpa polavis. 

Mr. Buchanan takes exception to my statement that of three 
species of this plant from the Auckland Islands cultivated in the 
Colonial Botanic Garden, side by side with one from Stewart 
Island, two of the former had made a close approach to the latter, 
having lost the stout brown bristles on the leaves, which had 
become smooth instead of plaited. The fact is past dispute none 
the less, and is very suggestive. 

It will certainly not add to Mr. Buchanan's reputation for 
critical ability that he considers Mr. J. B. Armstrong " only did 
what any observant botanist would have done " in describing the 
Stewart Island plant as a distinct species on characters drawn 
from the leaf alone, for that gentleman "had not been able to obtain 
either flowers or fruit." He states that his plant has " a closed, 
not open, sinus," wants the stout bristles of the Auckland Island 
plant, and has a terete-petiole, while the latter has a •' flattened 
and deeply channelled petiole." 

An examination of hundreds of specimens of the Stewart 
Island plant shows that the sinus is invariably open, except in 
immature leaves. The petioles are irregularly terete, while those 
of the Auckland Island plant, although compressed (semi-terete, 
"Hand Book N.Z. Flora, p. 100"), are certainly not flattened, 
neither are they " deeply channelled," a faint groove only being 
discernible on the upper surface, rarely extending the whole 
length of the petiole, and sometimes obliterated entirely ; it can- 
not be detected in the dried specimens ; further the petioles of 
the young leaves are terete as in the Stewart Island plant. I 
have already shown that in some cases at least the stout bristles 
disappear under cultivation. So far as the leaves are concerned 
the differences are simply what might be expected from different 
climatal conditions. I can only express my regret that any 
botanist should dream of making a new species on characters 
derived from organs liable to such excessive variation as the 
leaves of araliads, especially those of the herbaceous section. 

At the same time it is possible that the fruit of the Stewart 
Island plant may afford characters of sufficient importance to 
warrant its separation. During my stay on Stewart Island I 
examined numerous specimens of fruit in an immature condition, 
but unfortunately had to leave the island before mature fruit 


could be obtained. I purpose at an early date to lay before your 
readers the results of my observations, although confessedly 

Stipa setacea. 

I referred Mr Buchanan's S. petriei to this species, and see 
not the slightest reason to alter my opinion. Mr. Petrie has 
kindly sent me specimens of both forms, one with a villous (not 
setaceous) flowering glume which Mr. Buchanan admits to be 
5. setacea ; the other differing only in the flowering glume being 
pubescent, and having two minute teeth at the apex. Mr. 
Buchanan will find that the flowering glume of S. setacea exhibits 
a great amount of variation in the degree of hairiness. 

Mr. Buchanan has misquoted what I have written upon this. 
He represents me as saying : — " S. petriei of Buchanan's Indigen- 
ous Grasses of New Zealand must be referred to this species, as 
not improbably it is merely naturalised in Otago, and has no 
claim to be considered indigenous." If your readers will refer to 
" Trans. N.Z. Inst," vol. XIV., p. 386, they will see I have made 
no such absurd statement, but referred 5. petriei to S. setacea } alto- 
gether independently of its indigenous or exotic origin, not 
because of it. In fact, the latter point is treated in a separate 
paragraph, so that it is difficult to offer any reasonable excuse 
for Mr Buchanan's confusion of ideas. 

With regard to its nativity, I may state that Mr. Petrie 
recently informed me he considered it to be an introduced plant. 
I fail altogether to see the slightest force in Mr. Buchanan's 
remark with regard to S. micrantha, as the conditions under which 
the two plants are found are not parallel. 

Poa foliosa, var. a. — Festuca scoparia. 

Here again Mr. Buchanan has been guilty of misquotation. 
Professing to quote from my short note in p. 348, Trans. XIV., he 
writes : — " P. foliosa, the typical form recorded by Buchanan in his 
1 Hand-book of the N.Z. Grasses,' from the Snares and Chatham 
Islands, in the latter incorrectly, F. scoparia which is omitted from 
his list of Chatham Island plants, having been mistaken for it." 
Your readers will scarcely believe without referring to the 
original, that the words in italics are inserted by Mr. Buchanan 
himself. He proceeds to call this a " mysterious statement," and 
asks how then could it (Poa foliosa) have been mistaken for 
F. scoparia ? The mystery is entirely of his own making, for my 
assertion was exactly the reverse. The Festuca was mistaken for 
the Poa, which has not been found in the Chatham Islands. Mr. 
Buchanan himself showed me in the collection of Chatham 
Island plants in the Colonial Museum what he called Poa foliosa, 
but which was Festuca scoparia. The former is mentioned in his 
list of Chatham Island plants, while the latter is omitted, and 
although I have examined collections of Chatham Island plants 
made by Captain Gilbert Mair, Archdeacon W. H. Williams, 
Mr. H. T. Travers, and others, I have seen no specimens of the 
Poa, while the Festuca is found in nearly all. There is not the 


slightest evidence to show that the Poa is found on the Chatham 

Mr. Buchanan states that the Feshica is found on rocky parts 
of the coast of both islands, but I cannot find that it has at any 
time been found in the North Island. Would Mr. Buchanan 
kindly mention any North Island locality in which it has been 
collected ? Small specimens of F. littoralis have been mistaken 
for it, but that is only found on loose sands, never on rocks. The 
specimens in Dr. Sinclair's herbarium appear to have been col- 
lected, not at Auckland, but on the Auckland Islands by Gene- 
ral Bolton. 

Both the Poa and Festuca were reported by Mr. Buchanan as 
having been collected by him in the northern part of the Auck- 
land district, see Trans. II., p. 246, III., p. 173. 

I would suggest to Mr. Buchanan the propriety of adopting a 
more courteous tone in any further communication he may make. 
He offers as an excuse for one of his errors what he is pleased 
to term " a lapse of the reasoning faculties." The fact of his 
being constrained to make an excuse of this kind should at least 
prevent him from imputing to me, even indirectly, a desire to 
bring discredit on the Colonial Museum, when correcting his 
errors, an imputation which comes from him with a peculiarly 
bad grace. — I am, &c, 


September 15, 1882. 

Canterbury Museum, 

September 29th, 1882. 

Sir, — I fear Professor Hutton, in answer to his letter of July 
20th in No. 5 of your jonrnal, has altogether missed the point at 
issue when coming to the assistance of Mr. Maskell. The sub- 
ject was not whether the paintings were executed on a coating 
of " stalagmite " or on the surface of the original rock itself, but 
whether that portion of the surface which had scaled and is still 
scaling off consisted of flakes of the rock itself, brought about by 
weathering as stated by me, or of a thin coating of stalagmite 
(according to Professor Hutton at most i-50th of one inch in 
thickness) as stated by Mr. Maskell. 

Professor Hutton having shown his specimens of "stalagmite" 
at a meeting of the Philosophical Institute on August 3rd, 
which, unfortunately, I was prevented from attending, I shall lay 
the proofs of the correctness of my statements before the next 
meeting by exhibiting a number of flakes brought from the 
locality in question ; at the same time I shall show that Profes- 
sor Hutton's so-called stalagmite is only the chemically 
weathered surface of the rocks. There are two changes which 
calcareous rocks undergo, when subjected to the influence of 


weathering — one of a chemical, the other of a mechanical nature. 
The chemical change occurs near the surface by oxidation, and 
by the formation of hydrates. The mechanical effect of weather- 
ing — exhibited principally in the more exposed lower portion of 
the rock-shelter — consists in the formation of flakes from y& to 
1 }4 inch in thickness, and from 2 to 12 inches in diameter, follow- 
ing the contours of the rock-shelter, and altogether independent 
of stratification. 

I may also be allowed to observe that Professor Hutton has 
misapplied the term stalagmite, because, according to the usual 
geological nomenclature, stalagmite is only used for that calcare- 
ous deposit which is found on the bottom of a cave or a similar 
sheltered locality from the evaporation of water, holding car- 
bonate of lime in solution, as stated by Professor Hutton himself 
on page 25 of his "Class-book of Elementary Geology": — 
" Thus water dripping from the top of limestone caves forms 
long icicle-like pendants called stalactites, and where the same 
water drops on the floor of the cave, it forms a crust called stalag- 
mite." According to English custom* the expression stalactite is 
used in a general sense for all deposits of that nature, therefore 
also for a calcareous crust on the walls, for which the continental 
geologists use the expression, calcareous matter. 

However, as before observed, Professor Hutton's so-called 
stalagmite is, when present, only the outermost portion of the 
chemically weathered darker surface of the limestone itself. In 
many instances, that very thin whitish outer layer does not exist, 
and the paintings are executed on the darker portions forming 
the very surface. 

Julius von Haast. 



Napier, 14th Aug. — The President, the Bishop of Waiapu, in 
the chair. 

New members — Messrs Balfour and Drennan. 

Papers— (I.) " Historical Traditions of the Taupo and East 
Coast tribes," Mr. Locke. This had general reference to the 
Taupo Maoris, and to the people of Tuwharetoa in particular ; 
their ancient feuds and fightings, their genealogical descent, and 
consequent claims on the Taupo district. At the close, enquiries 
and remarks were made bearing upon it by Messrs Weber, Holder, 
Hamilton, and Dr. Spencer, also by the Hon. Secretary, which 
were replied to by Mr. Locke. 

Mr. Colenso read a few pertinent extracts from Mr. Montague 
Lubbock's article on " the Colour Sense " (in the April number of 
the Fortnightly Review), as ably and clearly sustaining and prov- 
ing the practical and entire colour sense of all people, civilised and 
savage, and that from the most ancient times — as was brought 

* See Lyell's " Students' Elements of Geology " (1871), p. 133. 


forward fully by him, Mr. Colenso, in his paper on this subject 
read before the society last year, and published in the last vol. 
(xiv.) of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 

The Hon. Secretary showed several exhibits he had received 
from country members, among them a specimen of a species of rail 
(Rallus pliilippensis), received from Mr. W. K. Chambers, of Poverty 
Bay — a kind once plentiful in New Zealand, but now approaching 
extinction ; a fine coal-black mouse, from a lady in the 70- mile 
Bush, believed to be a variety of the common mouse, which is 
known to be sportive in its colouring at home ; and a specimen of 
petrified wood from Porangahau, found in situ underlying a lime- 
stone formation. 

gth Oct. — Dr Spencer, Vice-President, in the chair. 

New members— Messrs E. B. Bendall, H. J. Gilberd, and W. 

Papers — (1.) "Legends and Traditions of the ancient Maoris 
of the East Coast and of Hawke's Bay," Part 11, by Mr Locke, 

(2.) " Fresh-water Algae," by Dr. Spencer. Some of the species 
described were obtained from the hot springs, flourishing in waters 
of i3o°-i36° F. 

(3.) "New species of plants," by Mr Colenso, F.L.S. These 
included species of Carmichcelia, Olearia, and Symphogyna, collected 
at Blenheim, by Mr F. Reader. 

Numerous exhibits were made by several of the members. 


Sydney, 2nd August. — Mr. C. Rolleston, C.M.G., president, in 
the chair. 

New members — Rev. John Milne Curran, Mr. Haynes Lovell 
M.R.C.S., Mr. Mark J. Hammond, Mr. George Thos. Hankins 
M.R.C.S., Mr. Edward Palmer. 

The chairman read a letter from Professor James D. Dana, of 
Yale College, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A., acknowledging the 
award of the Clarke Memorial medal. 

The President announced that Professor Liversidge had been 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. 

Mr. J. S. Chard read a paper on " A new method of determin- 
ing the true North or South." The chief feature is the employ- 
ment of a specially-designed plane glass diaphragm in the telescope 
of a theodolite, on which are drawn circles and lines intersecting 
the centre thereof. When these circles are made to appear on 
two stars situated near the south pole, as explained by Mr Chard, 
the centre points to the south pole. The direction of the true 
south and the latitude is, therefore, found almost mechanically, 
and saving much time when compared with the methods 
previously used, which required some hours calculation. The 
true north or south is obtained by the various surveyors em- 
ployed in this colony in all over 1000 times per annum, and the 
saving ot some hours each time should prove of great advantage. 
Some discussion followed, and a vote of thanks to Mr Chard was 
unanimously passed on the motion of Mr W. J. Conder, seconded 
by Mr H. C. Russell, both of whom spoke in highly eulogistic 


terms of the value of the method recommended by Mr Chard. 

Sydney, 6th. Sept.— Mr Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the 

New members — Messrs. Alex. L. Cameron, Geo. N. Conlan, 
Geo. J. Renwick, B.A., M.B., Rev. J. T. Robertson, M.A., Geo. 
E. Twynam. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted: — "The 
members of the Royal Society of New South Wales, having heard 
with deep regret of the death of Charles Robert Darwin, one of 
their most distinguished honorary members, desire to express their 
sense of the loss which the whole scientific world has sustained, 
and they desire that their heart-felt expression of condolence 
should be expressed through their president to the widow of the 
late distinguished naturalist," 

The President then delivered an extremely interesting address 
entitled " Notes on the progress of New South Wales during the 
years 1872 to 1881." 

(The full report of this valuable paper will be found in the 
columns of the Sydney Morning Herald of gth September.) 


Sydney, 30th. Aug. — Dr. James C. Cox. F.L.S., etc., President, 
in the chair. 

Papers — (1.) " Botanical Notes on Queensland, No. 4," by the 
Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., &c. This paper contained the 
author's observations on some of the Queensland species of 
Myrtacece, chiefly of the Eucalypti. 

(2) " On a Coal Plant trom Queensland," by the Rev. J. E. 
Tenison-Woods, F.L.S., etc. This is anaccount of a fossil species 
of Equisetum found in the Ipswich coal beds, and provisionally 
named E. rotiferum, from the wheel-like shape of the diaphragm. 
No Equisetum has previously been found in the Australian coal 

(3.) " Observations- on an insect injurious to the Vine," by 
William Macleay, F.L.S., etc. In this paper Mr. Macleay gives 
some details of the habits, "etc., of a beetle (Orthovhinus Klugii), the 
larva of which had committed great injuries amongst the vines in 
Mr. Holroyd's orchard, near Parramatta. Some hints are also 
given as to the best means of limiting their devastations. Speci- 
mens were shewn ; also specimens of a beetle, a true borer of 
family Scolytidcz, which has completely destroyed during the past 
season all the figtrees in a large orchard in the county of Cumber- 
land. Mr. Macleay pointed out that while the first of these cases 
was an instance of injury caused by an indigenous insect to an in- 
troduced plant, the other was, he feared, an instance of the intro- 
duction to the country of a foreign species belonging to the most 
destructive family of Xylophagous beetles. He thought that at 
the next meeting of the Society, he would be enabled to give some 
more definite information on the subject. 

Mr. K. H. Bennett exhibited a nest of three eggs of the ground 
graucalus (Ptevopodocys phasianella). The nest is remarkable for its 
size and compactness ; usually the birds build but a scanty 


shallow structure of grass and cobwebs ; the specimen exhibited, 
on the other hand, was a large structure about 10 inches in dia- 
meter, very deep, and composed of a large quantity of wool, cob- 
webs, and gras,s closely and neatly interwoven. The eggs were 
three in number, of a rich asparagus-green, with indistinct dull 
brownish freckles and spots. 

Professor Stephens read the following note from Dr. Woolls 
relating to a grass (Panicum spcetabile) on which there had been 
some discussion at the preceding meeting of the Society . — " It is 
not generally known that the grass cultivated under that name 
is not a Panicum at all, but Andropogon Halepensis (Sibthorp), or 
Sorghum Halcpense (Pers.). The grass was figured and described 
as P. spectabile some time back in the " Sydney Illustrated News." 
But its long roots, a yard in length, and as thick as a little finger, 
together with the white midrib mark it as Andropogon Halepensis. 
Mr Bentham seems to doubt whether it is really indigenous. I 
have found it in an orchard at Parramatta, but believe it to have 
been introduced irom the north. Baron Mueller speaks highly of 
it as a forage plant, but recommends that it should be kept out of 
arable land." 

Sydney, 27th Sept. — Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S., President, in 
the chair. 

It was announced that the List 'of Donations received during 
the month, as well as the Donations themselves, had been lost in 
the fire at the Garden Palace. 

Papers — (1.) " On a resinous Plant from the Interior," by K. 
H. Bennett. Specimens of the gum or resin of this plant, which 
Mr. Bennett described as Myoporum platycarpum, R. Br., were exhi- 

(2.) " On three new Fishes from Queensland," by Charles W. 
De Vis, B.A. This paper was a description of a new genus of the 
Family Berycidae, and a species of Homalogrystes and Scolopsis. The 
manuscript had been lost at the fire, but Mr. Macleay announced 
that he hoped to procure another copy of it in time for publication. 

(3.) " Contribution to a knowledge of the Fishes of New 
Guinea" No. 2, by William Macleay, F.L S., &c. This is a con- 
tinuation of a list of fishes found at Port Moresby by Mr. Andrew 
Goldie. The first part was published in the June Proceedings. 
The present paper contains a record of seventy-six species, bring- 
ing the number in all up to 196. The new species described are 
Holocentrum Goldiei, Caranx mandibulars, Caranx ohtusiceps, Caranx 
Moresbyensis, Salarias atratus, Pomacentrus analis, Glyphidodon bicolor, 
and Glyphidodon filamentosus. 

(4.) " Description of two Fishes lately taken in or near Port 
Jackson," by William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. One of these fishes is 
a very fine species oi Chilodactylus, which Mr. Macleay has named 
after Mr. Thomas Mulhall, Inspector of Fisheries, from whom he 
received it ; the other is a new species of Ammotretis to which the 
name zonatns was given on account of a peculiarity in its marking. 

(5.) " On the Physical Structure and Geology of Australia," by 
the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.L.S., &c. This paper dealt at 
length with all the physical features of the Continent, viz.: — its 
mountain systems ; its inland plains, and the portions intervening 


between the tableland and the sea ; and its river systems. Secondly 
the author enumerated the formations which had been recognised 
in Australia, from the fundamental granite up to the recent alluvial, 
showing that none of the large groups of rocks which are known 
in other parts of the world are absent from this Continent. Re- 
ferences were made to the character of the fossils found, and the 
soils resulting from the rocks. 

(6.) " On a large cretaceous Mytilus, from the Barcoo," by the 
Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., &c This paper was descrip- 
tive of a very large iossil Mytilus (M. ingens, sp. nov.) which was 
found in some Mesozoic strata in Queensland, of probably Oolitic 
age. The paper also contained a brief reference to the collections 
of Mesozoic fossils made in Australia. 

(7.) " Notes on the inflorescence and habits of plants indige- 
nous in the immediate neighbourhood of Sydney," by E. Haviland. 
The author gives an account of his observations on the mode of 
fertilisation of two species of Rutaceous Plants common in the 
neighbourhood of Sydney — Philotheca australis and Boronia pinnata. 
In the former species the arrangement of the parts of the flower is 
such as apparently to specially favour self-fertilisation, but a closer 
observation shews that this is rendered physiologically impossible 
by the maturing and discharge of the pollen of each flower before 
the stigma comes to maturity. A similar phenomenon was ob- 
served in Boronia pinnata, and the author suggests that the close 
opposition of the anthers to the stigma in these species until the 
pollen is almost ripe, may be designed in order to prevent, to some 
extent, the access of light and heat, and thus retard the maturing 
of the stigma until the pollen of its own flower has become dis- 

" Note on some Seaweeds from Port Jackson and.adjacent coast,' 
by E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S. — In a recent letter from our esteemed 
correspondent, Baron Ferd. von Mueller, that distinguished 
botanist has kindly given me the names of the following Alga, 
which I had sent him for determination, requesting me to bring 
under the notice of the Society, the fact that no fruiting sqecimens 
of Claudia bennettiana have yet been recorded. This beautiful and 
delicate Alga was dredged near Spectacle Island ; where particular 
search should be made for this rare and interesting plant. And 
indeed the marine flora of Port Jackson and the adjacent coast is 
worthy of special attention and research, several new species and 
a new genus having been recently discovered on our shores. The 
following species from Bondi have been determined by Professor 
Agardh, of Lund, the greatest authority on Alga : Pterocladia lucida, 
J. Agardh, sp. nov. ; Splachnidium rugosum, Greville ; Lederstedtia 
australis,]. Agardh (nov. gen. et sp.) ; Gelidium* cornicwm, Greville ; 
Plocamium augustum, J. Agardh, sp. nov. Specimens of a Laurencia 
and of a small Martensia, probably new, were obtained in deep 
water. I may also mention that a new species of Sargassum was 
dredged near North Head. 

Mr. W. A. Haswell read a note on some points in the anatomy 
of the Pigeons referred to by Dr. Hans Gadow in a recent paper 
on the anatomy of Pterocles. In this note M. Haswell redefined 
the Columbidae myologically as birds with an expanded tensor 
accessorius, with the posterior belly of the latissimus dorsi some- 


times absent, with the adductores brevis et longus, semi-membra- 
nosus, semitendinosus and accessary semitendinosus all present, 
with the ambiens sometimes absent, and when present having a 
characteristic arrangement, and with musculi lumbricales in the 

Professor Stephens exhibited a collection of rocks and fossils 
illustrating the structure of the Western Coal-fields, as explained 
by Mr. Wilkinson in his map of Wallerawang (1877). The 
oldest stratified rocks, quartzites, coglomerates, and sandstones 
are Devonian, as shewn by characteristic fossils from Mt. Lambie 
and Mt. Flaherty. These are broken and tilted, often vertically, 
by more recent porphyries and granites, upon which, as also 
on the upturned edges of the Devonian strata, there rests an 
irregular conglomerate of earthy matter, sand and pebbles, of a 
dark greenish brown, which bleaches to a pale buff for about 
twenty feet from the surface. The pebbles are derived, as is shown 
by the fossils which they contain, from the older Devonian rocks, 
which formed not only the bottom, but also shores and islands in 
the carboniferous sea of this district. Many bands of shale con- 
taining remains of plants, as well as of sandstones containing cha- 
racteristic marine carboniferous fossils are intercalated in various 
places with this conglomerate. Above it are aluminous shales 
which in many places, as near Ben Bullen, have fretted away under 
atmospheric action, and lett the overlying rocks with very insuffi- 
cient support. These are close-grained massive sandstones cleav- 
ing naturally into more or less rectangular blocks, which, owing to 
the decay of their foundation, are now poised on pedestals or over- 
hanging caverns in a very fantastic manner. In these shales are 
abundance of plant remains belonging to the Newcastle beds. 
Above the sandstone, coal seams appear at Wallerawang and to 
the northward, while the series is closed by the castellated walls of 
Hawkesbury sandstone which crest and protect the whole. 
Indeed, at Blackman's Crown they are seen to rise almost ver- 
tically above their deep Devonian foundations, displaying in a land- 
scape of extraordinary singularity and beauty, a diagram of per- 
haps equal interest to the geologist. The limestone two miles N. W. 
of Piper's Flat varies from a black knotty rock to crystalline or 
even saccharoid marble. Its surface, as exposed in the quarries, 
has been protected from the action of running water, as is 
usual in limestone river beds, by deposits of gravel (partly 
also in all probability by various vegetable growths). Under- 
neath, however, the acid waters flowing freely along the 
joints of the rock have eroded them out into holes and 
passages. These have subsequently, under a diminished flow, been 
filled up with a pure white marl full of leaf impressions, but too 
brittle to allow of any specimen being obtained from the portions 
now exposed. In this marl are distributed nodules of travertine, 
encrusting forms which appear to be partially decomposed portions 
of favosites, but may turn out to be 'only of mineral origin. A 
dyke of grey porphyry, with felspar crystals much decomposed 
runs through this limestone, and is probably the cause of its 
bleaching and crystallization. Crinoid stems, Brachiopods, and 
Petraia {Petraria) are seen in a fragment which has been half burnt 
and subsequently weathered. 



Christchurch, 7th September, 1882. — Dr. J. von Haast, F.R.S. 
president, in the chair. 

Papers— 1. Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera, 
No. II., by Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A. 

Monograph of the Tortricina ; species mostly very variable. 57 
descriptions of Walker, Felder, and Butler, referable to only 16 
species. The following species were described : — 
Dichelia luciplagana (Walk.) — Blenheim to Dunedin. 
Capua semiferana (Walk.)— Very common everywhere. 
Pyrgotis plagiatana (Walk.) — Wellington to Dunedin. Larva 
on oak. 

Pyrg. zyqiana, n. sp. — Reddish-brown, strigulated with leaden- 
grey, partially suffused with blackish, with an oblique posterior 
whitish streak terminating in apex. Christchurch. 

Adoxophyes lotinana, n. sp. — Light ochreous, costa and inner 
margin narrowly, hind margin broadly suffused with fuscous, stri- 
gulated with leaden-grey, with a short oblique fuscous semi-lascia 
from costa ; cilia white. Christchurch. Larva on Aran do cnnspicua. 
Adox. conditana (Walk.) — Extremely variable ; generally] com- 
mon. Larva on Genista. 

Proselena aspistana, n. sp. — Whitish-grey, basal patch and a 

large costal triangle reddish-brown, dark margined. Porter's Pass. 

Pros, hemionana, n. sp. — Pale ochreous, posterior three-fifths 

beyond an oblique line brown, darkest anteriorly. Lake Guyon. 

Pros, siriana (Meyr.)— Hamilton. 

Harmologa, n.g. — Characters of Proselena, but with a costal fold. 
Harm, sisyrana, n. sp. — Grey, strigulated with black, base, cen- 
tral fascia, and four small costal spots obscurely darker. Christ- 

Harm, oblongana, (W 7 alk.) — Blenheim to Dunedin. 
Harm, zatropJiana, n. sp. — Reddish-brown, mixed with grey, 
with a large posterior whitish blotch, spotted with ochreous. 

Harm, aenea (Butl.) — Mount Hutt and Porter's Pass. 
Harm, amplexana (Z.) — Wellington to Dunedin. 
Cacoecia excessana (Walk.) — Very common everywhere. Larva 
on Panax arbor eum, and probabl} other plants. 

Cac. enoplana, n sp. — Pale dull brown, costa, outer edge of basal 
patch, a central fascia dilated beneath, and costal triangular spot 
dark fuscous, hind wings whitish. Wellington. 

Tortrix charactana (Meyr.) — Auckland, Christchurch. 
Tort, drmiana, n sp — Dark greyish fuscous, mixed with whitish, 
hind wings grey. South Rakaia. 

Tort, pictoriana (Feld.) — Lake Guyon, Porter's Pass, Christ- 

Tort, plilopoana (Meyr.)— Hamilton. 

Tort, leucaniana (Walk.) — Very common everywhere. 

Tort, aerodana (Meyr.) — Hamilton. 

Dipterina jactatana (Walk.) — Dunedin. 

Dipt, incessana (Walk.) — Auckland, Christchurch. 

Dipt, imbriferana (Meyr.) — Auckland, Wellington. 

Eurythecta robusta (Butl.) — Christchurch. 

Protkelymna, n. g. — Characters of Proselena, but antennae with 


fascicles of long fine cilia. 

Froth, ncphelotann, n. sp. — Greyish-ochreous, clouded with fus- 
cous, basal patch and central fascia hardly darker. Christchurch. 

Ep'ilxiphorn axenana (Meyr ) — Wellington. 

Aphelia lanceolana (Hb.) — Hamilton. 

Paedisca obliquana (Walk.) — Very common everywhere. Larva 
on Veronica, Lonicera, lliunex, &c. 

Carpocapsu pomonella (L.) — Wellington. 

Protithona, n. g. — Antennae entire. Fore-wings with costal 
fold, with twelve separate veins ; hind- wings, with seven separate 

Prot.fugitivana, n. sp. — Very small, greyish-ochreous, a discal 
and two diverging dorsal spots blackish, included space ochreous- 
white. Lake Coleridge. 

Strepsiceros ejectana (Walk.) — Hamilton to Christchurch. 

Streps, zopherana (Meyr.) — Hamilton to Dunedin. 

Hendecasticha aethaliana (Meyr.,) — Hamilton. 

Exoria, n. g. — Antennae entire. Fore-wings with costa simple, 
with twelve separate veins ; hind- wings, with seven separate veins. 

Exor. mochlophorana, n. sp. — Pale greyish-ochreous, an anterior 
and two posterior fascial, central, costal, and apical spot, dark fus- 
cous. South Rakaia. 

Heterocrossa adreptella (Walk.) — Hamilton, Christchurch. 

Het. gonosemana (Meyr.) — Dunedin. 

Mr. Meyrick said he would be glad of any information as to 
whether any Manuka plants, either living or dead, had been 
brought to New Zealand from Australia, for if they had they 
might have introduced with them one or two moths. 

2. Notes on the Anatomy of Struthiolaria papulosa, by Professor 
F. W. Hutton. 

This paper describes briefly the main points of the anatomy 
of Struthiolaria. The gill is single, with long stiff plates, and is 
attached to the mantle along the left side ; the reproductive ele- 
ments pass along the floor of the pallial chamber in grooves formed 
by folds of skin ; the penis is long, slender, and non-retractile ; 
there is a rudimentary respiratory siphon. Figures of the animal, 
the teeth, and the operculum are given. 

3. Description of some new Tertiary Shells from Wanganui, 
by Professor F. W. Hutton. 

The following are described : — 

Trophon expansos. — No varices, about 25 narrow spiral grooves 
on the body whorl ; aperture very wide, much like Purpura patens, 
H. and J. 

Cominella drewi. — About 22 spiral lirae on the body whorl, an- 
terior canal well defined, which is intermediate in size between 
Cominella and Euthria. 

Odoxtomia sherriffi. — Subulate, with 15 smooth, flattened whorls. 

Trochita inflata. — Apex lateral, last whorl much inflated, giving 
the shell the appearance of a Natica. 

Anthora conica. — This species has the smooth axial cavity of A. 
tiarata, but is larger, more acutely conical, the granulations finer, 
and the basal angle much more rounded. 

4. Further additions to our knowledge ol New Zealand Crus- 
tacea, by Mr. C. Chilton, M.A. 


This paper contained the following descriptions of new species, 
notes, &c. : — q 

(1) Elamena (?) lacustris (Chilton). — Of this species the male 
was described, and the species was placed under the genus 
Hymenosoma, as defined by Mr. Haswell in his " Catalogue of the 
Australian Stalk and Sessile-eyed Crustacea." 

(2) Scutuloidea maculata, nov. gen. et sp. — An Isopod, found at 
Timaru and at Lyttelton Harbour, having the posterior pair of 
pleopoda, consisting ol a single broad squamiform plate. 

(3) Anthura affinis, sp. nov. — From Lyttelton Harbour. 

(4) Gubaris rugulosus (Miers). — Taken at Eyreton and at Oxford. 
As Mr.. Miers has not described the antennae, they were here 
described and figured. 

(5) Philougria rosea (Koch). — This species was previously re- 
corded from Christchurch and Eyreton. It has since been found 
in the bush at Oxford, so that it can hardly have been introduced 
from Europe. 

(6) Plakarthrium typicum, nov. gen. et sp. — A peculiar Isopod 
with very flat body, and with the basal joints of both antennae ex- 
panded, and having the coxae very large. Found on brown sea- 
weed at Lyttelton. 

(7) Limnoria segnis, sp. nov. — Close to L. lignorum of Europe, 
but not boring in wood like that species. Found on seaweed, 
Lyttelton Harbour. 

(8) Nicea egregia, sp. nov. — A peculiar Amphipod, with dorsal 
carina. Second gnathopoda of male when fully developed chelate. 
Lyttelton Harbour. 

(9) Montagua miersii ? (Haswell). — Specimens found at Timaru 
and Lyttelton are doubtfully referred to the Australian species. 

(10) Cyproidia (?) crassa, sp. nov. — An Amphipod with very 
broad and deep coxae. Provisionally placed under Cyproidia. 
Lyttelton Harbour. 

(11) Moera spinosa (Haswell). — The Australian species, two 
specimens of which were found at Auckland. 

(12) Moera petriei (G. M. Thomson). — The female was described. 
It differs from the male in having the second pair of gnathopoda 
much smaller. 

(13 J Harmonia crassipes. — An Australian species found at 
Lyttelton and Timaru. 

(14) Moera incerta, sp. nov. — Closely resembling but apparently 
distinct from several other species already described. 

(15) Podocerus frequens, sp. nov. — From Lyttelton Harbour. 
Near to P. validus (Dana). 

Mr. Chilton drew attention to the great difference between the 
crustacean fauna of Port Lyttelton and Dunedin Harbour. Prof. 
Hutton said that it was the same with the marine mollusca. 

Oct. 5th, 1882. — Professor J. von Haast, President, in the chair. 

New member — Dr. Gaze. 

Papers — (1) "Notes on and a new species of Subterranean 
Crustacea," by Mr. Charles Chilton, M.A. The first part 
in the paper consisted of notes on, and additions to the 
previous paper (" On some Subterranean Crustacea," Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., XIV., p. 174.) A few specimens have been 
obtained from other wells in the neighbourhood, and 


they are still found in the first pump although the well has been filled 
up. Of Cruvcgcns fontanus more than 40 more specimens have been 
obtained, all with only six pairs of legs. It was shown that in all 
probability these subterranean Crustacea were derived from a 
marine and not from a fresh- water fauna. The rest of the paper 
was taken up with the description of another Isopod from the same 
well — Phvcatoicus typicus, nov. gen. et sp. Body elongated, some- 
what laterally compressed, abdomen long, of six distinct segments. 
In some points it resembles the Idoteidce, but in others approaches 
the Anthuridce and the Tanaidce. 

(2.) Description of new species, and notes on New Zealand 
Desmidieae, Mr. W. M. Maskell.* 

(3.) Further notes on the Rock Shelter in the Weka Pass, by 
Professor von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

The main object of this paper was to prove that the partial 
destruction of the rock-paintings was due to the formation of lime- 
stone flakes, caused by mechanical weathering. A number of 
specimens were exhibited, both in illustration of chemical and 
mechanical weathering. To the former the darker layer near the 
surface is attributed. Professor Haast also gave a resume of Mr 
George Gray's chemical analysis of both the rock itself and the 
chemically weathered surface layer, to show the correctness of his 
views. He also maintained that Professor Hutton's stalagmite 
crust was simply the outermost portion of the chemically weathered 
surface and an integral portion of it, and that the same in many 
instances did not exist. Mr George Gray's chemical analysis with 
notes in confirmation, is added to this paper. 

Professor Hutton pointed out that the stalagmite formed a very 
thin layer, about i-5oth of an inch in thickness over the surface, 
and that it had the peculiar wrinkled appearance so characteristic 
of stalagmite ; this layer, as the specimen he exhibited showed, 
was quite translucent, and must therefore be crystalline ; conse- 
quently Professor Haast was wrong in saying that there was no 
crystalline structure on the outside. Underneath this crystalline 
layer was the dark layer alluded to by Professor Haast. Mr Gray's 
analyses, although interesting, did not bear on the point in ques- 
tion, because he had taken as the outside a layer of more than a 
quarter of an inch in thickness, which therefore included a larger 
portion of rock. Professor Hutton then explained that when lime- 
stone weathered from frost the surface crumbled, as it was not 
sufficiently coherent to hold together in large thin pieces, but if the 
surface was coated with stalagmite this held the pieces together, 
and the surface then scaled off in flakes. He would ask Professor 
von Haast to explain how, if the changes were only in the rock 
itself, the paint, in one place at least, came to be covered by this 
outer layer ? and also, if the surface of the rock never became 
wet, how the changes described by Mr Gray had been produced ? 

Professor Bickerton said that the outer portion oi the specimen 
analysed by Mr Gray was much harder than the inner portion. 

Mr Inglis pointed out that the surface of the ground above the 
cave was flat, and that there was a large " swallow-hole " in it. 

Professor Haslem said that when he visited the caves the sur- 

* The abstract of this paper unfortunately arrived too late for publication ; it will 
appear in next issue. 


face was in places so wet that he could brush off water with his hand. 

Professor von Haast reiterated his former statements. He said 
that the changes noted by Mr Grey had been produced by damp 
air blowing into the cave. Mr Gray could not analyse the outer 
layer spoken of by Professor Hutton, because it did not exist ; but 
Professor von Haast allowed that in another cave a layer of stalag- 
mite overlaid the paint. The real question was, he said, whether it 
was the outer layer only that had scaled off, or pieces of the rock. 

Professor Hutton said that if that was the question he quite 
agreed with Professor Haast that the rock scaled with the stalag- 
mite. He never supposed that the scalings were only one-fiftieth of 
an inch in thickness. 

(4.) Descriptions of New Land Shells, by Professor F. W. 

Patula tapirina, n. s. (P. coma, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XIV., p. 
150.) — More closely ribbed than P. coma, less closely than in P. 
infecta and P. buccinella ; the right lip produced forward. Hab. 

Micropliysa pumila, n. s. — Minute, sub-discoidal, widely umbili- 
cated, with distant membranous ribs ; horny brown. Hab. North 
Canterbury (C. Chilton). 

Gerontia,n.g. — Like Patula, but the animal with a mucous gland. 

Gerantia pantherina, n. s. — Sub-discoidal, widely umbilicated, 
obliquely striated with membranous striae ; horny brown. Diam. 
•37. Sab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

Strobila leiodon, n. s. — Minute, sub-discoidal, narrowly umbili- 
cated, closely ribbed ; interior with seven body plaits, ten parietal 
plaits, and one columellar plait ; colour horny, banded with rufous. 
Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

Amphidoxa cornea,xi. s. — Imperforate, striated, whorls 2|, rounded; 
colour pale horny, without markings. Hab. Auckland (T. F. 

Amphidoxa costulata, n. s. — Narrowly umbilicated ; whorls 3 J, 
rounded, ciosely ribbed, and spirally striatulated ; colour horny, 
banded with reddish. Hab. Auckland (T. F. Cheeseman). 

Phrixgnathus, n. g. — Shell conical, or turbinated, of 5 or 6 
whorls; jaw papillate, imbricately folded ; teeth quadrate, bicus- 
pid ; no caudal gland. 

P. marginatus, n. s. — Conical, umbilicated, carinated, striated, 
suture margined ; colour horny, banded with reddish-fulvous. Hab. 
Greymouth (R. Helms.) 

Thalassia (?) propinqua, n. s. — Narrowly umbilicated, convexly 
conoidal, carinated, the base rounded, strongly striated ; colour 
pale horny, with numerous narrow zig-zag bands of red, often 
broken up into a series of spots. Hab. Weka Pass (C. Chilton). 
Less acutely keeled than T. zealandics. The generic position of the 
species is doubtful. 

Zonites helmsii, n.s. — Narrowly umbilicated, with thin rather dis- 
tant ribs, whorls broader than high ; colour horny brown, some- 
times variegated with rufous fuscous. Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms.) 

Zonites fulminata, n.s. — Narrowly umbilicated, striated, columel- 
lar lip callous, reflected over the umbilicus ; colour horny, with 
zig-zag red bands. Hab. Stewart Island (T. Kirk.) Near H. venu- 
lata, Pfeiff. 


Ehytida patula, n. s. — Brown, yellowish at the apex, with 
numerous small longitudinal depressions and a few obsolete broad 
spiral grooves near the periphery. Teeth 1 8-0-1 8. Hab. Grey- 
mouth (R. Helms.) 

Itliytida eitrina, n. s. — Translucent, pale yellow, irregularly 
indented. Teeth 17-0- 17. Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

Ehytida australis, n. s. — Brown, darker in the umbilicus, irre- 
gularly indented. Teeth 16-0- 16. Hab. Stewart Island (T. Kirk.) 
Testacella vagans, n. s. (Dandebardia novoseelandice, Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., XIV.," p. 152, not of Pfeiffer).— Shell like that of T. 
mauqei, but the dentition 15-0- 15. Animal slate grey above, gra- 
dually passing into yellowish white on the sides. Hab. Auckland 
(T. F. Cheeseman). 

Leptopoma pannosa, n. s. — Small, conical, higher than broad, 
narrowly umbilicated, brown, covered with a dark fuscous, ragged 
epidermis, produced into triangular processes at the periphery, 
which is sub-carinated. Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

Leptopoma calva, n. s. — Like the last, but more acute, not 
carinated, and the epidermis smooth. Hab. Greymouth (R. Helms). 

October 19, 1882. — Professor J. von Haast in the chair. 

Specimens from the Weka Pass caves were exhibited by Pro- 
fessor Haast and Professor Hutton. 

1. The discussion on Professor von Haast's paper on the Weka 
Pass caves, read at the last meeting, was resumed by Professor 
Hutton, who said that in addition to the ocular evidence of the 
specimens on the table, the analysis made by Mr. Gray (see 
analysis attached) clearly proved that an external coating of car- 
bonate of lime must exist on the face of the rock. Iron carbonate 
was found both in the inner and outer portions, but was more 
abundant in the outer. This iron carbonate was derived from the 
decomposition of the glauconite in the rock, and as iron carbonate 
could not be precipitated from solution if oxygen was present (as 
iron peroxide must be formed), its presence in the outer portion of 
the rock proved that the surface had been covered by an imper- 
meable layer. That this layer was carbonate of lime was also 
shown by the analysis, as that substance also was in excess in the 
outer portion. The analysis showed a slight excess, sufficient only 
for a very thin coating, but that was accounted for by the specimen 
analysed not being a typical one, it showed none of the paint, and 
the surface had evidently been abraded. If this incrustation had 
been formed by the water oozing out of the rock wall, the water 
must have carried out iron carbonate, and iron peroxide would 
have been precipitated. The analysis showed a complete absence 
of iron peroxide, and consequently the water, with the carbonate 
of lime in solution, could not have come out of the rock wall, but 
must have trickled over the surface from the roof; the wrinkled 
surface of the incrustation also showed that this was its origin. 
As for the name to be applied to the incrustation, Professor Haast 
had said that it ought to have been called calc-sinter or stalactite. 
Professor Hutton quoted Dana's " System of Mineralogy " (1874) 
as authority for applying the word stalagmite to calcareous in- 
crustations formed on the sides of caves by water trickling from 
the roof ; stalactite was properly restricted to pendants hanging 


from the roof. Calc-sinter might be a right term for a German to 
use, but in English it meant a deposit from calcareous springs, 
and not from rain water leaking into caves. 

Professor von Haast said that there was no incrustation, only 
a chemically weathered surface of rock, and that even this was 
absent in some of his specimens on the table. If there had been 
an incrustation it would be still forming, and would have covered 
the paintings. He quoted several authors to show that the proper 
word to use for incrustations on the sides of caves was stalactite, 
and not stalagmite, and that no English geologist used the word 
stalagmite as Professor Hutton had done. 

Mr. Maskell asked whether the absence of an incrustation over 
the paintings could not be accounted for by the supposition that 
the paintings were modern. 

Professor Cook thought that Mr. Maskell's question required 
an answer. If Professor Haast had shown that the word stalac- 
tite might be used, he had not shown that stalagmite was incor- 

Mr. Inglis thought that Professor Hutton's explanation of the 
origin of the surface of the rock was the only one that had been 
given them. Dr. Haast had not attempted an explanation. He 
had seen the cave, and was confident that the rock forming its 
walls and roof must absorb the rain. 

Professor Haslam agreed with Mr. Inglis that the wall of the 
cave must sometimes be wet. The water running off the edge, 
which Dr. Haast admitted he had seen, would find its way down 
the surface although it was curved. There did not appear to be 
much difference between the words stalactite and stalagmite, and 
the latter certainly might be used without error, and without mis- 
leading other people. 

Professor Hutton was sorry that Dr. Haast could not see the 
incrustation on the rock ; all those specimens which showed any 
trace of painting had it. It was wanting certainly in some of Br. 
Haast's specimens, but these were stones from the bottom of the 
cave, with a weathered surface all round. . If Dr. Haast's idea of 
a chemically weathered surface was correct, how was it that these 
stones did not show it ? As a matter of fact the rock of the cave 
had not a chemically but a mechanically weathered surtace. Pro- 
fessor von. Haast had not/produced a single authority to prove the 
correct name to be applied to the incrustations on the sides of 
caves ; they all mentioned only the roof or floor, about which there 
was no dispute. In his quotation from Nicol's " Mineralogy " 
about Flo-ferri and Satin-spar, the words " on the sides and floors 
of caverns " read by Dr. Haast after •' stalactite " were not in the 
book* Sir C. Lyell certainly used the word stalactitic for the cal- 
careous matter filling fissures, but Sir C. Lyell was notoriously lax 
in his use of geological terms in those books that were intended 
for all readers, and he was no authority on the names of rocks and 

Professor von. Haast said that the surf ace was certainly chemi- 
cally weathered, and that if got harder by weathering ; but this 
weathered surface did not always exist. The rock never got wet. 
He would send a specimen to a celebrated German, who would 

* Nicol's " Elements of Mineralogy," 2nd Ed., 1873, P* x 9^« 


shew that it was a chemically weathered surface. It could not 
pass over the paintings, however great their age, because it was 
only a chemically weathered surface and not an incrustation. He 
would, if wished, on another occasion, bring many more books to 
prove that he was right. All that he could now say was that 
every statement made by Professor Hutton proved distinctly that 
there was no incrustation of carbonate of lime on the surface. 


The specimen examined consisted of a scale or flake of a light 
buff limestone, on the outer surface of which there existed darker 
layers possessing greater density and hardness than the interior 
portion of the stone. The analysis was made at the request of 
Professor Haast, for the purpose of ascertaining whether any 
difference existed in the chemical composition of the two portions, 
more particularly in regard to the presence of stalagmite in the 
outer portion. The layers were carefully separated, and found 
on analysis to be of the iollowing composition : — 

Adherent Moisture ... 
Organic Matter and Combined Water 
Insoluble ~\ Silica 

in > Alumina... 

Hydrochloric Acid ) Iron Protoxide 
\ Alumina 
Soluble in ( Iron Carbonate 

Hydrochloric Acid ( Calcic Carbonate ... 
) Magnesic Carbonate 

100-20 IOO'l8 

These results show that but little difference exists in the general 
composition of the two parts of this stone, other than that pro- 
duced by the decomposing action of weathering on the silicates 
present causing a rearrangement of the elements, and this is 
probably the cause of the greater hardness and density of the sur- 
face portion. 

(Signed) George Gray, 

Cant. Coll. Lab., Oct. 5, 1882. 

3. i— Out- 

No. 2 — In 




















J, 54 


August 28th, 1882. — E. A. Mackechnie, Esq., President, in the 

New members — J. McLaren, P. E. Cheal, H. W. Northcroft, 
J. H. Jackson, T. Wells, F. R. Webb, Rev. Mr. Gulliver. 

Papers — (1.) " New Genera and species ol Cuvculionidce" by 
Capt. T. Broun, M.E S. Three new genera and 42 new species 
were described. Of these 32 had been collected in Otago, mainly 
by Messrs. Fulton and Chalmer, one in Canterbury, two in Wel- 
lington, and the remaining seven in Auckland. Capt. Broun stated 
jhat the number of Ciwculionidce known to exist in New Zealand 


now amounted to 254, only 20 of which were known to science 
prior to 1875. 

(2.) " On the growth of the Cork Oak (Quercus siibev) in the 
Auckland district," by Mr. Justice Gillies. 

In the year 1855 the late Dr. Sinclair planted close to his house, 
near Symonds street, a young cork oak, received from Kew. It is 
now 40 feet in height, 14 feet from the ground to the first branch, 
with a spread of top oi about 40 feet in diameter. For several 
years it has produced acorns in abundance. In 1877 ^ was stripped 
for the first time, yielding a considerable quantity of virgin cork. 
In February ol this year it was again stripped, yielding 7olbs. 
weight (when dried) of good marketable cork, fit for pint corks, 
etc., and worth about 60s. per cwt. It will thus be seen that the trees 
must be 25 to 27 years old before producing any return, and then 
every five years may produce from 70 to ioolbs of marketable cork. 

(3) " The University of New Zealand : its history, constitution, 
and objects," by the Right Rev. W. G. Cowie, D.D., Bishop of 

A long discussion followed the reading of this paper, in which 
Mr. Justice Gillies, Mr. Halcombe, Mr. Martin, Dr. Purchas, and 
others took part. 

September 25th, 1882. — E. A. Mackechnie, Esq., President, in 
the chair. 

New members — H. Eastman, W. Fidler, M.A., T. Simpson, 
W. P. Snow. 

Papers — (1.) " New Species of Coleoptera," by Capt. T. Broun. 

Thirteen new forms were described, belonging to the families 
Scaphidiidoe, Colydiidoe, Lathridiidoe, Lucanidce, Dascyllidce, and Cissidoe, 
Seven of the species had been collected in Otago by Mr. S. W. 
Fulton ; the remainder were from various localities in the Auck- 
land Provincial District. 

(2.) " On two new Planarians from Auckland Harbour," by 
T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 

Two new species belonging to the genera Thysanozoon and Eury- 
leftta, were fully described, and coloured drawings of them exhibited. 

(3.) " Shakspeare and Euphuism," by J. Murray Moore, M.D. 
This paper was chiefly occupied with a criticism of John Lilly and 
his works, and their influence upon the literature of the reign oi 
Elizabeth. According to the author, this influence could be traced 
through many of Shakspeare's plays. 


12th September, 1882. — J. T. Thomson, Esq., President, in the 

A paper was read by the Secretary, communicated by Mr. T. 
Wakelin, of Greytown, Wellington, entitled " The Surface Features 
of the Earth and Local Variations in the Force of Gravity," in 
which the author contends that the earth is increasing in size by 
incorporation of ethereal corpuscles ; that gravity is a rotational 
effect, and therefore as this rotation of the ethereal corpuscles is 
reduced, the force of gravity would be lessened, hence the 
differences exhibited by strata of various densities. 


ioth October, 1882. — J. T. Thomson, Esq., President, in the 

A paper was read by the Rev. P. W. Fairclough on the " Con- 
stitution of Comets," in which the author gave a sketch of the 
most recent theories on the subject. The paper was illustrated by 
two diagrams. 

17th October, 1882. — Thos. Denniston, Esq., in the chair. 

Under the auspices of the Institute, Mr. J. T. Thomson read 
extracts from a paper on " Capital and Labour." There was a 
brge attendance. The paper was printed in full in the Southland 
Times of 1 8th inst. 


Mr. J. T. Thomson's new Wind-mill. — A radical error 
was made in the account given of this mill in the last number of 
the journal (p. 236). It is there stated that " as the wind increases 
the pressure overcomes that of the weight, and gradually drives 
the sails back until in a gale they merely present their edges and 
the wheel comes to a standstill? This is exactly what the wheel 
does not do. On the contrary, as long as the weight is attached 
the mill continues to revolve in the severest gales at an uniform 
speed, and never stops for a moment. But if the wheel be re- 
moved the mill stops at once. 

New Zealand Fern Exchange. — Mr. Chas. P. Winkel- 
mann, of Te Aute College, Hawkes Bay, is desirous of obtaining 
ferns from all parts of the Colony, and will return in exchange 
specimens of all species growing in Hawkes Bay district. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales. — The following 
extract from a circular dated Sydney, 22nd Sept., explains 
itself: — " The conflagration which has this morning destroyed 
the Garden Palace, with all its contents, has therewith also swept 
away the whole property of the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales. Library, Correspondence, Records, Instruments, and 
Collections have entirely disappeared. Our loss, so far as we 
can estimate it in money, amounts to about £3,000, but a great 
portion is quite irreparable." The loss is a colonial one, and the 
sympathy of all colonial scientific workers will be extended to a 
society which has done so much in the past. We would suggest 
that the societies in existence in this colony, should give practical 
proof of this by forwarding complete sets of all their publications 
to the nucleus of the new library, which will probably be at once 

Erratum. — In p. 197,- line 19 from the bottom, for "arriving" 
read " arising." The former word completely alters the sense. 




[The numbers on the margin are in continuation of those in Part II. 
When insects are referred to by numbers, these numbers correspond with those iu 
Parts I. or II.] 


1346. Rygmodits puncticeps, n. sp. — Ovate, convex, shining ; 
head and thorax black, legs and basal joints of antennas slightly 
rufescent, club opaque, elytra greenish blue. 

Head narrowed anteriorly, with raised margins, densely and 
distinctly but not coarsely punctured ; clypeus nearly truncate. 
Prothovax transverse, narrowed towards the front, finely and 
closely punctulated, bi-foveate at base. Scutellum elongate, tri- 
angular, almost imperceptibly punctulated. Elytra convex, 
punctate-striate ; interstices convex, closely punctulated. Legs 
elongate. Underside dull black, closely and finely sculptured. 

Most nearly approaches R. cyaneus ; differs from it in having 
longer antennae, a more obviously punctured head, with three 
more or less distinct foveae on the vertex, more finely sculptured 
thorax, and the elytra, instead of presenting a nearly even slope, 
have deeper striae with elevated intervals. 

Length, 2^-3^ ; breadth, ij^-i^ lines. 

The insect was found by T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., on Aci- 
phylla lyalli, growing at an elevation of about 5000 feet, on Mount 


Gastrobothrus, n. gen. — Maxillary palpi quadri-articulate ; 
basal joint minute ; second elongate, arcuated, gradually incras- 
sated ; third stout, as long as broad, sub-globose ; fourth large, 
ovate, as long as, but stouter than second. Head moderate, 
narrowed behind. Mandibles robust, acute at apex, dentate in- 
wardly. Antennae distant, inserted in lateral cavities in front of, 
but not close to the eyes; 1st joint stout; 2-9 cylindrical; 
2nd shorter than 3rd ; 3-7 about equal ; 8th. short, sub- 
quadrate, 9th larger than the preceding one ; 10th distinctly 
larger than 9th. Eyes small, prominent, coarsely facetted. 
Prothorax sub-globose, with a large fovea at each side, rather 
broader than head. Elytra not much longer but much broader 
than thorax, considerably narrowed towards the base, deeply 
sinuated behind. Hind-body broad, marginated, apical segments 
deflexed. Abdomen large, the intermediate segments deeply 
excavated, appearing quite hollow ; the inner margin of the pen- 
ultimate widely emarginate, the extremities forming two corneous 
protuberances ; apical segment entire. Legs stout, tibiae flexuose ; 

* Read before the Auckland Institute, June II, 1881. 


tarsi with a minute basal joint, second and third about equal, 
terminated by one claw. 

An extraordinary insect (No. 230) is the type, which becomes 
GastrobotJtrus abdominalis, and should precede Bryaxis. The 
antennal tubercles are separate, and there is a large fovea near 
each eye. 

NOTE. — Parmipalpns, p. 662. Structure of maxillary palpi 
should be read " 1st joint minute ; 2nd longest, slightly but 
widely incurved in front, almost triangularly dilated medially 
behind, and there setigerous ; 4th about as large as the head, 
nearly round, somewhat truncated outwardly, with a small 
round notch near the back part of its outer margin ; the 3rd is 
longer than broad, and dilated apically." 

No. 245 should be placed near Tyrus mntandus, though the 
palpi are not quite of the orthodox pattern. 

Enpines, King. — Body rather short, convex. Head obsoletely 
bi-foveolate. Prothorax smooth, not at all foveolate. Elytra 
without dorsal striae. Antennce 10-jointed, robust, distant at 
base, almost bi-clavate. Maxillary palpi quadri-articulate, ter- 
minal joint fusiform. Basal joint of the posterior tarsi short, the 
two last much elongated,with one claw. 

The above constitute the essential characteristics of Mr. 
King's genus, which differs from Bryaxis in the form of the ter- 
minal joints of the antennae. 

1 347. Enpines rtulicome, n sp. — Convex, shining, sanguine- 
ous, elytra and legs dilute in colour. 

Head sub-quadrate, quadrifoveolate. Prothorax rounded 
laterally, narrowed posteriorly, unimpressed. Elytra consider- 
ably longer and broader than thorax, truncated apically, each 
elytron with a fine sutural stria, otherwise unmarked. Hind-body 
convex, deflexed, sparsely pubescent, not perceptibly punctured. 
Antenna pubescent ; basal joint larger than the immediately fol- 
lowing ones ; 2nd stouter than 3rd ; joints 3-6 about equal ; 7th 
much broader than the preceding one ; 8th nearly twice the 
breadth of the 6th, very short, angulated inwardly ; 9th excess- 
ively large, produced outwardly, narrowed towards the extremity; 
10th about as large as 9th, elongate-oblong. Tidice flexuose. 

The structure of the antennas is unusual ; the first eight arti- 
culations form the stalk, the two terminal are, individually, nearly 
as long as the preceding eight conjointly, at least twice as broad, 
hispid, and coarsely sculptured, and, though furcate, appear cap- 
able of converging so as to form a massive oblong club ; the pen- 
ultimate terminates in an acute fulvous point, whilst the 10th 
appears as if furnished with an appendage or minute apical 

Male, length ^ ; breadth, *& line. 

Described from a single individual communicated by Mr. P. 
Stcwart-Sandager, of Wellington. 

NOTE — No. 232 must be associated with the above so as to 
become Enpines clavatns. Its description appears on p. 126, 


Man. N.Z. Coleop., but the antenna are only 10-jointed, not 1 1 ; 
the error will seem pardonable when the last two joints are care- 
fully examined under a high magnifying 1 power — the deep inward 
notch and the presence of a suture on the outside of the basal 
portion of the 9th joint appear to mark it off from the larger 
part beyond. In the description the nth joint must stand for 
10th. The terminal joints may be thus characterised : — 9th 
enormously developed, its basal portion appearing as if it formed 
a distinct joint, transverse, and quite twice the breadth of the 
8th ; it is then strongly produced outwardly, so as to be quite 
six times broader than the 8th, and is deeply notched or hollowed 
on the inner side ; 10th large, cordiform. 

1 348. Etifilectus tuberigenis, n. sp. — Shining, head and thorax 
red, elytra and hind-body slightly infuscate, legs, antennae, and 
palpi fulvescent ; pubescent. 

Head convex, vertex bi-foveolate, rather coarsely punctured, 
the middle least so. Prothorax about as long as broad, rounded 
laterally ; with a large fovea near each side prolonged forwards, 
a transversal impression near the base appearing to unite with 
the former, and a longitudinal cavity on the disc ; its surface is 
less coarsely sculptured than the head, particularly on the dor- 
sum ; it bears some short, brassy hairs. Elytra longer and broader 
than thorax, their sides slightly rounded, each with an entire 
sutural and abbreviated striae, the latter broad at base but atten- 
uated at the middle ; they bear numerous short brassy hairs and 
seem densely but finely punctulated. Hind-body rather shorter 
than elytra, the three dorsal segments equal, the others more 
abruptly deflexed, the 3rd protuberant medially ; clothed like 
the elytra. Legs stout, tibiae arcuated externally. Antennce 
pubescent, stout, as long as head and thorax ; 2nd joint as long 
as exposed part of the 1st ; 3rd smaller than 2nd ; joints 4-8 
moniliform ; 9th and 10th transverse, much larger than the pre- 
ceding ones ; 1 ith, large, ovate, pointed. 

The chief peculiarity of this species consists in the structure 
of the third abdominal segment ; this is gradually raised towards 
the middle, thereby assuming the form of an apical protuberance. 

Length, ^ line ; breadth, nearly J^. 

I found my specimen somewhere near Whangarei Harbour. 


Necrophilus, Lacord. — (Hist. des. Ins. Col. torn. II, p. 205.) 
Allied to Silpha, more particularly to Silpha atrata, but 
exhibiting the following differences : — 

Ligula rather more emarginated. Internal lobe of the max- 
illae unarmed or destitute of spines at the extremity. Palpi more 
filiform. Mandibles simple at apex. AntenncB moderate, rather 
stout, 3rd joint nearly always longer than the basal one, joints 
2-6 sub-moniliform, 7-1 1 forming a club, gradually widened and 
serrate. Prothorax transversal, narrowed and emarginated in 
front, truncate at base. Intermediate coxcz contiguous. The 


four basal joints of the anterior and intermediate tarsi a little 
dilated among the males. 

1349. Necrophilus prolongatus, n. sp., Sharp. — (Ent. Mon. 
Mag., July, i88i,p. 47-) 

Niger, nitidus, Icevigatus, antennarum basi rufescente, firotJw- 
racis lateribus late testaceis ; elytris ad apicem attenuatis, ultra 
abdominis apicem prolongatis, subtiliter striatis, striis in Partem 
prolongation profnudioribus et fort iter punctatis. 

Long. 10, lat. 4j^mm. 

Antennae with the five basal joints piceo-rufous, slender, and 
shining, the apical five abruptly broader than the others, fuscous 
black, densely pubescent and opaque. Head closely and finely 
punctured, even in front ; the clypeal suture indistinct, angulate 
in the middle. Thorax rather strongly transverse, the front 
angles extremely rounded off and indistinct, and not projecting 
farther forwards than the middle of the front margin ; the disc 
sparingly and obsoletely punctured, the explanate yellow sides 
more distinctly punctured. Elytra rather narrow and elongate, 
with their apices prolonged, and the prolonged portion abruptly 
bent down ; they are rather finely striate, but the interstices are 
somewhat convex, and the 7th is elevated at the shoulder ; the 
stride are provided with fine distant impressions or punctures ; 
on the apical, and more especially on the lateral-apical portion, 
the sculpture becomes deeper and coarser, so that the outer stria 
bears some very large deep impressions. On the under-surface 
it is seen that this apical portion of the wing-cases projects quite 
beyond the hind-body. The two individuals described are 

The species appears structurally very similar to the European 
and North American species of Aecrophilus, and the peculiar form 
and sculpture of the wing-cases would not at present justify its 
being treated as a distinct genus. 

Greymouth, Helms. 


Posterior coxcb contiguous. Maxillary palpi not much 
longer than the labial. Prothorax narrowed anteriorly. Hind 
trochanters small, placed within the axis of the femora. Tarsi 
variable. Metathoracic parapleural partly or entirely covered by 
the lateral margins of the elytra. 

Clambus, Fisch. de Waldh. — Lacord. His. des Ins. Col., torn. 
p. 222. 

Liyula corneous dilated towards the front, its apex rounded. 
Lobes of the maxillce sub-equal ; the inner the larger, ciliated 
inwardly and at the extremity ; the external filiform, very slen- 
der, pubescent at the apex. Labial palpi with the basal joint 
very short, 2nd pyriform, 3rd rather shorter, globose and acumi- 
nate ; 1st joint of the maxillary also short, joints 2-4 globuliform, 
4th pointed. Mandibles terminating in two sharp elongate hooks. 
Ldbrum very small, concealed below the clypeus. Head very 
broad, narrowed and obtuse in front, deflected. Antennce 9-arti- 


culate, basal joint stout, oviform, 2nd long and slender, 3rd about 
half as long as its predecessor, joints 4-7 short, 8th very robust, 
campanulate, 9th not so broad, ovate. Prothorax short, rounded 
at the base, were it equals the elytra in width, narrowed ante- 
riorly. Scutellum large, triangular. Elytra very convex, gradu- 
ally narrowed behind. Legs moderate. Hind coxa very large, 
lamellate, covering the femora. Tarsi four-jointed. 
Body globuliform, contractile, winged. 

1350. Clambus domesticus, n. sp. — Convex, sub-globose, sparsely 
pubescent, shining, black, legs, antennae and trophi yellowish. 

Read sparingly clothed with fine yellowish hairs, deflexed. 
Terminal joint of maxillary palpi sub-conical, acuminate. 
Antenna shining, basal joint robust, 2nd long and slender, cylin- 
drical ; 3rd and 4th of similar form, conjointly, elongate ; joints 
5-7 short, gradually dilated ; club bi-articulate, the basal joint 
the larger. Prothorax apparently impunctate, closely adapted to 
the elytra, narrowed and depressed anteriorly, its margins some- 
what testaceous, bearing a few excessively small grey hairs. 
Scutellum large, triangular. Elytra convex, curvedly narrowed 
and declivous posteriorly, without distinct sculpture, with numer- 
ous erect minute grey hairs. Underside brown, moderately 
glossy, finely linearly sculptured, clothed with fine pallid hairs. 

Length, }i ; breadth, ^ line. 

Caught on the windows of my house at Tairua. 

135 1. Clambus vestitus, n. sp. Sub ovate, convex, moderately 
nitid, obviously pubescent, variegate. 

Head piceo-fuscous. Prothorax dark brown, the sides and base 
testaceous, densely but very minutely sculptured, clothed with 
rather long, pale, brassy hairs. Scutellum large. Elytra convex, 
rather long, rounded laterally and behind, densely but minutely 
punctated, clothed with rather long and coarse pallid hairs ; their 
colour dark brown, the sutural region and other large spots pale 

Length, 5/% ; breadth, y% line. 

Larger, less globular, and far more distinctly hirsute than the 
preceding or following species. 

Two found by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager, Port Nicholson. 

1352. Clambus suffusus, n sp. — Broad, obovate, convex, a 
good deal attenuated posteriorly ; glossy, nude above, dark 
brown, with the head and sometimes the thorax and the middle 
of the elytra rufescent, legs and antennae yellowish. 

Head shining, apparently quite smooth. Prothorax very broad 
at the base, greatly contracted in front, without distinct sculpture. 
Scutellum large. Elytra large, very broad at the base, but con- 
siderably narrowed behind, exhibiting no distinct sculpture, but 
with the suture somewhat elevated posteriorly. Abdomen fuscous, 
clothed with rather coarse yellowish hairs. 

The body is unusually broad at the middle and a good deal 
attenuated behind. The colour is variable, one of my two speci- 
mens being almost wholly piceous 


Length, ]/ 2 ; breadth, y% line. 

Hab. Wellington ; coll. Mr Sandager. 


1353. Ablabus brevis, n.sp. — Oblong, rather broad and convex; 
rufo-piceous, clothed with pale yellow, almost griseous, scale-like 
setas, legs and antennae red ; underside pitchy, covered with 
granules and fine yellow hairs. 

Head granulated. Prothorax broader than long, transversely 
convex, somewhat uneven, but without conspicuous tubercles or 
depressions, granulated ; sides explanate, four-lobed, the front 
lobe largest, the basal small and distant from the elytra. Elytra 
oblong, apices obliquely rounded, sides more or less dentated ; 
disc somewhat plane, rather uneven, apparently punctate-striate, 
with a distinct compressed elevation on each side of the scutel- 
lum, two rounded ones behind, and others nearer the sides. Legs 
finely hirsute. 

The insect has been denuded of the scale-like grayish cover- 
ing. When just found it seems rougher, the elytra for example 
appearing to have four rows of tubercles, four in each, and the 
thorax with a medial groove and three basal depressions. 

Comes near A. omatus, but that species may be distinguished 
at a glance by the large black triangular space on the side of 
each elytron. 

Length, i}i ; breadth }4 line. 

Habitat, Tairua (Auckland). 

Dryptops, n. gen. — Intermediate between Tarphiomimus 
and Ulonotus, having the facies of the former, but differing in the 
less developed basal articulation of the tarsi. 

Maxillary palpi stout, terminal joint ovate, not acuminate. 
AntenncB 1 1 -articulate, basal joint stout, partially concealed from 
above, 2nd short, 3rd elongate, joints 4-8 sub-obconical and nearly 
equal ; club large three-jointed. Prothorax deeply lobed at the 
sides. Elytra serrate laterally, their apices more or less pro- 
longed and somewhat divergent. Legs moderate ; tibiae denticu- 
lated externally; tarsi four-jointed, the three first joints con- 
jointly rather snorter than the last, about equal to one another. 
Body sub-oblong, longitudinally elevated along the middle, its 
sides explanate. 

1354. Dryptops dorsalis, n. sp. — Griseous, tarsi, antennae, palpi 
and labrum red ; sub-oblong, transversely convex. 

Head granulated. Prothorax sub-cordate, its sides with deep 
median indentations, forming two large lobes more or less incised 
along their margins ; disc considerably elevated longitudinally, 
broadly canaliculate, bearing two conspicuous frontal protuber- 
ances. Elytra oblong, base tri-sinuate, lateral margins serrate, 
obliquely narrowed posteriorly, apices prolonged, leaving a deep 
sutural notch ; the dorsum raised, with a rather gradual slope 
from the sides, so that these latter are not at all vertical, with a 
row of five tubercular elevations on each side of the median 
groove, the basal laterally compressed and carina-like, those near 


the posterior declivity most prominent but rounded, just beyond . 
these (laterally) are two others placed near the middle. Legs 
finely hispid, outer edge of tibiae with numerous short denticles. 

When denuded of the grayish sappy or scale-like matter, it 
will be seen that the head and thorax are irregularly granulated ; 
the elytra bear regular rows of granules, there being four such 
on the discoidal elevation, and seven on each side, of these latter 
the six inner form pairs, these nodules or granular elevations are 
glossy, and in some lights give a punctate appearance to the 
elytra ; the interstices are brown, but the insect otherwise is 
almost wholly ferruginous, with short yellow setae on the more 
elevated parts. 

Length, nearly 3 lines ; breadth, i%\ 

I found one example on the Waitakerei Range. 

NOTE. — No. 325, Tarphiomimus acuminatus, belongs to this 

1355. Dryptops undosus, n. sp. — Uneven, sub-oblong; pi- 
ceous, variegated with grayish to fuscous, setae, antennae and tarsi 
dark red. 

Head granulated, antennal orbits large. Prothorax transversal 
considerably contracted behind, its sides nearly flat and divided 
into five lobes, the anterior largest, posterior angles rectangular ; 
dorsum considerably raised, with three laterally compressed 
elevations on each side, the frontal largest and porrected ; it 
bears numerous granules. Elytra oblong, margins serrate, apices 
protuberant ; disc elevated, broadest behind, with vertical sides, 
granulated, with alarge basal, median and ante-apical depressions, 
the sides of the disc are irregularly raised, and bend inwards in 
such a manner as to partly isolate the hollows, all but the basal 
are interrupted by the raised suture, so that there appear to be 
five depressions instead of three ; the margins terminate behind 
in two obvious protuberances having a large semi-circular inter- 
vening gap. Legs clothed with fine yellowish setae, the tibiae 
with many denticles on their outer edge. 

The insect is remarkable on account of the whole disc of the 
elytra being abruptly elevated, the raised edges being nearly on 
a line with the side margins, and the posterior protuberances 
extending nearly as far as the apices, whilst the enclosed space 
seems, at first sight, one large depression. 

Length, 2^-2^ ; breadth, \}i-i}i lines. 

I have seen two specimens only ; one has been returned to 
Sydney W. Fulton, Esq., who found both at Outram, Otago. 

Recyntus, n. gen. — Body rather short and broad, convex, 
tuberculate, setose. Head sub-trigonal ; eyes convex, coarsely 
facetted ; antennal insertion at the sides in front of the eyes, 
prolonged as a smooth groove along the front and side of each 
eye. Last joint of maxillary palpi thick, obtuse. Antennce II- 
articulate, basal joint stout, cylindric, 2nd also stout yet much 
smaller than 1st, 3rd elongate, joints 4-8 decrease in length, 8th 
transverse ; club distinctly three-jointed, the two basal trans- 


versal, I ith joint rounded. Prothorax uneven, about as long as 
broad, obtusely produced in front, its sides explanate and lobed. 
Scutellum small. Elytra yery convex generally, sinuate at base, 
longer than thorax. Legs stout ; tibia compressed ; tarsi four- 
jointed, the three basal short, the 1st rather larger than 2nd, the 
terminal longer than the other three conjointly ; claws well-deve- 
loped, thickened at base. Prostemum deeply emarginate at apex. 
Metastemum rather short. Abdomen with five segments, the 4th 
shortest, Coxa nearly equidistant. 

Allied to Syncalus, but having the intermediate and posterior 
legs more approximated. The explanate sides of the thorax 
are deeply indented so as to form obvious lobes, sometimes the 
hind-angle of the front lobe and the anterior of the one next to 
it almost meet, thus leaving an opening or hole right through 
the side of the thorax. 

1356. Recyntus exiguus, n. sp. — Convex, short and broad, 
rough, pitchy-red, legs and antennae ferruginous, partially covered 
with yellowish setiform scales. 

Head immersed up to the eyes, in front depressed and of a 
brick-red colour, granulate ; antennal elevations not prolonged, 
rounded. Antennce moderate, pubescent, basal articulation red, 
cylindric, 2nd stout, about as long as broad, 3rd slender at base, 
longer than the contiguous ones, joints 4-8 decrease in length, 
obconical ; club large, its middle joint transverse, the terminal 
rounded. Prothorax transversal, convex ; sides explanate, 
divided into four lobes, the anterior largest, forming acute front 
angles attaining the eyes, the 4th leaving a gap between it and 
the base of the elytra ; disc transversely convex, grooved longi- 
tudinally, with three elevations on each side, the median most 
elevated ; bearing tubercles or granules. Elytra as broad and 
nearly twice as long as the thorax, much elevated, but with a 
somewhat flattened disc, sides nearly vertical, abruptly declivous 
behind, lateral margins multi-dentate ; their sculpture consists of 
several rows of granules, causing the surface to appear rugose ; 
there are two prominent rounded elevations on the summit of the 
hind slope, and a laterally compressed one near each shoulder ; 
the humeral angles do not reach the base of the thorax ; the 
pale yellow squamosity is chiefly confined to the base and sides. 

In its natural state the insect is covered with grayish sappy 
matter ; this conceals the true colour and sculpture, and when 
examined in that state, more tubercular elevations appear on the 

Length, iy& ; breadth, 5/q line. 

My specimen was found near Whangarei Harbour. 

NOTE. — On page 191 I pointed out that Ulonotus tuber culatus, 
No. 340, U. insignis, and U. salebrosus should be associated 
together in a distinct genus ; Recyntus is enunciated for these 
three, and the present species, No. 340, may be considered the 

1 357- Goxelus clarus, n. sp. — Bright, head and thorax red, 


elytra and antennae ferruginous, legs rufo- testaceous ; clothed 
with fine elongate setae. 

Head granulated, with fine erect yellow setae. Prothorax 
rather broader than long, moderately and gradually narrowed 
towards the base, lateral margins rather broad, closely dentated 
and fringed with yellow setae ; granulated above, with an elon- 
gate dorsal depression and five others, the two near the base 
largest, the smallest in front of the scutellum, the remaining two 
before the middle. Elytra oblong, sides and apex nearly ver- 
tical, the edges rough, like the thorax, broadly impressed near 
the middle ; their sculpture consists of numerous rows of coarse 
punctures. Antenna rather short, club well limited. Legs stout, 
clothed with yellow hairs. 

In C. robustus there is scarcely any thoracic depression ; 
C. dubius has a dorsal impression, and C. similis, if I am right in 
judging my specimen to represent that species accurately, has 
four or five indistinct impressions. The setae with which this 
species is clothed are slender, and of a bright yellow, the legs 
bearing hairs ; in this respect it differs from all the other species, 
they having fuscous setae intermingled with the greyish or pallid 

Length, i^i ; breadth, y 2 line. 

Hab. Parua. I have only one individual in my collection. 


1358. Pycnomerus rufescens, n. sp. — Nitid, red, elytra paler 
than thorax. 

Head rather coarsely but not densely punctured, with large 
and deep frontal foveas. Prothorax longer than broad, gradually 
narrowed towards the base, feebly bi-impressed on the disc and 
near the middle of each side, moderately coarsely and distantly 
punctured, but with the more elevated spaces so sparingly punc- 
tured as to seem nearly smooth. Elytra coarsely punctate-striate. 
Legs long and robust. Antennce short, their terminal joint 
distinctly marked off from the penultimate. 

Larger than P. minor ; distinguished at once by the sparsely 
punctate thorax, longer legs, and difference in antennal structure. 

Length, 1% ; breadth,-^ line. 

My specimen was found near Whangarei Harbour. 

1359. P.basalis y n sp. — Sub-parallel, shining, dark red. 

Head somewhat quadrate, punctate, deeply bi-foveate. Pro- 
thorax oblong, very gradually narrowed posteriorly, indistinctly 
impressed on the dorsum, moderately coarsely punctured, three 
linear dorsal spaces somewhat more remotely. Scutellum obso- 
lete. Elytra elongate, oviform, coarsely punctate-striate, their 
humeral angles prominent. Legs stout, anterior tibiae distinctly 
ciliated inwardly with short yellow hairs. Antennce normal, club 
obviously bi-articulate. 

With the exception of P. simplex and P. ellipticus the New 
Zealand species exhibit a truncate elytral base ; in the present 


one the base is emarginate, with the shoulders dentate and por- 
rected, and consequently conspicuous. 

Length, 1 ]/ 2 ; breadth nearly j£ line. 

From the same locality as P. rufescens. 

Passandrid^:. — Family Cucujipes. 

Jugular piece strongly developed, concealing the maxillae. 
Ligula strongly bi-lobed among the greater number. Antenna 
filiform, or nearly so. Tarsi pentamerous in both sexes, the 
basal articulation frequently very small. 

Ghatosoma (Westwood). — (Lacord. Hist, des Ins. Coleop. torn. 
II., p. 399). — Mentum strongly transversal, considerably sloped 
anteriorly, rounded laterally. Projecting jugular piece absent. 
Ligula deeply cleft, so as to form two narrow lobes, ciliated in 
front. Lobes of the maxilla broad, ciliated at the extremity ; 
the external longer than the inner. Last joint of labial palpi 
oval, arched and obliquely truncated at apex ; that of the maxil- 
lary gradually thickened and obtuse at the end. Mandibles pro- 
minent, robust, trigonal, feebly arched apically, bi-dentate in- 
wardly. Labrum short, sinuated, with rounded angles. Head 
rather long, as broad as thorax. Eyes moderate, rounded. 
Antenna elongate, filiform, clothed with long hairs ; basal joint 
short, sub-globose, 2nd very short, joints 3-10 about equal, each 
rather slender at base, nth sub-ovate. Prothorax quadrate, 
about the same width as elytra. Elytra elongate, parallel, 
humeral angles prominent. Eegs moderate, femora stout ; tibia 
slightly and gradually dilated ; tarsi with four short basal 
joints, ciliated below, 5th large, claws thickened at base. 

Body elongate, parallel, sub-depressed, clothed with rather 
long hairs. 

1360. Chatosoma scaritides (Westw). — Parallel elongate, 
rather plane, shining, bearing erect longish hairs, pitchy-black, 
legs and four elytral spots (two basal, two apical) rufescent. 

Head (excluding the mandibles) quadrate, about as broad but 
shorter than thorax, epistome smooth, occiput closely punctured, 
the front with linear impressions, eyes prominent. Prothorax 
nearly square, slightly narrowed towards the base, marginated ; 
its punctures oblong, closest on the dorsum, longer and more 
distant on the sides, with a smooth space on each side of the 
middle. Scutellum oblong, smooth. Elytra arcuated at base, 
with rows of punctures, coarsest near the sides. Sternum 
blackish, abdomen infuscate-red. 

The above describes a specimen recently sent me by Sydney 
W. Fulton, Esq., Outram, Otago, and agrees with remarks 
appended by Lacordaire to the generic diagnosis. I have not 
seen Professor Westwood's description ; nearly all the other 
examples I have examined are almost wholly black, and some 
larger than the one alluded to. 

Length, 4 ; breadth, 1 line. 

Habitat, New Zealand (id. est. t not local). 



1 36 1. Parabrontes setiger, n. sp. — Elongate, depressed; head 
and thorax and irregular spaces on the elytra piceous, antennae 
and trophi castaneous red, legs fusco-testaceous. 

Head longitudinally rugosely punctate, with two smooth 
grooves from the labrum to the occiput. Prothorax longer than 
broad, narrower than elytra, anterior angles protuberant and 
rufescent, considerably contracted behind, sides obtusely dilated 
after the middle ; its discoidal sculpture irrregularly rugose, the 
lateral granular. Scutellum transversal, blackish. Elytra elon- 
gate, parallel, marginated, obtusely rounded apically, transversely 
depressed near the middle ; coarsely punctate-striate, sides ver- 
tical except near the middle, the dorsum rather sharply defined 
from the shoulders to near the apices, but with the carina in- 
curved medially. The clothing consists of fine brassy setae, 
scarcely apparent on the thorax. 

When the thorax of this species is compared with that of 
P. silvanoides, it will be noticed that the three or four dentiform 
projections on the sides of the latter are quite absent, and that it 
is shorter and broader. The prevailing colour on the elytra is 

Length, nearly 2}4 ; breadth, nearly ^ lines. 

Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager sent me a mutilated specimen from 
the vicinity of Port Nicholson, 


1362. Corticaria tarsalis t n. sp. — Sub-ovate, a little convex, shin- 
ing, sparingly clothed with long, erect grayish hairs ; variegate, 
chiefly reddish-brown, a considerable portion of the elytra pitchy- 
brown, shoulders testaceous, legs infuscate red, tarsi (save the 
fuscous apical joint) yellowish, two basal joints of antennae fus- 
co-testaceous, the others darker. 

Head nearly as broad as the widest part of the thorax, 
coarsely punctate ; eyes very large and prominent. Antenna 
bearing dark elongate hairs ; basal joint robust, swollen, 2nd 
smaller, joints 3-6 slender and elongate, 6-8 small ; club elongate, 
its two basal joints swollen at the base but abruptly narrowed 
(almost cylindrical) beyond, nth joint ovate. Prothorax about 
as long as broad, its sides rounded, a good deal narrowed 
apically ; uneven, coarsely punctured, with two dorsal foveas, 
one behind the other, and a larger one at each side near the 
middle. Scutellum distinct, smooth. Elytra cordate, narrowed 
towards the base, slightly but broadly depressed before the 
middle, coarsely punctate. Legs moderate, tibia straight, the 
posterior not dilated apically ; tarsi two-thirds the length of the 
tibise, basal joint as large as 2nd, not abreviated, the terminal 
stout ; claws thickened at base. 

Allied to Nos. 415,419, and 420. Eyes very large, more 
approximated above than is usual. 

Length, ^ ; breadth, quite % line. 

I found one on the Waitakerei Range. 



1363. Morychus gemmeus, n. sp. — Convex, oval, nude; brilliant 
rufo-cupreous, legs red, tarsi and palpi yellow ; antennae ferru- 

Head rather narrow, forehead considerably rounded ; closely 
and coarsely punctured near the eyes, more distantly on the 
middle ; labrum closely sculptured. Prothorax of the orthodox 
form, sides almost straight, front and hind angles distinct, the 
latter rather acute ; distinctly punctated, the punctures not so 
close nor coarse as those on the head, and much more distant 
from one another on the dorsum. Scutellum minute, quite tri- 
angular. Elytra very convex, with distant shallow punctures, 
their whole surface divided into small areas by minute irregular 
lines running in different directions. Legs finely pilose ; all the 
tibiae arcuated externally, the anterior quite as much as the inter- 
mediate. Antenna of moderate length, basal joint robust, 2nd 
shorter but stouter than 3rd, the latter slender and longer than 
4th, 5th a little shorter but thicker than its predecessor, 6th and 
7th about equal, much stouter but shorter than 5th, joints 8-10 
increase in width, transversal, nth normal; the slender joints 
are sparsely, the terminal densely pubescent. 

Smaller than M. coruscans, the sculpture different, and the 
front tibiae obviously curved. 

Length, 1 ]/ 2 ; breadth, $/% line. 

I picked my specimen off a log at Parua (Whangarei Harb.) 

1364. Morychus insuetus, n. sp. — Black, shining, legs and first 
antennal joint ferruginous, the remaining joints of the latter and 
the tarsi yellowish ; broad and convex. 

Head smooth on the middle, distinctly punctured on the 
sides. Prothorax of the usual form, remotely and very finely 
punctured. Scutellum quite invisible. Elytra without perceptible 
sculpture of any kind. Legs clothed with fine yellow hairs, 
front tibiae scarcely arched. Antenna pubescent, their 3rd articu- 
lation slender and elongate, joints 6- 11 gradually incrassated. 

Similar to M. orbicularis in form ; in that species, however, 
the front of the head between the antennae, is almost truncate, 
whereas in the present one it is much rounded, and the thorax, 
instead of being evidently punctured, must be carefully examined 
before its minute sculpture can be perceived ; the antennae of 
this species are more robust, particularly the dilated joints. 

Length, 1 ]/ 2 ; breadth, ^ line. 

Described from one mutilated example detected in a saw-pit 
at Parua. 




By various Makers, 


Booftseliers aufc ^tattowet.y, 






JANUARY, 1883.] 

[No. 7, Vol. L 







\J X 



Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede minus : aut si f alsum est, adcingere contra. 



New Zealand Coleoptera (continued). Captain T. Broun 

To Our Readers 

On Methods of Studying Annelida. William A. Haswell, M.A 

On Marine Caddis-fly from New Zealand. R. M'Laucalan, F.R.S 

Science- Teaching in our Seconday Schools. G. M. Thomson, F.L.S. 
Correspondence — ... 

Marine Caddis- worms. 
New Zealand Mollusca of "Challenger" Expedition. Rev.R. Boog Watson, F.L.S. 

Abstract of Paper on Desmidieae. W. M. Maskell 

The Transit of Venus 

General Notes — 

N.Z. Idoteidas — Endosmotic Movements in Nitel'a— New Zealand Beetles — Stalk-eyed Crustacea 
of New Zealand — Nests of the Yellow-breasted Tit — Professor Haeckel on Education — 
Botrychium Lunaria, Swaitz — Is Stipa Setacea, R.Br., indigenous to New Zealand. 

Meetings of Societies — 

Auckland Institute — Wellington Philosophical Society — Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — 
Otago Institute — Royal Society of New South Wales— Linnean Society of New South 













1365. Lissotes helmsi, (Sharp). — Ent. Mon. Mag. Aug., 
1 88 1, p. 49. — Niger, opacus, prothoracis elytrorumque marginibus 
squamosis ; capite prothoraceque crebre punctatis, hoc lateribus rotun- 
datis, margine anteriore leviter bisinuato, angulis posterioribus omnino 
latissime rotundatis ; elytris sat crebre punctatis, seriebus quatuor 
squamorum brevium erectorum 

Long. corp. (sine mandibulis), 20 mm., lat. 10 mm., male. 

Head with numerous punctures on the upper surface, which, on 
the extreme vertex, became almost dense ; the hind angles slightly 
prominent, but without any distinct projection. Prothorax very 
strongly transverse, with very numerous rather fine punctures ; 
its front has a slight but distinct margin, which becomes obsolete 
in the middle, the sides are a little curved, and the hind angles 
are very broadly rounded ; side margins very densely covered 
with very short fulvous setae or scales. Elytra short and broad, 
dull, with four longitudinal series of closely-packed, erect, very 
short fulvous setae, and with the strongly raised side-margins 
very densely covered with similar setae, the surface between the 
series very distinctly punctured. The upper-inner face of the 
hind tibicd is distinctly longitudinally sulcate ; the apical spurs 
are broad. 

The male has the mandibles short and stout, strongly curved, 
with a short basal tooth, which overlaps the labrum, and a very 
large tooth in the middle, which, when the mandibles are closed, 
meets the opposite mandibles just in front of but below the 
labrum. The female is unknown. 

Found at Greymouth, west coast of New Zealand by Mr. 
Helms, in recognition of whose successful researches I have 
named the species. There is not, I believe, any species at all 
similar to it known as occurring in New Zealand. 


Phycocus, gen. nov. — Body convex, ovate. Maxillary palpi tri- 
articulate, their terminal joint elongate, straight externally, 
obtusely rounded inwardly, sub-securiform ; labial shorter, two- 
jointed, the apical robust, obtuse. Antennas eight-jointed, basal 
elongate, cylindric ; 2nd shorter, dilated outwardly; 3-5 short, 
obconical ; club compact, large, tri-articulate. Mentum with two 
large, divergent, triangular lobes. Head large, so formed as to 
conceal the organs of the mouth ; antennal cavities large, capable 
of receiving the whole of the antennae. Eyes apparently absent, 
quite invisible. Prothorax transverse. Scutellum small, triangular. 
Elytra completely covering the pygidium. Legs stout ; posterior 
femora considerable distended, the others narrow, sub-parallel ; 
anterior tibia tri-dentate, with an inner calcar, between which and 
the outer tooth the tarsus is inserted ; posterior somewhat com- 
pressed, nearly straight, apex lunate outwardly, having a carina 
on the inner and outer edges, the intermediate space concave, 
the tarsus inserted in the hollow, with two foliaceous spurs be- 
yond. Tarsi seemingly normal, all mutilated, three joints only 


intact. Anterior and posterior coxa contiguous, middle pair 
moderately distant. Abdomen transversely convex, so that the 
sides are far from being on the same plane as the epipleurae. 

The structure of this highly intertsting form is so abnormal 
that a new group must be added to the Dynastida for its reception 

1 366. Phycocus graniceps, n. sp. — Glabrous pitchy-brown, head, 
infuscate-red, legs ferruginous, antennae and palpi fulvous. 

Head large, convex, rounded, slightly notched at apex, covered 
with granules. Prothorax short, marginated, base truncate, apex 
emarginated to the width of the head, angularly rounded later- 
ally, destitute of angles, with the exception of a basal groove and 
two indistinct frontal foveas, unimpressed. Elytra convex, nar- 
rowed towards the base, rounded and gradually deflexed pos- 
teriorly ; their sculpture consists of obsolete striae, the sutural 
only distinct. Antenna pubescent. Tibia (save the anterior) 
roughly sculptured, denticulate and hispid on the edges. 

When examined sideways it will be seen that the most 
•elevated part is behind the base of the elytra, from thence the 
slope is gradual. 

Length, 1 x / 2 ; breadth, nearly 1 line. 

I found one individual amongst sea-weed north of Whangarei 


1367. Neocharis cylindrata, n. sp. — Narrow, nearly cylindrical, 
not slender, pubescent, somewhat variegate ; antennae obscure 
black, head blackish, body dark-brown, shining, the thoracic apex 
and posterior angles and elytral base rufescent, legs reddish, 
tarsi yellowish. 

Head densely punctate. Prothorax broader than long, rather 
closely but very finely punctulated. Scutellum nude and unim- 
pressed. Elytra very slightly narrowed behind, shoulders very 
little elevated, rugulose, obsoletely striated, the sutural striae 
deeply sunk apically. Antenna short and stout, of nearly equal 
thickness throughout, not serrate, as long as head and thorax ; 
basal joint as long as the following three conjointly, 2nd and 3rd 
short, but decidedly longer than 4th (united), joints 4-10 about 
equal, nearly quadrate, nth oval. 

The clothing is rather dense and consists of short yellow hairs. 
Eyes rather large, longitudinally oval, not prominent, so that the 
genal space appears to be on the same plane if not actually a 
little dilated. The antennal cavities are large, with slightly cari- 
nated edges, the hind line touches the eye just between the front 
and middle. 

Male, iS/£ long ; nearly }4 line broad. 

I caught two at Waitakerei ; the second, probably the female, 
is nearly two lines in length. 


1368. Talerax tenuis, n. sp. — Black, shining, gradually narrowed 
posteriorly ; legs and basal joint of the antennae infuscate, tarsi 
testaceous ; clothed with short greyish hairs. 

Head densely and rugosely sculptured. Prothorax transversal, 
its apex finely carinated, anterior angles depressed, posterior pro- 
minent and a little incurved at the extremity ; its surface is 
finely and distantly punctulated. Elytra elongate, gradually and 
slightly narrowed behind, apices obtuse ; each has a sutural stria 
most deeply impressed at the base and apex, and a broad, 
oblique basal depression, causing the shoulder to seem consider- 
ably elevated ; the sculpture appears confused, the punctures 
being sometimes in rows, but never coarse. Antennae relatively 
stout, as long as the body, 2nd joint very short, 4th shorter than 
3rd ; they are almost filiform. 

Length, 1^ ; breadth, }£ line. 

I found one, most likely a male, at Waitakerei. It is the 
smallest Eucnemid described as yet. 

1369. Protelater nigricans, (Sharp). Ent. Mon. Mag., Aug., 
1881, p. 50. 

Mongatus, angustulatus, sub-cylindricus, niger, sparsim tenuiter pubescens , 
sat nitidus, prothoracis angulis posterioribus picescentibus, abdomine nigro- 
piceo, lateribus rufis. 

Long 11, lat 2j^ — 2^$ mm. 

This species is the largest Protelater yet discovered, and may 
thus be easily identified, also by its black colour, comparatively 
shining surface, and scanty pubescence. The thorax is shining, 
rather sparingly and distinctly punctured, the elongate hind- 
angles are much directed outwards ; the elytra are rather deeply 
striate, the striae distinctly punctured ; the interstices are more 
finely and sparingly punctured, the 3rd, 5th, and 7th are, beyond 
the middle, more elevated than the others. 

The colour of this species is very probably variable ; com- 
pared with the large variety of P. elongatus, I find that P. nigricans, 
independent of the colour and sculpture, is distinguished by more 
elongate antennae, and by the hind angles being more abruptly 
directed outwards. 

Greymouth, Helms. 

NOTE. — Dr. Sharp's Chrosis violacea (Ent. Mon. Mag., Aug., 
1 88 1, p. 49) is identical with No. 1188 (Part II, p. 681) ; the 
colour of his specimen is probably brighter than mine. 


Psorochroa, n. gen. — Head small, obliquely narrowed and carinated 
towards the front, the middle obtuse, confounded with the cly- 
peus, the latter indistinguishable ; labrum prominent, rounded, 
nearly on the same plane as the forehead, separated from it by a 
deep channel ; mandibles robust, bi-dentate at apex. Antennas half 


the length of the thorax, inserted below the forehead immediately 
in front of the eyes ; basal joints largest ; 3rd longer than 2nd, 
the latter equalling the 4th; joints 4-10 sub-triangular; nth 
broadly oval. Pvothorax broader than long, rounded laterally, 
tri-sinuatc at base, posterior angles prominent, not divergent. 
Scutellum oblong. Elytra moderate, narrowed behind. Chin-piece 
extending to the tips of the mandibles. Pvostemal sutures widely 
open in front only, straight, attaining outer edge of coxae. 
Pvostemal process nearly flat above, depressed at the extremity. 
Mesosternal cavity with raised hind margin, reaching the broad 
inter-coxal depression. Coxal lamina moderate, abruptly reduced 
beyond the trochanter. Tarsi rather compressed, all the joints 
well-developed, hispid below. 

1370. Psorochvoa gvanulata,n.sp. — Sub-opaque, variegate, elytra ob- 
scure brown, thorax paler and brighter, legs and antennae obscurely 

Head slightly depressed in front, with coarse punctures 
on its anterior edge. Prothorax curvedly excised in front, 
narrowed towards the blunt front angles, nearly straight behind 
the middle ; the posterior angles carinated, overlapping the 
shoulders, slightly incurved and deflexed at the extremity ; it 
bears many minute, glossy, black granules, and short fulvous seti- 
form hairs. Elytra with rounded shoulders, slightly curved sides, 
gradually narrowed behind, almost plane ; sub-striate, interstices 
uneven, with fewer and smaller granules than the thorax, and 
with similar, but more rufescent setae. Underside rather dull, 
blackish ; flanks of prosternum coarsely, but remotely punctured, 
the rest not distinctly sculptured ; sparsely clothed. The antennae 
are covered with pubescence on the sides only; joints 4-10 are 
dilated inwardly, but not acute, at the extremity. 

An occasional puncture may be noticed in the elytral grooves, 
and the humeral regions are more or less obtusely tuberculate. 

Length, 8-9 lines ; breadth, 2^-3^. 

Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager found this curious insect in the 
crevices of rocks on " The Brothers " (Cook's Strait). 

1 37 1. Cryptohypnus montanus, n. sp. — Sub-parallel, almost de- 
pressed, moderately glossy, blackish-brown, legs flavo-testaceous 
antennae rufescent, clothed with short yellowish hairs. 

Head broadly impressed, finely and not closely punctated. 
Prothorax as long as broad, obtusely rounded laterally, contracted 
near the base, convex, its posterior angles carinate, prominent, 
sub-acute, and divergent ; the surface rather closely and finely 
punctured, obsoletely grooved on the middle. Scutellum oblong. 
Elytra slightly rounded laterally, distinctly, but not coarsely, 
striated, the external grooves more or less punctate, interstices 
nearly plane, closely punctulated. Underside pubescent, dark cas- 
taneous ; prosternum closely punctulated ; abdomen finely and 
closely sculptured. Antennce shorter than head and thorax, stout, 
3rd and 4th joints equal, 2nd shorter but stouter than 5th. 

Besides the ridge on the thoracic angle, there is another ab- 


breviated one between it and the middle, the base is nearly trun- 
cate, with a tooth-like projection on each side of the scutellum. 

Female, length, 5 ; breadth, 1 )/ 2 lines. 

One of Mr. T. F. Cheeseman's captures on Mount Arthur. 

1372. Cryptohypmts sandageri, n. sp. — Black, a little shining, 
antennae, palpi, and labrum more or less rufescent, femora fus- 
cous, tibiae and trochanters reddish-castaneous, apical segment 
of abdomen of a chestnut colour ; clothed with short grayish hairs. 

Head punctulated, otherwise unimpressed. Pvothorax barely 
as long as broad, sides obtusely rounded, incurved before the 
hind angles ; these latter ridged, acute, slightly divergent, but 
little produced beyond the base, with an inner carina ; canalicu- 
late, finely and distantly punctured, more closely on the sides ; 
base tri-sinuated, the median incurvature dentate at each side. 
Elytra depressed, obviously striated, the grooves distantly punc- 
tured, interstices rugulose. Underside rather dull, blackish- 
brown, densely, but finely, sculptured and pubescent. Antennae 
longer than head and thorax, pubescent ; 2nd and 6th joints 
about equal, the intermediate differing but little from one another, 
except that the 3rd is the stoutest. 

The male has a rather longer thorax, with its posterior angles 
just perceptibly prolonged, so as to be visibly elongated beyond 
the basal line. 

Allied to No. 523 and 522, larger than either, differently 
coloured, with punctures in the elytral striae. 

Female, length, 4^ ; breadth, 1 y 2 lines. 

The pair I possess are from Wellington, where they were 
taken by Mr. P. Stewart-Sandager. 

1373. Somemus rectus, n. sp. — Elongate, parallel, sub-depressed ; 
glossy black, antennae fuscous, legs fusco-testaceous ; pubescence 
fine, rather dense, obscure yellow. 

Head coarsely punctured, forehead obtusely rounded. Antenna 
elongate, sub-serrate ; 2nd and 3rd articulations equal, short, 
and, conjointly, half as long as the 4th, joints 4-10 longer than 
broad. Prothorax elongate, nearly twice as long as broad, just 
perceptibly narrowed anteriorly, posterior angles prominent, 
scarcely divergent ; its punctation moderately coarse and close. 
Elytra slightly attenuated apically, finely, yet distinctly, striated, 
the outer grooves, and those before the middle only, punctured ; 
interstices rugulose. 

If it were not for the slight attenuation towards the extremi- 
ties the body would be quite parallel-sided. The three basal 
joints of the antennas taken together barely equal the fourth in 
length. The sculpture of the elytral interstices is more obvious 
than the punctures in the striae. The legs are long and slender. 
The species seems to be allied to S. flavipes only. 


Length, almost 2 lines ; breadth, quite 5/6. 

Described from one example in my own collection, obtained, 
most likely, near Whangarci Harbour. 

Somemus vittatus, n. sp. — Black, shining with a short broad ob- 
lique basal stripe on each elytron, testaceous, legs fuscous, tarsi 
slightly rufescent ; rather broad and sub-parallel. 

Head closely punctured. Pvothorax longer than broad, nar- 
rowed in front, convex, posterior angles divergent ; moderately 
closely, but not coarsely, punctured, slightly canaliculated behind; 
covered with short, erect, blackish hairs, and a few grayish ones 
near the hind angles. Scutellum punctulate. Elytra nearly 
parallel-sided, finely striated, the external strise punctured, inter- 
stices so punctulated as to appear rugulose, densely clothed with 
fine, decumbent, griseous hairs. Antennae as long as head and 
thorax, 3rd joint a little longer than 2nd, these two, together, 
quite as long as 4th, joints 4-10 serrate. Underside black, punc- 
tulated, closely covered with yellowish-gray hairs. 

Easily recognised by the upright hairs on the thorax and the 
oblique elytral vittse. 

Length, 4 ; breadth, 1*^ lines. 

One example, in bad condition, taken by Mr. T. F. Cheese- 
man, F.L.S., on Mount Arthur. 


In entering on the second year of publication of the New 
Zealand Journal of Science, it is incumbent on us to ad- 
dress a few words to those who have supported the undertaking 
in its inception, and are interested in its progress, with a view of 
showing how it has prospered and what its prospects are. As a 
publication we are led to believe that it is generally viewed as a 
success ; it has fulfilled the promises held out at its start ; and 
its contents and get-up are favourably compared with other colo- 
nial scientific productions. Its usefulness, too, must be apparent 
to all engaged in scientific research. As a financial speculation, 
however, it has not been a success, the cost of printing alone 
having more than absorbed the receipts. This no doubt is due, 
to a great extent, to the fact that it appeals to a limited number 
of readers, and also, in part, to a lack of support from certain 
quarters in which support was looked for. One thing has made 
itself abundantly clear in the course of the past year, and that is 
that such a publication need never succumb for lack of materials. 
The question then resolves irself into one of £ s. d. If the jour- 
nal is to be carried on, it must receive more support ; whereas, 
of course, if the sinews of war are not forthcoming, it must be 
allowed to die a natural death — to add another to the many 


bantlings which have succumbed from want of nourishment. 

We have no intention, however, of allowing the thing to col- 
lapse after so short a trial of existence, and thus we enter with 
confidence upon, our second year, and will carry the undertaking 
through to the end of it. If by that time our prospects have 
not improved, we shall be justified in concluding that the journal, 
has been premature in its arrival. Meanwhile, we would call 
upon all who wish to keep this publication afloat, to use their 
influence in extendingits circulation. 


Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, University of Sydney. 

Many of the most important observations on the structure of 
the Annelida oan only be made on the living or recently-killed 
animal. Such observations must be carried out by the ordinary 
methods of compression and of dissection under water, with the 
aid of the dissecting microscope. But for the demonstration of 
many points in the structure a process of hardening and section- 
cutting must be resorted to. 

Of hardening agents for the Annelida I have found chromic 
acid and corrosive sublimate, followed in either case by alcohol, 
to give the best results. The chromic acid should be used in a 
•25 % solution. The Annelide should first be killed in a 1 °/ Q solu- 
tion, but should be removed as soon as dead, after being as far 
as possible straightened, to the weaker solution, in which it may 
be allowed to remain about three weeks. It should then be 
washed in water and placed in rectified spirit for a week, and 
finally in absolute alcohol for a day or two. The corrosive sub- 
limate should be employed in the form of a concentrated aqueous 
solution. After remaining in this for half-an-hour to an hour, 
the animal should be placed in weak (50 %) alcohol, in which it 
should remain-for 24 hours. It should then be transferred to 70 
°/ alcohol for 24 hours more, then placed in strong rectified spirit 
for two or three days, and finally in absolute alcohol for two or 
three days more. 

It will in many cases be found desirable to make two series 
of sections, viz — sections of the animal as a whole, and sections 
of individual organs. Before making the former series it will be 
found desirable to stain the animal as a whole before cutting, 
to avoid the risk of disarranging the sections involved in staining 
them separately. This can best be effected by cochineal, by 
haematoxylin, by diluted Beale's carmine fluid, or by borax car- 
mine. The cochineal staining fluid is prepared by soaking 
cochineal in strong spirit for a day or so, drawing off the solution, 


filtering and diluting if necessary.* This solution stains rapidly 
and intensely, but I think is inferior to the others mentioned in 
selective power. The best formula for the haematoxylin is that 
well known as Kleincnberg's.-f" A saturated solution of calcium 
chloride in 70 % alcohol, with the addition of a little alum, after 
being filtered is mixed with from six to eight times its volume 
of 70 °/ Q alcohol. To this is added a few drops of a concentrated 
solution of crystallised haematoxylin in absolute alcohol. The 
colour of the staining fluid thus formed should not be too dark, 
but a watch-glass full of it should appear nearly opaque when 
placed on a sheet of white paper. In this solution the Annelide 
should remain for half a day, and should then be transferred to 
strong alcohol, to be followed after twelve hours by absolute alco- 
hol. If the object is seen to be overstained (and it is often very 
difficult to adjust the strength of the solution and the time of 
immersion to the state of the specimen, so as to be quite sure of 
the result), a little hydrochloric acid (a drop to two ounces) 
should be added to the rectified spirit. 

For the carmine solution the modification of Beale's formula 
recommended by RutherfordJ will be found the best. If the 
specimen has been hardened in chromic acid, the addition of a 
little more ammonia may be found advantageous. This should 
be diluted with its own bulk of water, and the specimen allowed 
to remain in the solution for twenty-four hours, after which it 
may be transferred to strong spirit. Grenadier's borax-carmine, 
which I have found a very excellent staining fluid for the Annelida, 
is prepared as follows : — To a 4 °/ Q solution of borax in water add 
2.5 °/ of pure carmine ; allow the solution to stand for two or 
three days, stirring it occasionally. Add to this an equal bulk 
of 70 % alcohol ; allow it to stand for a week, and then filter, 
when it will be ready for use. Six to ten hours will be found 
sufficient to stain the Annelide very thoroughly ; it should then 
be transferred- to 70 % alcohol, slightly acidulated, for a few 
hours, then placed in 90 °/ Q , and afterwards in absolute alcohol. 

Before being embedded the specimens should be placed for 
half-an-hour in creosote, and from that removed to a mixture of 
creosote and paraffin melted in a water bath. A very excellent 
embedding material is paraffin and vasellin, in the proportion of 
three parts of the former to one of the latter. This wax is very 
readily dissolved out from the sections by a mixture of carbolic 
acid and turpentine, and moreover it cuts extremely well. It 
will usually be found unnecessary to wet the knife. To preserve 
with certainty the order of the sections, they should be placed in 
series along the slide as they are cut, and, to prevent the possi- 
bility of disarrangement, the following process will be found of 
advantage.^ Each slide, after having been carefully cleaned and 

* Paul Meyer, Mittheilungen aus der Zool. Station zu Neapel, I. 
f See Foster and Langley's Practical Physiology, p. 252. 

\ Practical Histology, p 


Giesbricht, Mittheilungen aus der Zool. Stat, zu Neapel. 


slightly warmed, has placed on its surface a large drop of a care- 
fully-filtered solution of shellac in absolute alcohol ; the drop is 
caused to run over the whole surface by tilting the slide, or is 
spread over by means of a glass rod, and the superfluous fluid is 
drained off. In this way the slide is covered with a thin trans- 
parent layer of shellac. Before use the surface of the slide 
(slightly warmed) is gently pencilled over with clove oil. When 
the sections have all been placed on the slide, it is placed over a 
water-bath heated to about 130 Fahr., until the smell of clove 
oil can no longer be detected. It is then allowed to cool, an J the 
surface flooded with turpentine, or a mixture of 1 part of carbolic 
acid to 3 of turpentine, to dissolve the paraffin. If turpentine 
alone is used, it will be found advisable to replace it with clove 
oil after the paraffin is dissolved out, before mounting in balsam 
or dammar. I find it a great saving of time, trouble, and space 
to place the sections in order along the slide in two rows, about 
30-50 in each row, and to cover each row with a single long slip 
of thin glass about half an inch broad and about an inch shorter 
than the slide. The slips are laid on after the paraffin has be- 
come thoroughly dissolved out and the sections have cleared up, 
and the balsam in a thin solution is run in at the sides. 

For the finest sections the shellac method described above, 
in which the object must be cut dry, is not very favourable. 
These are better cut in many cases with the aid of a large drop 
of sweet oil to cover the surface of the object and the portion of 
the knife with which it is being cut. When the sections are 
very delicate and brittle, they must be floated on the oil from 
the knife to the slide ; the superfluous oil must then be drawn 
off with bibulous paper, and the paraffin dissolved out as before 
with turpentine. There are many cases, however, in which the 
finest sections can be made without the aid of the oil, and 
it is well to do without it when possible, as it is somewhat diffi- 
cult to dissolve away from the sections, and sometimes delays 
their complete clearing up. 


{Philanisus, Walker, —Anomalostoma, Brauer). 


In April of this year I received a letter from Prof. F. W- 
Hutton, of Canterbury College, Christchurch New Zealand, in 
which was the startling announcement that the larva of a Caddis- 
fly lives habitually in rock-pools, between high and loiv water- 
marks, in Lyttleton Harbour in that colony, and forms its case 
of coralline seaweed. He had often attempted to rear the perfect 

*Bead before the Linnean Society of London, 15th June, 1882. 


insect, but only once succeeded, and that when he was away from 
home ; so that only the dead remains were obtainable. Prof. 
Hutton gave me the welcome intelligence that these remains, 
with larva and case, were on their way to this country in charge 
of a friend who was coming home. This gentleman (Mr. C. C. 
Bowen, Governor of the Canterbury Province) recently arrived, 
and the materials are now in my hands. 

We are so accustomed to associate Caddis-worms with fresh 
water, that the arrival of these materials was awaited by me with 
not unnatural impatience. We are already acquainted with a 
terrestrial species {Enoicyld)\ but no truly marine form had been 
recorded. It is, I believe, known that at least one species 
can exist in the brackish water of the shores of the 
Baltic, at any rate in the vicinity of the mouths of large rivers. 
Others certainly manage to exist in marshes that are liable to 
the occasional influx of salt water during high tides, and in pools 
near the sea-shore into which sea-water sometimes enters in 
large quantities during storms. These instances, however, 
scarcely affect the matter now under consideration. So far as 
I can ascertain, these New Zealand larvae are quite outside the 
influence of river-water ; and the materials of which the case is 
chiefly composed appear to prove this. 

The specimens before me are not in good condition on the 
whole. They consist of: — 

(i.) A straight tubular cylindrical case, 10 millim. long by 
nearly 3 millim. in diameter, which is nearly equal throughout. 
To the inner silken tube are attached fragments of some white 
coralline seaweed (with a few quartz [?] fragments &c), arranged 
in no special order. In one or two instances the fragments are 
larger, showing the jointed nature of the alga ; but mostly they 
consist of single joints. The case is empty ; but I think it was a 
pupa-case, one end showing signs of having been closed in a 
manner that is usual when the inmate is in the pupal condition, 
(ii.) A larva (probably young), mounted as a transparent 
object on a microscopic slide, crushed and a good deal damaged. 
This larva is 6 millim. long. The head is rounded oval in form, 
blackish above, but with three pale spots, one posteriorly, the two 
others (smaller) on each side of the disk ; there are also pale dots 
round the small eye-spots ; the anterior margin and labrum are 
provided with long hairs. Viewed from beneath, the mouth-parts 
are not discernible. The pronotum is narrow and transverse, 
but with anterior angles much produced ; the colour is testaceous, 
mottled with paler ; fringed with long hairs. Mesonotum similar 
in form, but somewhat broader, and the angles less produced ; 
almost entirely pale yellowish, slightly mottled with testaceous ; 
less chitinous than either the head or pronotum. Metanotum 
the broadest segment of the thorax, scarcely chitinous ; the sides 
apparently with a hair-bearing tubercle. Legs wholly bright 
yellow ; the anterior pair short, the two other pairs longer (not 
extraordinarily long) and nearly equal. All the legs are simple 


(without teeth or spines), and present nothing unusual in form ; 
the claw very long and curved. Abdominal segments having the 
sides nearly parallel, apparently bright yellow in life ; terminal 
segment dilated, its posterior margin angular and notched in the 
middle. Anal claw very short, piceous, much curved, and seated 
on a strong protuberance ; on either side of the posterior margin 
of the anal segment is a tuft of very long black hairs. I can 
discover no trace of stigmata in the larva in its present condition, 
and the respiratory filaments are rather uncertain ; but there are 
distinct traces of bundles composed of three or four short fila- 
ments on either side of the ventral surfaee of the first and 
second abdominal segments ; on the other segments I cannot 
define traces of filaments, 

(iii.) On the same slide are disconnected fragments of what 
Prof. Hutton assumed to be the perfect insect. Here he was a 
little mistaken. The fragments are those of a male pupa which 
had died before transformation, probably from being without 
anything in the jar of water up which it could crawl into the open 
air for metamorphosis. All the fragments show the transparent 
pupa integument enveloping the perfect insect, which was fully 
formed and ready to emerge. Ordinarily it would be almost 
impossible to identify a species from such fragments. The man- 
dibles are very long and strong, sickle shaped, but considerably 
dilated at the basal articulation (they are more formidable 
structures than are often seen in Trichopterous pupae). But 
neither these, the antennae, nor the unexpanded wings would 
have given any clue had the maxillary palpi not rendered identi- 
fication both possible and certain. These organs prove that the 
New Zealand marine Caddis-fly is no other than Philanisus 
plebejus, Walker(= A nomalostoma alloneura, Brauer), a species in 
which the maxillary palpi of the male present a remarkable and 
unique conformation of the second joint, which is very long, 
curved, and having the insertion of the third joint placed consider- 
ably before its apex. (In the female the second joint is also long ; 
but the third joint is inserted, as is usual at its apex.) 

So far this is a very satisfactory conclusion to arrive at. But 
Philanisus plebejus is already known from several localities in 
New Zealand ; and one would like to know if it is always found 
on the sea-shore. The other locality-records give us no informa- 
tion on this point. 

The insect was first noticed (I can scarcely say " described ") 
by Walker in 1852, in Part I. of the ' Catalogue of the Specimens 
of Neuropterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum,' 
p. 115, as a new genus and species which he termed Philanisus 
plebejus, indicated as from " New Zealand, Dr Sinclair." Walker 
made no mention of the extraordinary formation of the palpi ; his 
diagnosis is very vague ; and he placed the insect in the family 
Hydropsychidae. In the Neuropterous portion of the 'Reise der 
Novara,' published in 1866, Dr. Brauer gave a very detailed and 
full description, with excellent figures, of the same insect, under 


the name Anomalostoma alloneura (pp. 15-20, pi. i. figs. 6a, 6b), 
worked out with that care for which he is so well known, the 
examples having been taken at Auckland by Frauenfeld. 

Brauer evidently had suspicions that Anomalostoma might be 
identical with Philanisus, as is indicated at p. 16, and entered a 
protest against the adoption of Walker's name in case the insects 
should prove the same. It is not my intention here to enter into 
a discussion on the application of the rule of priority ; suffice it 
to say that I agree with Brauer on principle, but sometimes 
doubt the practicability of his suggestions. He placed the insect 
in the family Rhyacophilidae, in which he was followed by me in 
the Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. x., p. 214. 

Now that we know the habits of the insect, it is clear that it 
cannot remain either amongst the Hydropsychidae or the Rhya- 
cophilidae. In both these families the larvae construct perma- 
nently fixed cases, not moveable tubes. The anomalous structure 
of the palpi, and also the neuration, would suggest the Sericosto- 
matidae as a position ; but in this family the maxillary palpi of 
the male are not only differently formed to those of the female, 
but have also fewer joints. In Philanisus the joints are five in 
both sexes ; therefore I see no alternative other than to consider 
it an anomalous form of the family Leptoceridae, to which the 
structure of the larva is not opposed. Perhaps the point on which 
it is most divergent from any other described species of this 
family is the structure of the apex of the abdomen in the female, 
which is produced into a very long, straight, pointed, horny 
ovipositor (as in many Hydropsy chidae and Rhyacophilidae, but 
more pronounced); in what way this structure may perhaps be in 
correlation with the presumably constant marine habitat remains 
to be seen. 

The importance of Prof. Hutton's discovery rendered it desir- 
able that a detailed account should be given as far as the materials 
would permit. Now that the connection of this marine larva 
with Philanisus is proved, I hope he, or some other entomologist 
in New Zealand, may be able to give us fuller details ; examples 
of the larvae and pupae preserved in alcohol are also desirable. 


In the same package with the materials for the marine Caddis- 
fly Prof. Hutton forwarded specimens illustrating the economy 
of two other species of New Zealand Trichoptera, from the Weka 
Pass, Canterbury. 

(y)Helicopsyche. — Numerous cases regularly formed, constructed 
of fine sand, 3^-4 millim. in diameter by iJ^-2^ millim. high, 
with nearly three complete whorls. Some are empty ; others 
contain larva and pupae. Accompanying them were two female 
pupae emerged from the cases, and ready for the final metamor- 
phosis. So far as can be judged, the perfect insect should be 
congeneric with the species that have been reared in Europe and 


in North and South America. I refrain from bestowing names 
upon cases only*. 

(ii.) Fixed cases, probably constructed by the larvae of some 
unknown genus and species of Rhyacophilidse, which should be 
of about the size of some of the smaller European species of 
Rhyacobhila. The pupa is enveloped in a special cocoon, as is 
usual in the family, and does not agree with the genus Rhyacophila 
either in spurs or palpi. Philanisus having been removed from 
the family, the latter is now without any described representative 
in New Zealand. Of two cases one is wholly composed of stony 
(? granitic) fragments ; the other partially of similar fragments, 
partially of shells (of two or three species), and partially of the 
cases of the Helicopsyche referred to above. 



In view of the approaching annual meeting of the Senate of 
the New Zealand University, it is perhaps desirable to take into 
consideration the position occupied by science-teaching in our 
secondary schools, the suitability of the various subjects taught, 
and the nature and amount of encouragement which it receives 
at the hands of the University authorities. Hitherto, those who 
are responsible for this part of our school instruction, have not 
made their voices heard in any discussions which have been 
raised on the subject, and it is with the object of presenting the 
aspect of the question from a teacher's point of view, that I am 
tempted to advance my opinions in these columns. Limited 
space must be my excuse for treating the question briefly. 

It has been a matter of considerable difficulty to obtain infor- 
mation as to the teaching of science in our secondary schools, 
and my attempts in this direction have not met with unqualified 
success. It is evident, however, that most of the subjects in- 
cluded under the head of science are still treated with a con- 
siderable amount of suspicion by a certain section of the teach- 
ing community, In some cases it is only owing to the pressure 
of outside opinion that they find a place in our curriculum. This 
is most frequently shown by the fact that, with one or two ex- 

* Helicofisyche-cases from New Zealand have long been in the British Museum, 
and have several times been alluded to by me in various published notes. 


ceptions, little or no special provision is made for their teaching.* 
The subjects are generally relegated to a junior master, who has 
little or no apparatus at his disposal, and who has to teach his 
classes in any ordinary class-room, whether it be suited for the 
purpose or not. The teacher, too, has usually been selected for his 
special aptitude in any but science subjects, the latter being 
mere makeweights. The time given to the subjects is also 
very short, in most cases ranging from one to two hours per 
week. Under these circumstances it is not to be wondered at 
that the lessons, instead of developing the observational and 
reasoning faculties, often degenerate into mere lectures on the 
part of the teacher, and a committal of the information received 
by the pupils to notes and memory, without a single practical 
demonstration having been afforded. One result of such work 
is, of course, to lower the subjects in the estimation, not only of 
the general teaching community, but of the pupils themselves, 
who, in later years, may well look back with distrust on the so- 
called science they have been crammed with. The causes of 
this state of things are not very far to seek. Among them 
are : — (i) The fact that science-teachers have very frequently been 
men of one idea, who lauded their particular subject to a degree 
which was nauseous to teachers of other — and in their own 
estimation — far more important subjects, and though this class 
of men is not now nearly so common, many teachers of twenty 
or thirty years' standing can testify to their former frequent 
occurrence. (2) The heads of schools, whose opinions ought to be 
of great weight with the governing bodies, having been generally 
selected chiefly for proficiency in the teaching of classics or ma- 
thematics, are naturally inclined to follow to a very considerable 
extent the systems of instruction in which they were themselves 
educated. (3) The strong scientific reaction which is permeating 
University teaching everywhere, is only now beginning to make 
itself felt in the schools, as it is only within the last ten or fifteen 
years that men who have made science their speciality have been 
turned out in any appreciable number. (4) A spirit of conser- 
vatism — outcome of the old scholastic spirit — still survives 
strongly, and has been further strengthened by that caution 
which is necessary in introducing new subjects and modes into 
our educational systems. These are no doubt some of the causes 
which have tended to retard the advancement of science to a 
first place in the school curriculum. 

* It is due to the Board of Governors of the Dunedin High Schools to say that 
the arrangements made for science- teaching in the schools under their care are ex 
cellent, and are such as are not possessed by any other secondary school in the 
Colony. The teacher's time is devoted to science alone, and he is not reponsible for 
nor is called upon to teach any other subjects. A large and specially fitted labora- 
tory is set apart for his exclusive use, and is supplied with every requisite for the 
practical teaching of chemistry and botany, the two subjects which are taken up. 
The arrangements which are being made in the new school now in course of con- 
struction are on a still more elaborate and complete scale. Under such circum- 
stances the author feels that he can speak freely as one who is placed above the very 
defects he seeks to remedy 


To judge from the past it is certain that this branch of learn- 
ing will eventually come to be a recognised and a valuable part 
of every secondary school course, but it is equally certain that it 
will have to be conducted on a more definite and methodical 
plan than is at present adopted in the majority of our schools. 
The relative suitabilities of the different subjects which come 
under the general head of science will have to be recognised, 
and only those selected which can be most advantageously 
taught. This is a matter of primary importance, and a few 
remarks on this point may not be out of place. It may be pre«- 
mised that besides training the reasoning faculties, scientific 
teaching should aim at developing the observational faculties in 
a degree not equalled by any other educational subjects. In re- 
lation to the teacher himself, all branches of science are not 
suitable, as it depends greatly on the bias of each individual 
as to what he can most effectively take up. The question for 
him must not be, what subjects he can obtain a maximum of 
passes in, but in what manner can he most effectively develope 
in the minds of his pupils the scientific method of looking at all 
questions. This ought to be his aim ; but as he is apt to be 
judged by an empirical standard which asks for immediate re- 
sults, and as this standard is looked upon as the guage of his 
success, he most frequently reduces his aim to comply with it. 
In the case of the secondary schools of New Zealand, this stan- 
dard exists in the Junior Scholarship Examination of the Uni- 
versity. It behoves the authorities of the University, therefore, 
to fix this standard with due care, making it as high as it can be 
placed with safety, and to do all in their power to encourage 
actual work and to discourage cram. The task must always be 
a difficult one, as no general system of practical examination 
has yet been hit upon, and for lack of this the best part of a 
teacher's work, that namely which is due to his personal influence 
and enthusiasm, is not tested. 

In regard to the pupils, the training of the observational 
faculty should be begun early in their educational career. In 
the primary and preparatory schools it should take the form first 
ot properly conducted object lessons (not notes out of a book, 
but lessons on the physical properties of objects actually in the 
hands of the class), and later on, of special lessons in some defi- 
nite branch such as physiography or structural botany. Indeed, 
the latter science should find a place in every school, as it will be 
found to be the most useful preliminary training which can be 
adopted as a preparation for more advanced scientific work. 
The materials for its study are always readily available, and 
their examination does not necessitate the " messing " which 
accompanies some other branches of scientific work. It can be 
conducted in any class-room, or in country districts even out of 
doors, and for a very long time no apparatus (in the form of 
pocket lenses, &c.) is required. The pupil is introduced to a 
technical vocabulary, the acquisition and correct application of 


which form a valuable training in themselves, and lead to habits 
of accurate definition. When carried past the stage of examina- 
tion of external structure only, the study of this science, still 
without entailing cost of microscopes, carries with it a knowledge 
of the principles of generalization and classification. Taken 
then, in its entirety, no science subject can be considered to 
have an equal value for school purposes* 

Closely allied to the last, but far less suitable as a teaching 
subject,' is zoology. In the first place it is open to the objection 
that it cannot be studied without making more or less " mess," 
and this can only be overcome by having rooms specially fitted 
with appliances for its teaching. This would entail an expense 
disproportionate to the value of the subject. It has the further 
disadvantage of covering an enormous amount of ground, while 
the important processes of reproduction and development, which 
constitute the very back-bone of the science, cannot well be in- 
troduced into mixed or juvenile classes. I look upon this — the 
most fascinating of all sciences — as, therefore, an inappropriate 
one for the majority of schools. 

Geology is another subject which can seldom be taught with 
advantage, except perhaps in a few localities, where the condi- 
tions are exceptionally favourable. For a due comprehension 
of its phenomena, a large amount of experience and power of 
drawing correct references are needed. In most cases, however, 
the surrounding geological conditions will be found eminently 
unsuitable for observational lessons to beginners. But one 
branch of the subject — viz., physiography — may be taught, as 
Huxley has shewn, with great advantage, as it appeals to the 
observational faculties in the first place, and brings into promi- 
nence the law of cause and effect. Neither with regard to this 
subject, nor with regard to physiology, which is attempted in a 
number of schools, can I speak from personal experience. While 
the knowledge of the facts dealt with by the latter are of primary 
importance, I am somewhat doubtful as to its pedagogic value. 
Direct observation being out of the question, the teacher is con- 
strained to use diagrams and models, both of which, to be good, 
are expensive. Without them the lessons may be of use as les- 
sons on general information, but they cease to have an educa- 
tional value. 

In this connection, and before leaving the so-called natural 
sciences, I think it advisable to draw attention to the fact that 
in the Junior Scholarships examinations, as now defined, the only 
subject included under this head is elementary biology. The 
following is the category of science subjects, and the scope of 
the biology paper, as stated in the calendar for 1882 : — 

* Though it has no direct bearing on the present subject, I may point out that 
the teaching of botany and kindred sciences has an indirect moral value, as furnish- 
ing our youth with a study of great interest and fascination, the pursuit of which will 
prove to them of life-long value, and which introduces them to questions of the high- 
est importance. From this point of view alone, scientific education has a high value. 


" Natural and Physical Sciences : — Any two of the follow- 

(a) Inorganic Chemistry. 

(b) Electricity. 

(c) Sound and Light. 

(d) Heat. 

(e) Elementary Mechanics of Solids and Fluids. 

(f) Elementary Biology, (viz.) The structure and life-history 

of such typical unicellular organisms as Bacterium, 
Saccharomyces, Protococcus, or Closterium and 
Amoeba ; and of such multicellular organisms as 
Penicillium, Mucor or Agaricus, Spirogyra, or any- 
other multicellular Alga, Nitella and Hydra, or any 
other hydroid polyp ; and the anatomy, physiology, 
and histology of a flowering plant and of a cray-fish.'' 
I cannot but think that this last selection is a mistake, and 
that it would be far better to expunge it from the catalogue, and 
put botany and zoology in its place, as was formerly done, and 
as is still done in the matriculation examination. My reasons 
for objecting to elementary biology are reasons of expediency, 
and will, I consider, be thought sufficiently weighty by any one 
who has had experience in teaching scholars at the age (and in 
the numbers) at which we have to deal with them in secondary 
schools. The subject, taught on the Huxleyan plan, is eminently 
suitable for students who have arrived at a sufficiently mature 
age to be attending University, but is not particularly so for 
school boys and girls. 

In the first place the five typical unicellular organisms named 
are microscopic structures, requiring for their mere identification 
lenses of high power and good definition, while the study of their 
life-histories necessitates the perfection of microscopic manipula- 
tion. This alone constitutes an objection to their employment 
as suitable objects for beginners. Boys and girls are not blessed 
with an unlimited stock of patience, a virtue which commonly 
developes later on in life, and if after long looking they fail to 
see points which appear to the teacher — with his long practice — 
quite clear, they are apt to be repelled from, rather than be at- 
tracted to, the subject. Any one who has worked out the his- 
tory of a unicellular organism will bear me out in saying that 
without long preliminary training in the use of the microscope 
and in histological methods, little or no result will accrue from 
personal observation. It takes long practice even to know what 
one is looking at under a microscope, and the time to acquire 
this practice cannot be obtained in a class of any size, unless 
each pupil is furnished with an instrument. As yet, we are a 
long way from such a desirable state of affairs in our New Zea- 
land schools, and we should not have conditions imposed on 
teachers which they cannot satisfy. As the matter now stands, 
the inclusion of such subjects in our examinations appears to me 
to defeat one of the objects of scientific instruction. The main 


feature of the teaching method introduced by Huxley consists in 
the fact that the pupils are expected to know the structure and 
the history of the subjects studied from actual observation ; they 
are to take nothing for granted, nor to accept anything as gos- 
pel, but are to verify the information communicated to them 
regarding any organism by direct examination, or by analogy 
from the examination of allied structures. 

But in the case of such organisms as those referred to, actual 
examination is almost impossible to any but those furnished 
with excellent instruments, and who can devote hours of patient 
observation to the research. These conditions are not found 
in the best-furnished of our schools, and probably among the 
students examined, all or nearly all will be found to have acquired 
the information they possess on these subjects solely from their 
text book. 

At the other end of the list I have an equally strong objec- 
tion to the cray-fish. Nothing can be more interesting in the 
field of biology than the study of this animal, and nothing sup- 
plies better lessons in comparative anatomy and physiology. In 
a well-furnished physiological laboratory with a limited number 
of students, nothing could be pleasanter than to work out the 
structure and development of this typical crustacean. But how 
is it to be taught to a score of boys in an ordinary class-room ? 
Imagine the " mess," the difficulty of getting and keeping up a 
supply of " specimens," and altogether the unsuitability of the 
thing in view of ordinary school arrangements. The result 
which will follow from putting such a subject before pupils just 
leaving our schools, will be either that they elect to eschew ele- 
mentary biology altogether ; or, if they select it, they will get it 
up largely by " cram," the very thing which it is sought to avoid. 

Of the physical sciences, chemistry is by far the most compre- 
hensive, as a correct apprehension even of its rudiments requires 
more or less knowledge of other branches of physics. As the 
result of my experience, I advance the opinion that very little 
good accrues — unless in exceptional cases — from the teaching of 
any of the physical sciences to boys and girls under fourteen or 
fifteen years of age. When the mind has reached the stage at 
which the intellectual faculties begin to manifest themselves 
conspicuously, when the possibility of abstract reasoning begins 
to show itself, then the study of physics may be most advan- 
tageously commenced. Before that period the youthful mind 
may master the facts presented to it, but it does not usually 
comprehend the why and the wherefore of them, nor can it 
deduce the results aimed at. The study of these sciences may 
in fact be commenced along with, or soon after the pupil has 
entered on, that of mathematics, but before that I think the 
teaching of it is apt to be thrown to the winds. I have always 
found that those pupils who have shown an aptitude for mathe- 
matics have as a rule made good progress in physical science, 
doing better in it than in the natural sciences; while, on the con- 


tray, those with a non-mathematical turn have seldom shone in 

No branch of physical science can be taught well without the 
requisite appliances. Certainly in many cases these need not be 
of an expensive character, and the ingenious teacher can illus- 
trate many of the phenomena of heat, light, sound, and chemical 
action by means of apparatus and utensils in every day use. 
But to elucidate his whole subject, he must have certain special 
kinds of apparatus, and these are possessed by few of our schools. 
Chemistry in particular requires a somewhat elaborate stock, 
both of material and apparatus, and without these it is better 
policy on the part of teachers to take up some other subject 
which would more easily be illustrated. 

Electricity (and magnetism) also require apparatus, and that 
of a somewhat expensive kind. My own opinion, which will not 
perhaps meet with much favour from physicists, is that this 
science is best left alone until the principles of some of the allied 
sciences are mastered. Its phenomena are not readily presented 
to the mind in a thinkable form, and, as a matter of fact, a very 
considerable familiarity with these phenomena may be acquired 
without any corresponding knowledge of the principles under- 
lying them. While both things are important, the knowledge 
of principles is much more so, from an educational point of view, 
than the practical acquaintance is. 

Again in this connection I am tempted to review the position 
assigned to the physical sciences in the University Junior 
Scholarship examination. In the list of subjects scheduled, in- 
organic chemistry, sound and light, heat, electricity, and elemen- 
tary biology,* are all placed in the same standard as far as values 
are concerned, 500 marks being assigned to each. Those who 
are practically acquainted with, and have taught these subjects, 
know that to attain equal results in each, very different amounts 
of teaching and of study are required. No doubt examination 
papers could be set so as to reduce all to an equal value, but in 
practice this is rarely done. It requires a far more considerable 
amount of study to be able to answer questions over the wide 
fields of chemistry and of biology than it does over the more 
limited and definite subjects of heat, light, sound, and electricity. 
I can point to more than one instance of pupils who have been 
engaged for two years or more on the study of one of the wider 
subjects, but who, six months before their going up for examina- 
tion, dreading that they could not compass all the field, have 
thrown it up, taken up one of the four above-mentioned (which 
was previously unknown to them), and with that brief " cram " 
out of a text-book, have passed successfully. This is certainly 
not one of the results which the Senate of the University desire, 
and though such work under the best devised scheme of ex- 
amination will always be more or less possible, still it is neces- 

* I leave out of account the " Elementary Mechanics of Solids and Fluids," as 
I have no practical acquaintance— as a teacher — with the subject. 


sary to take those precautions which will tend to reduce it to a 

As every examiner knows, there are two limits to be equally 
avoided in the setting of papers. One is, not to set them too 
low, as then the subject is taken up solely as a " pass " one, and 
the standard is unworthily lowered. The other is of course not 
to set them too high, as in that case candidates are apt to avoid 
the subject altogether as one which " does not pay." In my own 
humble opinion the former tendency has been shown in our 
University examinations in the papers set on physical sciences. 
This may be remedied to some extent by amalgamating heat 
and electricity as one subject, as sound and light are treated. 
Elementary biology also should give place to botany and zoology. 

I hope the day is not far distant when every candidate for 
University Honours will require to pass in one branch each of 
physical and natural science. To attain this desirable consum- 
mation, all occupied in teaching these subjects must work ear- 
nestly, but judiciously, not obtruding their dogmas offensively, 
nor blazoning them abroad as the universal panacea which is to 
revolutionise the existing state of things. On the contrary, they 
must possess their souls in patience, must build up in the minds 
of the rising generation a strong conviction that the scientific 
method is the right one, and must show to the intellectual world 
at large that the subjects which they teach possess a high 
educational value, and one which will be of lasting and practical 
utility to its possessors. 



Sir, — It may interest your entomological readers to learn, 
with reference to the marine caddis-worm found last year by 
Professor Hutton in Lyttelton harbour, and recently described 
by Mr. R. M'Lauchlin in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 
that some months ago I found a specimen of a very similar tri- 
chopterous larva among seaweeds between tide marks in Port 
Jackson. The case was composed of minute fragments of algae, 
and the form of the head and of the abdominal appendages re- 
sembled closely that of the corresponding parts of the New 
Zealand species, as figured by Mr. M'Lauchlin. — I am, &c, 

William A. Haswell. 
Sydney, Oct. 4th, 1882. 




Extracted from the Linnean Society's Journal-Zoology, 1879, etc. 

Dentalium diarrhox, Watson. P.L.S. xiv., p. 511. 

St. 169. July 10, 1874. Lat. 37 34' S„ Ion. 170 22' E., N.E. 
from New Zealand. 700 fms., Grey ooze, 4 specimens. 

Animal. — Mantle white, body pale yellow. Captacula many, 
fine, long, and equal, with small ovoid points. Foot and collar 
those of a true Dentalium. 

Shell. — White (chalky), but porcellanous beneath the surface ; 
rather straight, with a considerable bend near the apex, of rather 
rapid expansion from a very fine apex. Sculpture. — The whole 
surface is faintly marked with scarcely-impressed longitudinal 
lines of very equal interval (about 0.0055 apart) ; transversely 
it is very faintly scratched all over by very slight lines, which run 
elliptically round the shell. The apex has a very narrow slightly 
ragged fissure, about 0.027 in. long, which lies unsymmetrically 
on the convex curve. L. ? B. 0.9. 

This differs from D. leptosceles, W., in being more curved and 
more conical. It resembles in form the young of D. lubricatunt, 
G. B. Sow., B.M., "from Australia" ; but in that the transverse 
striae are much less oblique, and the surface is lubricate and po- 

Cadulus colubridens, Watson, I.e. xiv., p. 523. 

St. 169. July 10, 1874. Lat. 37 34' S. ; long. 179 22' E. 
N.E. point of New Zealand. 700 fms., Grey ooze, 1 specimen. 

Shell. — Like an adder's fang ; long, sharp, bent, very slightly 
flattened, swollen near the broader end. The swell, which is 
faintly angulated and is at one-fourth of the length, is chiefly on 
the convex curve, but is visible on the concave curve too. From 
the angulation the curve is very equable in either direction. About 
two-thirds a long towards the apex, it bends more back. The shell 
is thin, brilliant, semi-opaque, white. Sculpture. — Very faint and 
fine scratches on the lines of growth. Mouth large, oval, very 
slightly flattened on the front side, from which the thin sharp 
edge is obliquely cut off towards the convex curve. The poste- 
rior opening is much smaller, nearly round, and the edge is thin 
and chipped. L. 0.58 ; B, at mouth 0.067, at swell 0.1, at apex 

This is twice the size of C. gadus, Montague ; but it resembles 
that in the angulation, which, however, is here more marked at 
the summit of the swelling ; its expansion from the smaller end 


is much more gradual, and its contraction from the angulation on 
to the mouth is more rapid. 

TURRITELLA CARLOTTjE, Watson, l.C. XV., p. 222. 

St. 162. April 2, 1874. Lat. 39 io' 30" S. ; long. 146 37' 
E.. Moncceur Island, Bass Straits. 38-40 fms., sand. 

St. 167a. June 27, 1874. Lat, 41 4' S. ; long. 178 19' E. 
Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand, 10 fms., mud. 

Shell. — High, narrow, conical, with slightly-impressed suture 
and an angular flattened base, thin, translucent, with fine ruddy- 
spiral threads. Sculpture. — Longitudinals — these are fine, 
thread-like, slose-set curved lines of growth. Spirals — there are 
two principals, two secondary, and very many minor spirals, but 
the relative value of these varies a good deal ; they are little 
raised, but distinct. The base is covered with fine crowded spi- 
rals, of which those near the edge are stronger than the rest. 
The microscopic system of spirals is fine, sharp, and distinct. 
Colour, yellowish ashy white, with a suffused ruddy brown on the 
upper part of the whorls, and a stronger shade of the same colour 
defining the more important spirals. The colour becomes alto- 
gether paler up the spire, and the apex is white. Spire very per- 
fectly conical ; but the profile lines are interrupted by the im- 
pressed sutures. Apex small, rounded, smooth, and glossy, 
consisting of 1 y 2 embryonic whorl ; the next whorl is slightly 
angulated, after which the regular sculpture begins. Whorls 15, 
very slightly convex on the sides, contracting gradually upwards 
into the suture ; towards the bottom of the whorl the contrac- 
tion into the suture is shorter, straighter (i. e. less convex), and 
more rapid ; they are of very gradual and regular increase. To- 
wards the upper part of the spire the curve of the profile line of 
each whorl becomes increasingly stronger. The base is flat, very 
slightly conical, sharply angulated, and not contracted at the 
edge. Suture very slight, but well defined. Mouth small, angu- 
larly rounded, a little higher than broad. Outer-lip a little drawn 
in and advancing on the edge of the base, descends straight to 
the lower outer angle, is flat across the base, and a little patulous 
in front of the pillar-point. The generic sinus in the outer-lip 
is parabolic in form. Inner-lip. — There is not (though the spe- 
cimens are full-grown) even a glaze across the body nor round 
the base of the pillar ; but on older specimens this may probably 
exist. Pillar is a little concave, rather direct, with a thin 
rounded edge. Epidermis a very thin and delicate calcareous 
membrane obviously not extraneous ; it adheres to the top of 
the spirals, and stretches across their furrows. It is sparsely 
cleft by minute gaping rents in the direction of the lines of growth, 
and the microscopic sculpture ot the shell is traceable in it, but 
rather on its under than its upper surface. H. 0.95, B. 0.28, least 
0.25. Penultimate whorl, height 0.15. Mouth, height 0.16, 
breadth, 0.14. 


This species has some resemblance, both in form and sculp- 
ture, to T. knysnaensis, Krauss, but it is narrower, suture less 
impressed, whorls not so convex ; the embryonic apex is very- 
like, but in the " Challenger " species it is a little more swollen 
and depressed. 

Natica amphiala, Watson, I.e. xv, p. 260. 

St. 169. July 10, 1874. Lat. 37 34/ S. ; long. 179 22 v E. 
N.E. from New Zealand. 700 fms., Grey ooze. Bottom tem- 
perature, 40 F. 

Shell. — Thick, depressedly globose, with a small scalar, rather 
elevated spire, and a narrow obliquely-pointed base ; pale yellow, 
umbilicated. Sculpture. — Longitudinals — There are many fine 
close-set lines of growth. Spirals — There are a few faint traces 
of obsolete lines and furrows ; there is a slight angulation round 
the mouth of the umbilical pore. Colour is slightly brownish yel- 
low, but is pure porcellanous white below the epidermis, which is 
thin, slightly puckered, smooth, not glossy, persistent. Spire short, 
but abrupt and scalar. Apex seemingly rather large, but abraded, 
Whorh, 4-5 narrow, flatly rounded, of gradual increase to the 
last, which is disproportionately large, especially towards the 
mouth. Suture strong, slightly channelled, almost quite horizon- 
tal. Mouth large, oval, very little oblique, and rather straight, 
scarcely pointed above ; it is more than two-thirds of the whole 
height. Outer-Up sharp, but strong, patulous throughout. In- 
ner-lip straightish, but slightly concave in its whole length ; it is 
expanded on the labial callus, which is thick, but has no labial 
nor umbilical pad ; the front of the pillar is thickened and flat- 
tened back on the very indistinct circumumbilical carina. Um- 
bilicus is a rather coarse, pervious, smallish round hole, hardly 
encroached on at all by the inner-lip. Operculum membranaceous 
thinnish, of a yellow colour, with a dark maroon outer edge which 
does not quite coil into the centre. H. 0.27, B. 0.25 ; penulti- 
mate whorl, height, 0.07 ; mouth, height 0.21, breadth 0.17. 

This species combines a flattened globose form with a pro- 
minent pointed base and a small raised scalar spire, in a way 
that is very peculiar ; so much so, indeed, that it almost recalls 
an Amphibola. A. tenuis, Gray, in particular, has features of re- 
semblance. It very slightly resembles N. nana, Moller, from 
Greenland ; but the body whorl is more depressed, the spire is 
more enserted, and the umbilicus is not closed, as in that species. 

(To be continued). 



Read at Meeting of Canterbury Institute, October 5, 1882. 

The introductory remarks contain acknowledgements of in- 
debtedness to Dr. Spencer, of Napier (from whom several of the 
plants described have come), to Mr. Joshua, F.L.S., of Cirencester, 
England, and to Professor Nordstedt, of Lund, Sweden, who have 
sent to the author various European Desmidieaeand papers thereon. 
Also a statement of the system of measurements adopted in the 
paper, the basis of which is one ^=i-ioooth millimetre=about 
1 -2 5000th inch. This system, first proposed by continental 
microscopists, is gradually gaining ground in England as being 
intelligible to observers of all nations. In the journal of the 
Royal Microscopical Society, there is inserted every few months 
a series of tables showing the conversion of English inches and 
foreign fractions of metres into jjl and probably in a few years 
the system will be universally adopted. 

The paper itself consists of two parts. Part I contains the 
description of all the species of Desmidiese which have come 
under the notice of the author since his first paper in 1880, 
whether new species or identical with European plants. In this 
part all the plants received from Napier, if they had not been 
previously observed by the author in Canterbury, are marked 
with the distinguishing letter S. 

The conjugation of Desmidieae has been observed since 1880 
in some half-a-dozen species, but for some reason or other this 
process seems to be much more rare here than in England. Even 
when seen here, except on two occasions, in the case of Closter- 
num acerosum and Penium margaritaceum, conjugation occurred 
only in detached specimens ; in those two plants gatherings 
were made of large masses of conjugating fronds. 

Only two of the Desmids described appear to be new species, 
but several are believed to be new varieties. The following list 
contains all those described in Part Las probably new, exclusive, 
that is, of European plants : — 

Cosmarium ralfsii, var. /3, var. nov. — Distinguished by its 
minute size, which is quite constant. Length 2,7'S /*• 

Cosmarium obsoletum, Hantzsch, var. punctatum ; var. nov. 
The original plant is very rare in Europe, and occurs also very 
sparingly (teste Nordstedt) in the Sandwich Islands. It is dis- 
tinguished by short awns at the entrance of the constriction. 
The present variety differs in having distinct puncta. Diameter 
60 \i 

Cosmarium speciosum, Nordstedt, var. inflatum ; var. nov. — Very 
small, and prettily marked with radiating gemmules, producing 
a grooved effect. The new variety differs in having a prominent 
inflation on each segment. Length 72 p. 


Cosmavium cyclicum, Lundell, var. ampliatum ; var. nov. — The 
original is exceedingly rare in England. It has a deep, narrow 
constriction, whereas the N.Z. variety has a wide, gaping con- 
striction. The frond is marked with radiating gemmules. Dia- 
meter 50 fl. 

C-jsmarium nndulatum, var (3, var. nov. — A doubtful variety, 
chiefly distinguished by its minute size, but this is variable. 
Length about 33 /u. 

Cosmavium tmue, spec. nov. — Very minute ; length only 1 5 A* J 
somewhat resembling C. bioculatum, but having no isthmus and a 
deep narrow constriction. 

Staumstnim eustepkanum, var. emarginatum ; var. nov. — -It is diffi- 
cult to give an abstract description of this little plant. In side 
view it resembles nearly 5. spinosum ; in end view it shows a tri- 
angle with emarginate sides, and, as if placed on the face of the 
triangle, a star of six rays. The rays are bifurcate, and the 
angles of the triangle are produced into sharp awns. Length of 
sides of triangle, exclusive of awns, 25 p. 

Staurastrum clepsydra, Spencer ; spec. nov. — The author has 
been allowed by Dr. Spencer to include in his paper this plant, 
which appears to be a new species resembling -S. dejectum, but 
differing in the broad junction of the segments, which junction 
is about half the width of the frond. Bodies which are probably 
zygospores of this plant were observed ; they have fewer spines 
than those of 5. dejectum. 

Triploceras tridentatum, Maskell, var. cylindricum ; var. nov. — 
Differs from the original (Trans. Vol. XIII.) in having greater 
thickness and circular section. Probably both plants ought to 
be relegated to the genus Pleurotxnium. Rabenhorst rejects 
Bailey's name Triploceras. 

All these plants are figured in an attached plate. 

Besiees the above nine plants, thirty others are included in 
the paper which are believed to be identical with species 
described from elsewhere. 

Part II. contains notes on some of the Desmidiese included 
in the auther's paper in Vol. XIII. of the Transactions. 

A note is devoted to the distinctions of Micrasterias rotata and 
M. denticulata, which the author considers too slight to separate 
the plants, and to the differences observable in the New Zealand 
form. First, this is invariably a good deal larger than the 
English plant, the diameter of the former being from 320 ll to 
400 fi against 270 \x for the latter ; secondly the teeth are more 
numerous and sharper ; thirdly, the terminal lobe of the New 
Zealand plant is deeply cleft at its end, and has at each side of 
the cleft two short spines. This latter character, indeed, would 
make it approach nearer to M, fimbriata, were it not for the total 
absence of spines on the teeth of the intermediate lobes. Four 
figures, showing the differences referred to, are given in the 
second plate attached to the paper. 

Notes are also given as to the motions observed on one occa- 


sion in a specimen of Cosmarium botvytis. The question whether 
the Desmidieae move "voluntarily" or not seems to have never 
been clearly settled. That they move towards the light, if in 
mud, has long been known, and some observers have mentioned 
motions in Closterium, But others deny that the Desmids move 
voluntarily, and their travelling towards the light may be simply 
due to the stimulus of light, The term " voluntarily " is here used 
in the same sense as when referring to Diatoms, which certainly 
travel in all sorts of directions. Some observers also have spoken 
of " cilia " and " retractile processes " as noticeable in Desmids, 
but these also have been denied. In the case in question the 
Cosmarium was observed for about three hours, and in that time 
it travelled, without any external disturbing influence, backwards 
and forwards like a Diatom, steering round obstacles, advancing 
and retreating, rolling over and over, and generally behaving 
with quite as much " voluntary " effort as a Diatom. The motion 
however, was not an easy, gliding, smooth motion, but a succes- 
sion of sharp jerks, pushing forward first one side and then the 
other, " exactly like that of a man elbowing his way through a 
crowd." On the whole, the author concluded that the Desmid 
might be said to travel quite as " voluntary " as any Diatom, 
But, with the most careful scrutiny, under various lights and con- 
ditions, not a trace could be made out of cilia or retractile pro- 
cesses, or of any effect on the surrounding water indicating them. 

There are also remarks upon a point in connection with the 
conjugation of Closterium acerosum and of Closterium selenoeum, Mas- 
kell. The process in the latter plant which was observed on one 
occasion up to the point of formation of the zygospores (when 
unluckily the specimen was crushed by an accident) resembles 
that in Closterium ehrenbergii, as described by the Rev. W. Smith, 
in the Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1850, p. 1 and plate 1, and 
it is highly interesting. The conjugating fronds approach in 
pairs, surround themselves with a distinct mucous envelope, and 
then undergo division. From this it results that four fronds 
appear in the envelope, each having one long and one very 
short segment ; and the conjugation takes place between each 
adjacent pair of these new fronds, so that the process is double^ 
and two zygospores are produced. Closterium ehrenbergii has been 
hitherto supposed to be the only plant with this character, but 
0. selenosum has now to be added to it. The author also believes 
that C. acerosum undergoes a process nearly similar, because in 
that plant, in conjugation, it is invariably observed that each 
frond has one long and one very short arm. This fact, although 
shown in all figures by different writers — Ralfs, Pritchard, Ehren- 
berg, &c. — is not alluded to by any in their descriptions. There 
seems to be only one way of accounting for it, namely by the 
self-division of the fronds before actual conjugation is effected. 
In a mass of conjugating fronds observed by the author, there 
was no instance of any in which the segments were of equal 
length. At the same time there was no distinct mucous envelope 


to each original pair of fronds, the whole being surrounded by 
one mass ; nor could any pairs of zygospores be detected as be- 
longing to any particular four fronds. Yet, if the fronds begin 
by dividing, (and this is pretty clear) each original pair of fronds 
must produce two zygospores, as in C. Ehvenbeygii. 

The paper concludes with a nominal catalogue of all the 
species and varieties of Desmidiese (no) known to the author as 
mentioned occurring in New Zealand. 

W. M. Maskell. 



The observations of the transit at Dunedin were a great suc- 
cess. The morning broke, indeed, with a very unpromising look, 
and until about 6.30 o'clock the prospect of observing the critical 
points of the transit, or even of seeing it at all, seemed hopeless. 
But a little before 7 o'clock the sun showed his face, and though 
clouds continued at intervals to pass, there appeared good rea- 
son to hope that the " contacts " might be observed after all. 

The event abundantly justified this expectation. In fact the 
light film of cloud that throughout obscured the sun was a cir- 
cumstance of the most favourable character. It gave remarkable 
steadiness and distinctness to the observations. At internal con- 
tact there was so little of that agitation known as " boiling," that 
the range of uncertainty in fixing the instant of internal contact 
I myself set down as being not greater than perhaps two or three 
seconds. I was reassured on this point on finding that Mr. Be- 
verley, in his communication to the Evening Star, makes a simi- 
lar observation. 

I shall be surprised, when the observations are collated (unless 
the " personal equation " turns out to be unusually disturbing), 
if the times of observation of internal contact by the several 
Dunedin observers do not come within two or three seconds of 
absolute synchronism. When it is remembered that two seconds 
of time only indicate an angular separation of one-tenth of a 
second of arc (a quantity inappreciable except by the finest tele- 
scopes in use), it will be seen that this result is wonderfully 

None of the observers in Dunedin make any mention of 
having seen either " ligament " or " black drop ;" the " first ap- 
pearance of well-marked and persistent discontinuity in the illu- 
mination of the apparent limb of the sun near the point of con- 
tact," being recognised with almost geometrical distinctness. 

In regard to the external contact I shall be prepared to find 
a considerable difference between the several observers. The 
phenomenon is a most difficult one to observe, and, I should 
imagine, under the most favourable circumstances, would give a 


a wide range of uncertainty. But, as observed at Dunedin, the 
specially favourable circumstances of the internal contact were, 
in the case of the external, wanting. The sun was less obscured, 
his disc was considerably agitated, and the- moment of the dis- 
appearance of the dark depression on the sun's disc, caused by 
the emerging planet, was not easily fixed amid the fluctuations 
(the " boiling ") of the sun's limb. 

The times of the contacts it is not easy, with perfect accuracy, 
to give. Unless the errors of the various instruments for indi- 
cating the time are accurately known, the mention of seconds is 
delusive. And as I am not in possession of full information on 
this subject, I think it best to forbeai the giving of times, whose 
seeming accuracy — from incompleteness of statement — could 
only mislead. Mr Beverley states the times of contact approxi- 
mately (that is, as I understand him, to the nearest minute only) 
as being — internal, yh. 31m. ; external, yh. 51m., New Zealand 
mean time. 

Thomas Roseby. 


This station was chosen on account of its being situated in 
the centre of the widest extent of land in New Zealand, and 
having almost a continental climate. Rain rarely falls, and a 
bright still atmosphere is almost invariably experienced at early 
morning. It was one of the few places in New Zealand that 
enjoyed a clear sky throughout the whole day of the last transit 
in 1874. It is also conveniently circumstanced as regards the 
telegraph system, being the junction point of two separate lines 
by which communication could be maintained with Burnham 

Clyde is 150 miles from the coast, on the Molyneux river, 
and 600 feet above the sea level. 

A favourable site was chosen for the observing station on a 
terrace 100ft. above the river, and 300 yards from the telegraph 
office, with which it was connected by double wires. A level 
plain extends for 7 miles to the eastward, the highest hills in 
the direction of the sun's bearing at the time of the transit only 
subtending an angle of 2*/ 2 degrees. The use of an iron hut 
was obtained, in which the telegraphic and recording apparatus 
was arranged, and in front of which the observing tent was 
erected. The packages containing all the required appliances 
were taken up country from Palmerston in a spring dray, and 
reached their destination without the slightest mishap on the 
20th November, being the eighth day from Wellington. By the 
22nd all fittings had been completed, and on the 24th the 
first of a series of time signals were exchanged with Burnham. 

The telescope used is the property of Mr. G. V. Shannon, of 
Wellington, who kindly lent it for the occasion. It is a 5 inch 
reflector, of 6ft. 4m. in length, by Cook, of York. It is mounted 


in alt. azimuth, on a strong tripod, and has very smooth acting 
slow-motion gearing. To secure greater steadiness the legs 
were fixed to a horizonal triangle of timber, firmly attached to 
piles driven into the ground. Its optical performance in the fine 
atmosphere of this inland district was extraordinarily perfect, 
and high powers of 300 and 400 diameters could generally be 
used without producing blurring or imperfect definition, while 
the " rice grains " and other characters of the sun's surface were 
quite distinct with much lower powers, The telescope was fur- 
nished with a first surface reflecting prism for solar work, sup- 
plied by the maker, and also neutral tint glasses of various 
shades ; but as these were all found to be too dim, slips of the 
optical glass, known as " London smoke," were used instead. 
Two or three thicknesses were sufficient, the first surface being 
placed in absolute contact with the lens nearest to the eye. The 
time-keeper was the full-size chronometer No. 7430, by Thos. 
Russell, London, beating half-seconds, with a chronometer watch 
for daily comparison. Before leaving Wellington the chrono- 
meter had no sensible rate of error ; but during the journey it 
appears, from the appended records, to have lost about 35 se- 
conds, and after its arrival at Clyde to have acquired a steady 
gaining rate of about 0*5 per day. The chronometer was screwed 
down to stakes driven into the ground through a hole cut in the 
floor, so that it might be quite free from vibration. Close beside 
it, on a slightly higher level, were the contact keys of the tele- 
graph instruments, so that they could be manipulated while the 
eye was vertical over the seconds hand. 

The telegraph apparatus had a line battery of 35 cells, and 
two local circuit batteries of 1 5 cells each ; but provision was 
made for joining in one of the latter to the line battery for dis- 
tant signals when required. 

One local circuit was for working either with the relay or by 
a contact spring when observing with the telescope, and the 
other was for working the second pecker of the chronograph, 
which was a double instrument, having two independent peckers 
marking on the same tape. The velocity of the tape gave about 
Y^ of an inch distance between the mark for each second. 

The telegraph instruments were furnished and arranged ready 
for use by Dr. Lemon, and the fitting up of the chronograph and 
batteries was done by my assistant, Mr..E. Ashcroft. They were 
in good working order in less than a day, and never gave the 
slightest trouble afterwards. Mr. Henry, the telegraphist at 
Clyde, conducted all the communications most efficiently, and 
on some occasions had to exercise much skill and patience to 
secure the integrity of the time signals received. 

The Observatio7i. 

The 6th December, 1882, was a splendid day, clear and 
bright, with a cool southerly breeze. At early morning, and 
again in the afternoon, the programme for the observation was 


carefully rehearsed. Mr. Henry devoted his attention to beating 
seconds with the chronograph key, which duty he performed 
with the greatest steadiness and precision ; Mr. Ashcroft, keep- 
ing a watch on the mechanism, to see that the tape did not run 
foul, and that the adjustments were such as to produce a distinct 
record. Mr. McKay, the district surveyor, very kindly took 
general supervision of the time, writing down each minute as it 
passed, and being ready to call the seconds aloud if any mis- 
chance took place with the chronograph, and Major Kedell, 
R.M., who has great facility as a shorthand writer, kindly under- 
took to note any remarks I might make during the observation. 

During the night the barometer commenced to fall and the 
temperature to rise, a sure indication of a change to N. W. wind, 
but the sky remained clear until 1 1 p.m. At 4 a.m. on the 7th 
dense black clouds covered the whole of the sky, and the upper 
current of air was from N. W., the lower being still from S. 
This was the first cloudy morning I had experienced at Clyde, 
except a few during the previous week arising from extensive 
bush fires, all of which had been extinguished by the rainfall of 
the 3rd. 

At 6 a.m. the wind changed to N.W., and the clouds began to 
dissolve towards the S.E., leaving patches of blue sky that spread 
only very slowly towards the quarter we desired ; and it was not 
until 7 o'clock that there was the slightest hope of getting an 
observation, but just then the sun showed out over Alexandra, 
which is 7 miles to the S.E. The sky then cleared very rapidly, 
and at 7.12 I got the first glimpse of the sun with the 60 eye- 
piece. On changing the eye-piece the planet was then seen to 
be about one diameter within the sun's limb. As soon as the 
last shred of the cloud passed, all boiling of the sun's edge 
cleared, and it was more sharp and steady than I had ever before 
seen it. 

The markings of the sun's disc were very distinct, and I 
tested my focus on a small circular spot that was seen very 
obliquely close to the eastern edge of the sun. The power used 
was 200 with two thicknesses of the tinted glass. The field was 
very bright, but there was no discomfort or irradiation. 

No trace of a halo or indefinite outline was seen round the 
planet, which looked intensely black and seemed as if immersed 
in the substance of the sun. By altering the focus slightly, how- 
ever, the planet could be made to appear as if in relief. 

The onward creeping motion of the planet was remarkably 
steady, and the sun's edge was so sharply defined that I was 
fully expecting to get a good observation. When I judged that 
it wanted about two minutes of Internal Contact, I signalled to 
commence beating, and the tape showed the first beat to have 
been 28' 30", which is the time of the appearance marked on 
sketch A. 


(Sketch A.) 

Soon after the view was suddenly obscured, and I at once 
put down the key, which marked 29/ 02". On looking up I found 
that a small dense cloud in an otherwise clear sky had got in the 
way, and looked as if it would pass in a few seconds. When it 
did pass, however, I found the contact was over, and at once put 
down the key to mark the appearance B, when the tape showed 
;h. 33' 20". 

Having thus lost the Internal Contact observation, the sun 
being now very sharp, I remarked that the outline of the portion 
of the planet on the sun was quite symmetrical, and that the 
cusps were beautifully sharp. While observing closely at jh. 40', 
the outline of the emerged limb of the planet suddenly became 
apparent against the dark background of space as a delicate 
violet-tinted streak, having its concave edge sharp but the convex 
edge discontinuous. I brought this appearance out more 
distinctly by cutting off the sun's limb with a dense glass. Its 
extreme width I estimate at about i-50th of its distance from 
the sun, which was about a semi-diameter of the planet. 
Suddenly, with a twinkle, this phenomenon disappeared, and I 
called time at 7I1. 42'. This twinkle made a most distinct 
impression on me. There was not the least vibration at the time 
and my eye was not fatigued, as I still saw the " rice grains " on 
the sun's surface. 

I then waited for External Contact, and got it clear and 
distinct, the last trace of a notch in the sun's edge disappearing 
sharp at 7I1. 50' 55"*5. 

As the error of the chronometer on the previous day on 


Burnham mean time was F. 22*5, and the hourly rate was -025 
gaining, all the above times are subject to a correction of 
— 22"'87. This makes the Burnham mean time of External 
Contact 7I1. 50' 32 ,,, 63. 

James Hector. 
Clyde, 7th December, 1882. 


. . . The actual observation of the transit being a record of 
the instant of the apparent meeting or contact of the limb of Venus 
with that of the sum, it becomes of the utmost importance to 
have the true sidereal or mean time determined with the greatest 
accuracy, and that the observers at different stations either all 
keep the same time or have the means of knowing their differ- 
ences from one standard clock. With the view of securing this 
concert among the New Zealand observers, the greater number 
of them had their stations placed in telegraphic circuit. Time 
signals were distributed from Col. Tupman's station, at Burn- 
ham to observers in the Middle Island ; and from survey obser- 
vatory, Mount Cook, Wellington, to observers in the North 
Island and in Nelson. Another essential is the correct know- 
ledge of the longitude of the stations. Exchange of signals for 
this purpose were made between Burnham and Auckland, Burn- 
ham and Wellington, Wellington and New Plymouth, Wellington 
and Bidwell's, Wairarapa. These New Zealand stations are 
therefore well connected together. And as Col. Tupman has 
had exchange of time signals through the cable with Sydney 
and arrangements have been entered into for exchange of time 
signals over the gaps between Sydney and Greenwich, where 
this had not previously been done, there will on completion of 
this work be an unbroken line of longitude determination bind- 
ing the various stations together. 

The observations of internal contact at the stations enumerated 
hereafter were not attended with any phenomena of black-drop 
or pear-shaped appearance of planet, or other perplexing phases 
such as were anticipated from the records of some of the ob- 
servers of former transits. The first decided appearance, as seen 
through the fine-inch equatorial telescope at Boulcott street, 
Wellington, was a rapidly-forming haze between the limbs of 
Venus and the sun, through which, as the planet made its way, 
there seemed a disturbance on the limb of the sun. This lasted 
for nine seconds previous to the geometrical contact by the 
apparent touch of the two black edges, which phenomenon was 
instantaneous ; there could be no doubt about it. From that 
instant a broadening band kept forming as the planet overlapped 
the edge of the sun. The external contact was also very well 
defined ; there was no clinging to the edge of the sun at parting. 
The planet went off quite uniformly. The only difficulty in the 
observation was to name the exact second that the blunt cusps 


of Venus met as they gradually approached each other on the 
edge of the sun. The time noted for this observation might be 
uncertain two seconds. The decimal of a second given in the 
table arises from applying the clock correction to the recorded 

The various observers enumerated had each two assistants, 
one to count aloud the second-beats of the clock or chronometer, 
the other to note the minutes and the times given by the ob- 
server. In this manner the records of each observer were made, 
and his report of phenomena written before consultation with 
others, so as to guard against error or bias. 

The weather was favourable for observation at all the 
stations, — at Wellington especially so. The sky being bright 
and clear, no wind, and a steady atmosphere. There was no 
tremor or boiling of the sun's limb at the time of observation. 
With a power of 250, the definition was excellent in the telescope 
at Boulcott street. This instrument is a splendid 5 -inch 
Equatorial Telescope, 80 inches focal length, by Grubb, of 
Dublin. It was recently imported by Mr. King and very 
generously lent by him for the observation. 

At Mt. Cook observatory, Wellington, Mr. C. W. Adams, 
observed, with a 4-inch telescope and a power of 70, through 
which he projected the sun's image on a screen attached to the 
telescope by a light frame work. The telescope was the property 
of Mr. Barnard, and was kindly lent by him 

Mr. Boscawen at the same station observed with an 8-inch 
Transit Theodolite. 

Mr. Humphries at New Plymouth, with a 4-inch Cooke's 
telescope, power 200. Mr. O'Donahoo at the same place with a 
telescope, aperture 2^ inches, power no. 

Mr. Marchant at BidwelPs, Wairarapa, with a 4-inch 
Browning refractor, focal length 66 inches, power 200. This 
telescope the property of Mr. David Gray, of Wellington. 

Captain Hewitt was also at Bidwell's with an 8^ -inch 
Browning's Reflecting Telescope, the property of Mr. Pope, 
Inspector of Native Schools. 

The times given are sidereal, and are all referred to the 
meridian of Mt. Cook observatory. The longitude of this 
station is the determination given by Mr. J. T. Thomson, 
derived from his observations of moon culminating stars at 
Rockyside, Caversham, Dunedin, in 1869-71, and connected with 
Mt. Cook observatory by telegraphic and trigonometrical